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ZeusBritishMuseum
Bust of Zeus in the British Museum.

In Greek mythology Zeus (pronounced: /ˈzuːs/ or /ˈzjuːs/; Ancient Greek: Ζεύς; Modern Greek: Δίας, Dias) is the "Father of Gods and men", according to Hesiod's Theogony, who ruled the Olympians of Mount Olympus as a father ruled the family; he was the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology. As Walter Burkert points out in his book, Greek Religion, "Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father, and all the gods rise in his presence."(Iliad, book 1.503;533) For the Greeks, he was the King of the Gods, who oversaw the universe. As Pausanias observed, "That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men".[1] In Hesiod's Theogony, Zeus assigns the various gods their roles. In the Homeric Hymns he is referred to as the chieftain of the gods. His symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle, bull and oak. In addition to his Indo-European inheritance, the classical "cloud-gatherer" also derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the Ancient Near East, such as the scepter. Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses: standing, striding forward, with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand, or seated in majesty.

His Roman counterpart was Jupiter and his Etruscan counterpart Tinia.

Zeus was the child of Cronus and Rhea, and the youngest of his siblings. In most traditions he was married to Hera, although, at the oracle of Dodona, his consort was Dione: according to the Iliad, he is the father of Aphrodite by Dione.[2] He is known for his erotic escapades. These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring, including Athena, Apollo and Artemis, Hermes, Persephone (by Demeter), Dionysus, Perseus, Heracles, Helen, Minos, and the Muses (by Mnemosyne); by Hera, he is usually said to have fathered Ares, Hebe and Hephaestus.[3]

In Greek, the god's name is Ζεύς Zeús {pronounced: /zdeús/ or /dzeús/, Modern Greek /'zefs/) in the nominative case and Διός Diós in the genitive case. The earliest forms of the name are the Mycenaean Greek di-we and di-wo, written in Linear b syllabic script.[4]

Cult of ZeusEdit

Panhellenic cults of ZeusEdit

The major center where all Greeks converged to pay honor to their chief god was Olympia. Their quadrennial festival featured the famous Games. There was also an altar to Zeus made not of stone, but of ash, from the accumulated remains of many centuries' worth of animals sacrificed there. Outside of the major inter-polis sanctuaries, there were no modes of worshipping Zeus precisely shared across the Greek world. Most of the titles listed below, for instance, could be found at any number of Greek temples from Asia Minor to Sicily. Certain modes of ritual were held in common as well: sacrificing a white animal over a raised altar, for instance.

HistoryEdit

Zeus, poetically referred to by the vocative Zeu pater ("O, father Zeus"), is a continuation of *Di̯ēus, the Proto-Indo-European god of the daytime sky, also called *Dyeus ph2tēr ("Sky Father").[5] The god is known under this name in Sanskrit (cf. Dyaus/Dyaus Pita), Latin (cf. Jupiter, from Iuppiter, deriving from the Prot-Indo European vocative *dyeu-ph2tēr[6]), deriving from the basic form *dyeu- ("to shine", and in its many derivatives, "sky, heaven, god").[5] And in Germanic and Norse mythology (cf. *Tīwaz > Old High German Ziu, Old Norse Týr), together with Latin deus, dīvus and Dis(a variation of dīves[7]), from the related noun *deiwos.[7] To the Greeks and Romans, the god of the sky was also the supreme god, whereas this function was filled out by Odin among the Germanic tribes. Accordingly, they did not identify Zeus/Jupiter with either Tyr or Odin, but with Thor (Þórr). Zeus is the only deity in the Olympic pantheon whose name has such a transparent Indo-European etymology.[8]

Role and epithetsEdit

Zeus played a dominant role, presiding over the Greek Olympian pantheon. He fathered many of the heroes and was featured in many of their local cults. Though the Homeric "cloud collector" was the god of the sky and thunder like his Near-Eastern counterparts, he was also the supreme cultural artifact; in some senses, he was the embodiment of Greek religious beliefs and the archetypal Greek deity.

Aside from local epithets that simply designated the deity to doing something random at some particular place, the epithets or titles applied to Zeus emphasized different aspects of his wide-ranging authority:

  • Zeus Olympios emphasized Zeus's kingship over both the gods in addition to his specific presence at the Panhellenic festival at Olympia.
  • A related title was Zeus Panhellenios ('Zeus of all the Hellenes'), to whom Aeacus' famous temple on Aegina was dedicated.
  • As Zeus Xenios, Zeus was the patron of hospitality and guests, ready to avenge any wrong done to a stranger.
  • As Zeus Horkios, he was the keeper of oaths. Exposed liars were made to dedicate a statue to Zeus, often at the sanctuary of Olympia.
  • As Zeus Agoraeus, Zeus watched over business at the agora and punished dishonest traders.
  • As Zeus Aegiduchos or Aegiochos he was the bearer of the Aegis with which he strikes terror into the impious and his enemies.[9][10][11] Others derive this epithet from αίξ ("goat") and οχή and take it as an allusion to the legend of Zeus' suckling at the breast of Amalthea.[12][13]
  • As Zeus Meilichios, "Easy-to-be-entreated", he subsumed an archaic chthonic daimon propitiated in Athens, Meilichios.
  • As Zeus Tallaios, or "Solar Zeus", he was worshiped in Crete.
  • As Zeus Labrandos, he was worshiped at Caria. His sacred site was Labranda and he was depicted holding a double-edged axe (labrys-labyrinth). He is connected with the Hurrian god of sky and storm Teshub.

Some local Zeus-cultsEdit

In addition to the Panhellenic titles and conceptions listed above, local cults maintained their own idiosyncratic ideas about the king of gods and men. With the epithet Zeus Aetnaeus he was worshiped on Mount Etna, where there was a statue of him, and a local festival called the Aetnaea in his honor.[14] Other examples are listed below.

  • As Zeus Aeneius or Aenesius, he was worshiped in the island of Cephalenia, where he had a temple on Mount Aenos.[15]
  • As Zeus Agamemnon he was worshipped at Sparta.

Cretan ZeusEdit

With one exception, Greeks were unanimous in recognizing the birthplace of Zeus as Crete. Minoan culture contributed many essentials of ancient Greek religion: "by a hundred channels the old civilization emptied itself into the new", Will Durant observed,[16] and Cretan Zeus retained his youthful Minoan features. The local child of the Great Mother, "a small and inferior deity who took the roles of son and consort",[17] whose Minoan name the Greeks Hellenized as Velchanos, was in time assumed as an epithet by Zeus, as transpired at many other sites, and he came to be venerated in Crete as Zeus Velchanos, the "boy-Zeus", often simply the Kouros.

In Crete, Zeus was worshipped at a number of caves at Knossos, Ida and Palaikastro. In the Hellenistic period a small sanctuary dedicated to Zeus Velchanos was founded at the Aghia Triada site of a long-ruined Minoan palace. Broadly contemporary coins from Phaistos show the form under which he was worshiped: a youth sits among the branches of a tree, with a cockerel on his knees.[18] On other Cretan coins Velchanos is represented as an eagle and in association with a goddess celebrating a mystic marriage.[19] Inscriptions at Gortyn and Lyttos record a Velchania festival, showing that Velchanios was still widely venerated in Hellenistic Crete.[20]

The stories of Minos and Epimenides suggest that these caves were once used for incubatory divination by kings and priests. The dramatic setting of Plato's Laws is along the pilgrimage-route to one such site, emphasizing archaic Cretan knowledge. On Crete, Zeus was represented in art as a long-haired youth rather than a mature adult, and hymned as ho megas kouros "the great youth". Ivory statuettes of the "Divine Boy" were unearthed near the Labyrinth at Knossos by Sir Arthur Evans.[21] With the Kouretes, a band of ecstatic armed dancers, he presided over the rigorous military-athletic training and secret rites of the Cretan paideia.

The myth of the death of Cretan Zeus, localised in numerous mountain sites though only mentioned in a comparatively late source, Callimachus,[22] together with the assertion of Antoninus Liberalis that a fire shone forth annually from the birth-cave the infant shared with a mythic swarm of bees, suggests that Velchanos had been an annual vegetative spirit.[23] The Hellenistic writer Euhemerus apparently proposed a theory that Zeus had actually been a great king of Crete and that posthumously his glory had slowly turned him into a deity. The works of Euhemerus himself have not survived, but Christian patristic writers took up the suggestion with enthusiasm.

Zeus Lykaios in ArcadiaEdit

The epithet Lykaios ("wolf-Zeus") is assumed by Zeus only in connection with the archaic festival of the Lykaia on the slopes of Mount Lykaion ("Wolf Mountain"), the tallest peak in rustic Arcadia; Zeus had only a formal connection[24] with the rituals and myths of this primitive rite of passage with an ancient threat of cannibalism and the possibility of a werewolf transformation for the ephebes who were the participants.[25] Near the ancient ash-heap where the sacrifices took place[26] was a forbidden precinct in which, allegedly, no shadows were ever cast.[27] According to Plato (Republic 565d-e), a particular clan would gather on the mountain to make a sacrifice every nine years to Zeus Lykaios, and a single morsel of human entrails would be intermingled with the animal's. Whoever ate the human flesh was said to turn into a wolf, and could only regain human form if he did not eat again of human flesh until the next nine-year cycle had ended. There were games associated with the Lykaia, removed in the fourth century to the first urbanization of Arcadia, Megalopolis; there the major temple was dedicated to Zeus Lykaios.

Apollo, too had an archaic wolf-form, Apollo Lycaeus, worshipped in Athens at the Lykeion, or Lyceum, which was made memorable as the site where Aristotle walked and taught.

Subterranean ZeusEdit

Although etymology indicates that Zeus was originally a sky god, many Greek cities honored a local Zeus who lived underground. Athenians and Sicilians honored Zeus Meilichios ("kindly" or "honeyed") while other cities had Zeus Chthonios ("earthy"), Katachthonios ("under-the-earth") and Plousios ("wealth-bringing"). These deities might be represented as snakes or in human form in visual art, or, for emphasis as both together in one image. They also received offerings of black animal victims sacrificed into sunken pits, as did chthonic deities like Persephone and Demeter, and also the heroes at their tombs. Olympian gods, by contrast, usually received white victims sacrificed upon raised altars.

In some cases, cities were not entirely sure whether the daimon to whom they sacrificed was a hero or an underground Zeus. Thus the shrine at Lebadaea in Boeotia might belong to the hero Trophonius or to Zeus Trephonius ("the nurturing"), depending on whether you believe Pausanias, or Strabo. The hero Amphiaraus was honored as Zeus Amphiaraus at Oropus outside of Thebes, and the Spartans even had a shrine to Zeus Agamemnon.

Oracles of ZeusEdit

Although most oracle sites were usually dedicated to Apollo, the heroes, or various goddesses like Themis, a few oracular sites were dedicated to Zeus.

The Oracle at DodonaEdit

The cult of Zeus at Dodona in Epirus, where there is evidence of religious activity from the second millennium BCE onward, centered on a sacred oak. When the Odyssey was composed (circa 750 BCE), divination was done there by barefoot priests called Selloi, who lay on the ground and observed the rustling of the leaves and branches (Odyssey 14.326-7). By the time Herodotus wrote about Dodona, female priestesses called peleiades ("doves") had replaced the male priests.

Zeus' consort at Dodona was not Hera, but the goddess Dione — whose name is a feminine form of "Zeus". Her status as a titaness suggests to some that she may have been a more powerful pre-Hellenic deity, and perhaps the original occupant of the oracle.

The Oracle at SiwaEdit

The oracle of Ammon at the oasis of Siwa in the Western Desert of Egypt did not lie within the bounds of the Greek world before Alexander's day, but it already loomed large in the Greek mind during the archaic era: Herodotus mentions consultations with Zeus Ammon in his account of the Persian War. Zeus Ammon was especially favored at Sparta, where a temple to him existed by the time of the Peloponnesian War[28]

After Alexander made a trek into the desert to consult the oracle at Siwa, the figure arose in the Hellenistic imagination of a Libyan Sibyl.

Zeus and foreign godsEdit

Zeus was identified with the Roman god Jupiter and associated in the syncretic classical imagination with various other deities, such as the Egyptian Ammon and the Etruscan Tinia. He (along with Dionysus) absorbed the role of the chief Phrygian god Sabazios in the syncretic deity known in Rome as Sabazius.

Some modern comparative mythologists align him with the Hindu Indra.

Zeus in mythEdit

BirthEdit

Cronus sired several children by Rhea: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon, but swallowed them all as soon as they were born, since he had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own son as he had overthrown his own father— an oracle that Zeus was to hear and avert. But when Zeus was about to be born, Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save him, so that Cronus would get his retribution for his acts against Uranus and his own children. Rhea gave birth to Zeus in Crete, handing Cronus a rock wrapped in swaddling clothes, which he promptly swallowed.

InfancyEdit

Rhea hid Zeus in a cave on Mount Ida in Crete. According to varying versions of the story:

  1. He was then raised by Gaia.
  2. He was raised by a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes— soldiers, or smaller gods— danced, shouted and clashed their spears against their shields so that Cronus would not hear the baby's cry.
  3. He was raised by a nymph named Adamanthea. Since Cronus ruled over the Earth, the heavens and the sea, she hid him by dangling him on a rope from a tree so he was suspended between earth, sea and sky and thus, invisible to his father.
  4. He was raised by a nymph named Cynosura. In gratitude, Zeus placed her among the stars.
  5. He was raised by Melissa, who nursed him with goat's-milk and honey.
  6. He was raised by a shepherd family under the promise that their sheep would be saved from wolves.

Zeus becomes king of the godsEdit

After reaching manhood, Zeus forced Cronus to disgorge first the stone (which was set down at Pytho under the glens of Parnassus to be a sign to mortal men, the Omphalos) then his siblings in reverse order of swallowing. In some versions, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the babies, or Zeus cut Cronus' stomach open. Then Zeus released the brothers of Cronus, the Gigantes, the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes, from their dungeon in Tartarus, killing their guard, Campe.

As a token of their appreciation, the Cyclopes gave him thunder and the thunderbolt, or lightning, which had previously been hidden by Gaia. Together, Zeus and his brothers and sisters, along with the Gigantes, Hecatonchires and Cyclopes overthrew Cronus and the other Titans, in the combat called the Titanomachy. The defeated Titans were then cast into a shadowy underworld region known as Tartarus. Atlas, one of the titans that fought against Zeus, was punished by having to hold up the sky.

After the battle with the Titans, Zeus shared the world with his elder brothers, Poseidon and Hades, by drawing lots: Zeus got the sky and air, Poseidon the waters, and Hades the world of the dead (the underworld). The ancient Earth, Gaia, could not be claimed; she was left to all three, each according to their capabilities, which explains why Poseidon was the "earth-shaker" (the god of earthquakes) and Hades claimed the humans that died.

Gaia resented the way Zeus had treated the Titans, because they were her children. Soon after taking the throne as king of the gods, Zeus had to fight some of Gaia's other children, the monsters Typhon and Echidna. He vanquished Typhon and trapped him under a mountain, but left Echidna and her children alive.

Zeus and HeraEdit

Zeus was brother and consort of Hera. By Hera, Zeus sired Ares, Hebe and Hephaestus, though some accounts say that Hera produced these offspring alone. Some also include Eileithyia and Eris as their daughters. The conquests of Zeus among nymphs and the mythic mortal progenitors of Hellenic dynasties are famous. Olympian mythography even credits him with unions with Leto, Demeter, Dione and Maia. Among mortals were Semele, Io, Europa and Leda. (For more details, see below).

Many myths render Hera as jealous of his amorous conquests and a consistent enemy of Zeus' mistresses and their children by him. For a time, a nymph named Echo had the job of distracting Hera from his affairs by incessantly talking: when Hera discovered the deception, she cursed Echo to repeat the words of others.

Consorts and childrenEdit

By divine mothersEdit

Mother
Children
Aega

Aegipan[29]

Ananke

*

  1. Moirae (Fates)*
    1. Atropos
    2. Clotho
    3. Lachesis
Demeter
  1. Persephone
  2. Zagreus
Dione or Thalassa Aphrodite
Gaia
  1. Orion
  2. Manes father of Atys
Hera
  1. Ares
  2. Eileithyia
  3. Eris
  4. Hebe
Eos
  1. Ersa
  2. Carae
Eris
  1. Limos (aka Limus)
Leto
  1. Apollo
  2. Artemis
Maia
  1. Hermes
Metis
  1. Athena
Mnemosyne
  1. Muses (Original three)
    1. Aoide
    2. Melete
    3. Mneme
  2. Muses (Later nine)
    1. Calliope
    2. Clio
    3. Erato
    4. Euterpe
    5. Melpomene
    6. Polyhymnia
    7. Terpsichore
    8. Thalia
    9. Urania
Persephone
  1. Zagreus
  2. Melinoe
Selene
  1. Ersa
  2. Nemean Lion
  3. Pandia
Themis
  1. Astraea
  2. Nymphs of Eridanos
  3. Nemesis
  4. Horae
    1. First Generation
      1. Auxo
      2. Carpo
      3. Thallo
    2. Second Generation
      1. Dike
      2. Eirene
      3. Eunomia
    3. Third generation
      1. Pherusa
      2. Euporie
      3. Orthosie
  5. Moirae (Fates)*
    1. Atropos
    2. Clotho
    3. Lachesis

Mortal/nymph/other motherEdit

Mother Children
Aegina Aeacus
Alcmene Heracles (Hercules)
Antiope
  1. Amphion
  2. Zethus
Callisto Arcas
Carme Britomartis
Danaë Perseus
Elara
  1. Tityas
Electra
  1. Dardanus
  2. Iasion
  3. Harmonia
Europa
  1. Minos
  2. Rhadamanthys
  3. Sarpedon
Eurynome Charites(Graces)


  1. Aglaea
  2. Euphrosyne
  3. Thalia
Himalia
  1. Kronios
  2. Spartaios
  3. Kytos
Iodame Thebe
Io
  1. Epaphus
  2. Keroessa
Lamia
Laodamia Sarpedon
Leda
  1. Polydeuces (Pollux)
  2. Castor
  3. Helen of Troy
Maera Locrus
Niobe
  1. Argus
  2. Pelasgus
Olympias Alexander the Great
Othreis Meliteus
Plouto Tantalus
Podarge
  1. Balius
  2. Xanthus
Pyrrha Hellen
Semele Dionysus
Taygete Lacedaemon
Thalia Palici
Unknown mother Litae
Unknown mother Tyche
Unknown mother Atë

The Greeks variously claimed that the Fates were the daughters of Zeus and the Titaness Themis or of primordial beings like Nyx, Chaos or Anake.

In philosophy Edit

In Neoplatonism, Zeus' relation to the gods familiar from mythology is taught as the Demiurge or Divine Mind. Specifically within Plotinus' work the Enneads[30] and the Platonic Theology of Proclus.

Other names/epithets Edit

  • Zeus Hospites - as a protector of guests
  • Zeus Philoxenon - as a protector of foreigners
  • Olumpios - the Olympian
  • Astrapios - literally, "the lightninger"
  • Brontios - the Thunderer
  • Meilichios - his chthonic aspect
  • Kasios - the Zeus of Mount Kasios in Syria
  • Ithomatas - the Zeus of Mount Ithomi in Messenia

ReferencesEdit

  1. Pausanias, 2. 24.2.
  2. There are two major conflicting stories for Aphrodite's origins: Hesiod (Theogony) claims that she was "born" from the foam of the sea after Cronos castrated Uranus, thus making her Uranus' daughter; but Homer (Iliad, book V) has Aphrodite as daughter of Zeus and Dione. According to Plato (Symposium 180e), the two were entirely separate entities: Aphrodite Ourania and Aphrodite Pandemos.
  3. Hamilton, Edith (1942). Mythology (1998 ed.). New York: Back Bay Books. pp. 467. ISBN 978-0-316-34114-1. 
  4. Palaeolexicon, Word study tool of ancient languages
  5. 5.0 5.1 "American Heritage Dictionary: Zeus". http://www.bartleby.com/61/25/Z0012500.html. Retrieved 2006-07-03. 
  6. "Online Etymology Dictionary: Jupiter". http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Jupiter. Retrieved 2006-07-03. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "American Heritage Dictionary: dyeu". http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE117.html. Retrieved 2006-07-03. 
  8. Burkert (1985). Greek Religion. pp. 321. 
  9. Homer, Iliad i. 202, ii. 157, 375, &c.
  10. Pindar, Isthmian Odes iv. 99
  11. Hyginus, Poetical Astronomy ii. 13
  12. Spanh. ad Callim. hymn. in Jov, 49
  13. Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Aegiduchos". in Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston. pp. 26. http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/0035.html 
  14. Schol. ad Pind. Ol. vi. 162
  15. Hesiod, according to a scholium on Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautika, ii. 297
  16. Durant, The Life of Greece (The Story of Civilization Part II, New York: Simon & Schuster) 1939:23.
  17. Rodney Castleden, Minoans: Life in Bronze-Age Crete, "The Minoan belief-system" (Routledge) 1990:125
  18. Pointed out by Bernard Clive Dietrich, The Origins of Greek Religion (de Gruyter) 1973:15.
  19. A.B. Cook, Zeus (Cambridge University Press0 1914, I, figs 397, 398.
  20. Dietrich 1973, noting Martin P. Nilsson, Minoan-Mycenaean Religion, and Its Survival in Greek Religion 1950:551 and notes.
  21. "Professor Stylianos Alxiou reminds us that there were other divine boys who survived from the religion of the pre-Hellenic period — Linos, Plutos and Dionysos — so not all the young male deities we see depicted in Minoan works of art are necessarily Velchanos" (Castleden 1990:125
  22. Richard Wyatt Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete, (Harmondsworth: Penguin) 1968:204, mentions that there is no classical reference to the death of Zeus (noted by Dietrich 1973:16 note 78).
  23. "This annually reborn god of vegetation also experienced the other parts of the vegetation cycle: holy marriage and annual death when he was thought to disappear from the earth" (Dietrich 1973:15).
  24. In the founding myth of Lycaon's banquet for the gods that included the flesh of a human sacrifice, perhaps one of his sons, Nyctimus or Arcas Zeus overturned the table and struck the house of Lyceus with a thunderbolt; his patronage at the Lykaia can have been little more than a formula.
  25. A morphological connection to lyke "brightness" may be merely fortuitous.
  26. Modern archaeologists have found no trace of human remains among the sacrificial detritus, Walter Burkert, "Lykaia and Lykaion", Homo Necans, tr. by Peter Bing (University of California) 1983, p. 90.
  27. Pausanias 8.38.
  28. Pausanias 3.18.
  29. Hyginus, Fabulae 155
  30. In Fourth Tractate 'Problems of the Soul' The Demiurge is identified as Zeus.10."When under the name of Zeus we are considering the Demiurge we must leave out all notions of stage and progress, and recognize one unchanging and timeless life."

Further readingEdit

  • Burkert, Walter, (1977) 1985. Greek Religion, especially section III.ii.1 (Harvard University Press)
  • Cook, Arthur Bernard, Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion, (3 volume set), (1914–1925). New York, Bibilo & Tannen: 1964.
    • Volume 1: Zeus, God of the Bright Sky, Biblo-Moser, June 1, 1964, ISBN 0-8196-0148-9 (reprint)
    • Volume 2: Zeus, God of the Dark Sky (Thunder and Lightning), Biblo-Moser, June 1, 1964, ISBN 0-8196-0156-X
    • Volume 3: Zeus, God of the Dark Sky (earthquakes, clouds, wind, dew, rain, meteorites)
  • Druon, Maurice, The Memoirs of Zeus, 1964, Charles Scribner's and Sons. (tr. Humphrey Hare)
  • Farnell, Lewis Richard, Cults of the Greek States 5 vols. Oxford; Clarendon 1896–1909. Still the standard reference.
  • Farnell, Lewis Richard, Greek Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality, 1921.
  • Graves, Robert; The Greek Myths, Penguin Books Ltd. (1960 edition)
  • Mitford,William, The History of Greece, 1784. Cf. v.1, Chapter II, Religion of the Early Greeks
  • Moore, Clifford H., The Religious Thought of the Greeks, 1916.
  • Nilsson, Martin P., Greek Popular Religion, 1940.
  • Nilsson, Martin P., History of Greek Religion, 1949.
  • Rohde, Erwin, Psyche: The Cult of Souls and Belief in Immortality among the Greeks, 1925.
  • Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1870, Ancientlibrary.com, William Smith, Dictionary: "Zeus" Ancientlibrary.com

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