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Youth With A Mission (YWAM)
100px
Founders Loren Cunningham
Type Evangelical Missions Agency
Founded 1960
Staff
  • John Dawson, International President
    *Iain Muir, International Director
    *Lynn Green, International Chairman
Area served 171 Countries
Employees 16,000 volunteers
Motto To know God and to make Him known
Website www.ywam.org

Youth With A Mission (YWAM, generally pronounced as "why-wam") is an international, inter-denominational, non-profit Christian missionary organization. Founded by Loren Cunningham in 1960, YWAM's stated purpose is to "know God and to make Him known".[1] [2]

In the nearly 50 years since its inception, YWAM's activities have expanded from youth-focused short term evangelistic missionary journeys to include educational training, church planting, business as mission, and relief and development services. Today, YWAM involves people of every age group.[3]

YWAM is now composed of people from over 150 countries and a large number of Christian denominations, with over half of the organization's staff coming from "non-western" countries.[4] YWAM currently has over 16,000 full-time volunteer workers in nearly 1,100 operating locations in 171 nations and trains 25,000 short-term missions volunteers annually.[5][6]

History

Youth With A Mission was conceived by Loren Cunningham who tells how in 1956, while a 20-year-old student in the Assemblies of God College, he was traveling in the Bahamas when he had a vision of waves breaking over the Earth. He says when he looked closer the waves appeared to become young people taking the news of Jesus into all the nations of the world. He envisioned a movement that would send young people out after high school to gain a sense of purpose when going to college, and would welcome Christians of all denominations.[7][8]

In late 1960, the name Youth with a Mission was chosen and the small group embarked on their first project, a vocational mission trip. The result was that YWAM sent two men in their early twenties to Liberia to build a road through the jungle to a leper colony. This was the organization's first official mission trip.[9]

By 1963, Cunningham had married Darlene Scratch. By this time, the new mission had 20 volunteers stationed in various nations, and the Cunninghams were planning the mission's first "Summer of Service". Later in the year, YWAM teams were being sent to West Indies, Samoa, Hawaii, Mexico, and Central America. By 1966, there were 10 full-time YWAM staff including the Cunninghams and hundreds of summer short-term volunteers. That year YWAM ministries also began in New Zealand and Tonga.[9][10]

In 1967, Cunningham began to work on his vision for the first school. It was to be the School of Evangelism in Lausanne, Switzerland, which was held from December 1969 to the middle of 1970 with 36 students. The students' lodging and classes took place in a newly renovated and leased hotel in Lausanne. By the end of the year, YWAM purchased the hotel and made Lausanne its first permanent location.[11][12]

YWAM's website states that later in the decade, another YWAM school began that would become the foundation for YWAM's many training programs. By 1974, the School of Evangelism was being offered in New Jersey as well as Lausanne. With a focus on biblical foundations and character development as well as missions, much of the material from this course is now taught in the present day Discipleship Training School (DTS).[12] A format of three months of lectures followed by two or three months of outreach is still used in most Discipleship Training Schools today.[8][12]

By 1970, YWAM had a total of 40 full-time staff.[12] That year, 1000 volunteer YWAM staff headed to Munich, Germany, to prepare an outreach for the 1972 Summer Olympics. This was the first of many YWAM Olympic outreaches.[11]

The University of the Nations online magazine has stated that Cunningham met scientist and professor Howard V. Malmstadt at a conference in 1974. They started giving educational seminars together, and Cunningham asked Malmstadt to help expand the training arm of the mission. In 1977 YWAM purchased the Pacific Empress Hotel in Kona, Hawaii, and began renovations to turn it into the campus for what was initially called the Pacific and Asia Christian University—the forerunner of University of the Nations.[13] In 1978, YWAM began Shining Lights, an outreach to prostitutes in Amsterdam.[14]

By 1979, YWAM's Mercy Ships ministry was launched with the commissioning of the ship "Anastasis" (the Greek word for Resurrection).[15][16]

YWAM sources state that at the end of the 1980s, YWAM changed the name of its university to University of the Nations (U of N). The concept of a YWAM university that would encompass training programs in hundreds of YWAM locations was developed by Cunningham and Malmstadt.[13][17] When communist regimes in Eastern Europe began to fall in the early 1990s, Youth With A Mission began outreaches to countries there, including Albania.[18] Other efforts in this decade include a school for the disabled in Mongolia.[19]

By 2000, YWAM had over 11,000 staff from over 130 countries and had become almost 50 percent non-Western.[4] Reflecting this diversity, in 1999, New Zealander Frank Naea, who has Samoan and Māori parentage, was chosen to become YWAM's first non-white president in 2000, replacing Jim Stier, who was to continue as international director of evangelism and frontier missions and national director for Brazil.[20] In 2000, YWAM developed a new role of Executive Chairman, which Jim Stier stepped into, and made the presidency a three-year rotating position.[4] By 2006, YWAM had joined the International Orality Network (ION), a multi-agency outreach effort to "the world's non-literate masses", employing verbal and dramatic means to introduce the Gospel to populations which do not read.[21]

Structure

YWAM leaders characterize the organization as a “family of ministries” rather than a structured, hierarchical entity.[22] YWAM's website says that each of YWAM’s 1000+ operating centers is responsible for determining which training programs it will conduct, the character and destination of its outreaches, personnel recruitment, financial sustainment, and ministerial priorities.[23] YWAM states they have no international administrative headquarters.[23]

YWAM sources cite the following characteristic as common to all operating locations: A) The pre-requisite of the Discipleship Training School. B) The mandate to "know God and make Him known". C) A threefold ministry of: evangelism, mercy ministry and training/discipleship. D) A shared statement of faith, vision and values.[23]

Accountability and leadership are maintained through a system of regional, national and international oversight. The Global Leadership Team (GLT), which consists of approximately 45 leaders from around the world, is considered the authoritative body of leadership for YWAM International. In addition to Loren Cunningham’s influential role as Founder, the GLT elects an international Chairperson, and an international President to provide overall leadership and representation to the organization.[22]

Doctrine and practices

According to its Statement of Faith Youth With A Mission “affirms the Bible as the authoritative word of God and, with the Holy Spirit's inspiration, the absolute reference point for every aspect of life and ministry.”[24] YWAM teachers and leaders emphasize the following conduct in response to what they understand to be God’s initiative of salvation toward humanity: A) Worship: A calling to praise and worship God alone. B) Holiness: A calling to lead holy and righteous lives that exemplify the nature and character of God. C) Witness: A calling to share the gospel of Jesus Christ with those who do not know Him. D) Prayer: A calling to engage in intercessory prayer for the people and causes on God's heart, including standing against evil in every form. E) Fellowship: A calling to commit to the Church in both its local nurturing expression and its mobile multiplying expression.[25]

Discussing YWAM strategy with the Christian Post, Lynn Green has stated that YWAM missions "would be seen as indigenous". The perception, he claimed, combined with the intensive six-month training program, 'ties everyone together' so as to promote cooperation in working toward national goals.[8]

Values and philosophy

YWAM leaders assert that “the unique family characteristics of YWAM—our ‘DNA’”[25] are represented in a document titled, "The Foundational Values of Youth With A Mission." According to this document, “These shared beliefs and values are the guiding principles for both the past and future growth of our mission ... They are values we hold in high regard which determine who we are, how we live and how we make decisions.”[25] In February 2004, the Global Leadership Team released a revised statement of YWAM’s Foundational Values. A summary of these is as follows:

1) Know God, 2) Make God Known, 3) Hear God's Voice, 4) Practice Worship and Intercessory Prayer, 5) Be Visionary, 6) Champion Young People, 7) Be Broad-Structured and Decentralized, 8) Be International and Interdenominational, 9) Have a Biblical Worldview 10) Function in Teams, 11) Exhibit Servant Leadership, 12) Do First, Then Teach, 13) Be Relationship-Oriented, 14) Value The Individual, 15) Value Families 16) Rely on Relationship-based Support, 17) Practice Hospitality[25]

Sara Diamond, citing an interview with Gary North, states that YWAM "sees its role as an on-the-ground combat force against liberation theology."[26] Lynn Green, speaking on behalf of YWAM, disagreed that post-modernism is detrimental to youth, because of its oppositions to scientific materialism.[8]

Ministry

The three types of ministry that Youth with a Mission emphasizes are Evangelism, Training, and Mercy ministries.

Evangelism

Sports camps, drama presentations, musical events, along with other creative and performing arts are the avenues through which volunteers and staff share their Christian faith.[27]

YWAM also engages in church planting, in coordination with churches from various denominations, or alone when working among "unreached people groups" who do not have churches among them.

Olympic outreaches

Youth With A Mission has been active in evangelism at the Olympic Games since 1972.

It is believed 1,000 volunteers were part of the outreach effort.[11] which included 50 Dutch volunteers under Romkje Fountain (who later founded YWAM Holland)[28]
The outreach included street evangelism.[29]
YWAM notes they performed street theater during these games.[33]
YWAM conducted open-air church services and performed gospel drama and dance in the streets.[34]
4,500 YWAM members were active behind the scenes.[35] About 1,000 volunteers were official greeters at the Olympic Village[36][37] and 1,000 more helped with Olympic security and translating.[37]
Southern Baptist International Mission Board missionaries cooperated with YWAM at the Nagano Winter Olympic Games Outreach.[38] According to the YWAM website, the central event was a prayer march from Zenkō-ji, an historic Buddhist temple, to the Olympic Plaza.[39]
YWAM Member Kara Miller Stewart participated in an Olympic dance events.[40] YWAM worked closely with United Bible Societies to distribute Towards the Goal, a sports focused New Testament.[41]
YWAM was hosted by the Salvation Army.[42]
YWAM member musician K. Benny Prasad was invited to perform during these games.[43] YWAM also organized arts and music events.[44] A YWAM member was arrested for "suspicious activity" and but was later released. Greece is the only European Union (EU) country to ban proselytism in its constitution.[45]
This was reportedly the 16th YWAM Olympic related event. YWAM used entertainment events such as music, street drama, community festivals and snow boarding clinics for creative interaction.[46]
An outreach is planned for the thirtieth Summer Olympic Games in London in 2012.

Other evangelism ministries

Other notable evangelism ministries include:

  • Shining Lights, an outreach to prostitutes in the red-light districts of Amsterdam.[14]
  • YWAM Montana has an outreach to St. Croix which includes dancing, basketball, and cookouts. College-aged youth also perform tasks like painting, landscaping, and school maintenance assisting the mission work of Southgate Baptist Church.[47]
  • Create International is an international ministry of Youth With A Mission that specializes in the production of media tools to communicate the gospel of Jesus Christ to unreached people groups. Create International was formed in 1987 and now has centers in Australia, India, and Thailand.[1]

Training

The purpose of YWAM training programs is to raise up men and women who will "disciple nations and transform cultures". A central concept to YWAM teaching is the notion of societal "spheres of influence", such as education, government, arts and entertainment, media and communication, business and commerce, family, and church.[48][49] YWAM aims to train and equip Christians to become influential within these spheres.[50]

The various training schools of YWAM are organized under the structure of The University of the Nations (U of N).[8] The U of N offers modular courses[8] and is unaccredited.[51] Most schools in the U of N system have a three month lecture phase which is then followed by a two-to-three month field assignment.[8]

Discipleship Training School

The Discipleship Training School (DTS) is YWAM's entry level training. DTSs are run in YWAM centers around the world with the purpose of teaching students about God and His purposes for humankind. The DTS encourages personal intellectual and spiritual growth and seeks to help graduates find their place serving God in the world. It also provides a foundation for students to continue their education through the U of N. The DTS generally lasts 5–6 months and consists of a 3 month lecture/study phase followed by a 2-3 month evangelistic/service outreach.[52]

Many centers run DTSs that emphasise certain parts of the world or specific ministry strategies which help students use their skills and talents in world missions. Examples of specialized DTSs are the Emerge DTS run by YWAM Wollongong, Australia, Mercy Ministry DTS run by YWAM in Melbourne, Australia, Celtic Way DTS run by YWAM Scotlandand a Surfers DTS hosted in Perth, Australia. Information about specialized DTSs and other schools are published each year in the Go Manual, a listing of worldwide training and ministry opportunities with YWAM.[53] DTS, like some other phases of YWAM's operation, sometimes relies on music and dance to help convey vision and purpose.[54]

DTSs are operated according to the guidelines of the YWAM International DTS Centre,[55] which was established to maintain and enhance excellence in DTS programs worldwide in accordance with the DTS purpose and curriculum guidelines set by the International Leadership of Youth With A Mission and the U of N.

Principles in Child and Youth Ministry

The Principles in Child and Youth Ministry (PCYM) is YWAM's secondary level training and requires a DTS training.

Biblical Training

The School of Biblical Studies (SBS) is one of YWAM's many bible training programs. Other Bible training programs offered by YWAM include the School of the Bible (SOTB), Bible School for the Nations (BSN) and School of Biblical Foundations (SBF). SBS was founded by Ron and Judy Smith in September 1981 in Kona, Hawaii. The program is a nine month course that uses the inductive method to study all 66 books of the bible. SBS worldwide has now conducted about 500 schools in the last twenty-five years and have trained somewhere between 7,000 and 10,000 students. [2] SOTB is an 11 month course that includes a 9 month lecture phase and a 6 week outreach. SOTB uses many methods to study through the entire Bible, including Inductive method (historical-grammatical approach), word studies, topical studies, key charts, and literary analysis among others. Other topics include effectively communicating the Bible, leadership, cross-cultural communicating and teaching skills, understanding worldviews, church history, and Biblical principles of government, education and economics.

Mercy Ministries

The practical and physical needs of the global community are met by YWAM through Mercy Ministries International.[Neutrality is disputed] Its humanitarian efforts along with partners reach an estimated[who?] 3,000,000+ people annually and is increasing in its aims to be serving 100 million of the world's poor by 2020. YWAM has a mission out of San Diego which builds homes for families in Mexico. Two homes in 2006 were built at a total cost of $30,000. According to Sean Lambert, chief executive officer and president of YWAM San Diego/Baja, teams participating with his base have built 2,084 homes for needy families since 1991.[56][57] YWAM has a mission working with villagers in Uganda to provide relief for HIV/AIDS. They have established orphanages and are ensuring children are educated. British singer Soroti visited there in 2007.[58][59]

Marine Reach

  • Marine Reach, the maritime arm of YWAM's Mercy Ministries, uses ships to bring physical and spiritual healing to the poor and needy. YWAM ships have provided vitally important surgeries, dental care, medical supplies, food, seeds, construction materials, development projects, training, and their message to the port cities of the world.[60]

Australian Relief & Mercy Services

  • ARMS (Australian Relief & Mercy Services Ltd) is a Christian aid and development organization that cares for the poor and needy both within Australia and overseas. It was founded in Canberra in 1988 and is the Mercy Ministry arm of Youth With A Mission in Australia. ARMS works in nations such as East Timor, Indonesia, Cambodia, Thailand, Burma, India, Zambia,Vietnam and Uganda. It provides medical support to communities as well as disaster relief teams that serve in natural disasters and war zones. It also supports preschools and orphanages in poor communities, runs primary health care programs, and is also involved in building and construction, water and agricultural projects. According to ARMS newsletters that are stored on their website[61] ARMS also sends special intervention teams into disasters and through its ministry RescueNet has sent medical and SAR interventions teams to Iraq 2003,[62] Philippines 2004, Aceh (Tsunami) 2004-2005[63] 2005, Pakistan 2006,[64][65] ARMS has also sent intervention medical teams to East Timor 2006.[66] In 2007 the ARMS website also announced a major new ministry focus - an international campaign against Malaria called Buzz Off.[67] The campaign is aimed at empowering smaller NGOs and ministries working in Malaria endemic nations to tackle the problem of Malaria at the local level.[68][69][70]

Mercy Ships

  • Mercy Ships was founded by YWAM missionaries Don and Deyon Stephens in 1978.[15] It is now operationally distinct from YWAM.[71]

Disaster relief

Living Waters Church arranged for YWAM to renovate the home of Evelyn and Herschell Hartman in Sulphur, Louisiana after Hurricane Rita.[72] Flooding in Pakistan in 2007 in the Sindh province prompted a reaction by twenty Muslim, Christian, and Hindu volunteers led by YWAM Pakistan chairman Zafar Francis. They were assisted by an appeal by YWAM London's relief office. They were able to distribute food for a month to 3,000 of the 150,000 homeless survivors there.[73]

Dangerous work

Hurricane Katrina flooded all eleven of YWAM New Orleans' buildings. Personnel were evacuated to YWAM bases in Baton Rouge and Tyler, Texas, where volunteers in their MercyWorks relief arm prepared to take food, "baby items" and water to victims once access was granted to relief workers by the National Guard.[74] Earlier that year, YWAM lodgings in Phuket, Thailand were destroyed by the tsunami of 26 December, 2004.[75] In May 2006, Jules was caught in anti-foreign riots overtook Kabul, Afghanistan in May 2006. Violence there left eight people dead and 107 injured.

Youth ministries

Despite its historical and value emphasis on young people, YWAM involves people of all ages. However, there is still a core emphasis on youth ministry. While YWAM has many programs focusing on youth ministry, within the larger organization it has developed two transnational ministries for youth: Mission Adventures (MA), and King's Kids International (KKI). YWAM holds an annual spring event offering free dentistry to children in Lindale, TX. The ministry is first come, first served; while thousands are given free treatment, thousands more are turned away, sometimes coming from many states away.[76]

Film projects

YWAM Missionary Lee Isaac Chung's film Muryangabo (Liberation Day) earned Une Certain Regard at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival. Chung cast two street kids whom he found through YWAM's soccer-outreach program as the stars of a film that dealt with the moral and emotional repercussions of the Rwandan Genocide.[77]

David Loren Cunningham, son of the group's founders, recently produced a controversial film titled Hakani: A Survivor's Story, which contains a depiction of infanticide among Amazonian tribes of Brazil. The film gave new vigor to the debate on human rights regarding indigenous people.[78]

Associations and working relationships

Youth With A Mission is a global mission with links and partnerships internationally. International Chairman Lynn Green recently reported that YWAM representatives often sit "on boards of other commissions" and organizations.[8]

YWAM also works closely in with various missions and churches, as well as independent missionaries across the globe. One notable working relationship is the OneStory Project[79] which is a partnership between YWAM, Campus Crusade for Christ, the International Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, Trans World Radio, and Wycliffe Bible Translators as well as other Great Commission-focused organizations, churches and individuals.[80] United Bible Societies has also worked closely with YWAM as a missions partner.[41] YWAM joined with the Evangelical Alliance and John C. Maxwell to design the training program for the Global Pastors Network's Million Leaders Mandate.[81] YWAM and Christian Direction work together to pray for Muslims during Ramadan.[82] YWAM Pittsburgh has been involved in ecumenical local efforts to revive Epiphany School through teaching young people "Christian principles" and exposing them to dance and the arts.[83]

Partnerships

YWAM partners with:

Memberships

YWAM is a member of:

Endorsements

  • Church of God Assistant Director Douglas Leroy has noted the cooperation between COG and YWAM, among others, and endorses cooperation with mission groups "who have expertise in certain areas, without compromising our doctrinal or policy integrity."[87]

Notable people associated with YWAM

Recent Press Coverage

A gunman, identified as a former YWAM student Matthew Murray,[90] shot four staff members at the missionary training center near Denver in the early morning hours on December 9, 2007, killing two, after being refused access to the training center's facilities.[91]

Afterwards, YWAM's School of Writing director Janice Rogers noted that YWAM had been the victim of violent offenders before, including homicides and other violent acts, although this is the first act of aggression against the mission on US soil, according to Mrs Rogers. Rogers stated that there are "two predominant reasons YWAM'ers have been killed; robbery or crime, or spiritual resistance to the Gospel".[92]

Youth With A Mission's Dean Sherman also released two podcast messages in response to the shootings.

Political Affiliation & Involvement

Youth with A Mission officially has no political affiliations or working relationships. However, the YWAM website acknowledges that "Individual YWAM staff and students come from a wide variety of political backgrounds and affiliations." [93]

Member Affiliation

Some of the most notable political affiliations of individual YWAM staff is in New Zealand. Bernie Ogilvy, a former national director of YWAM in New Zealand, Larry Baldock, a former YWAM staffer,[94] and other evangelical Christians entered the New Zealand Parliament in 2002 representing the United Future New Zealand party. Ogilvy, Baldock and Frank Naea, former International President of YWAM, are on the Board of The Kiwi Party and are standing for the party in the 2008 New Zealand Parliamentary election. Simonne Dyer, former CEO of the ship Anastasis, is another candidate for the party.[95]

Accusation of Political Alliances

Sara Diamond's 1989 book Spiritual Warfare includes an account alleging that Loren Cunningham supported a 1982 coup by Efraín Ríos Montt in Guatemala, by drawing connections from an alleged meeting between an unnamed Rios Montt aide and a group of Christian representatives that may have included YWAM's founder, Loren Cunningham.[96] Diamond also accused YWAM of having "sought to gain influence within the Republican party."

In 2005, Americans United for Separation of Church and State accused Youth With A Mission of offering to donate $10 million dollars to train youth. It is unclear how this would benefit Rod Parsley's Restoration Ohio project, however American's United suggests it would contribute to politically conservative goals as well as towards evangelizing Ohioans.[97][98]

In 2009, YWAM was linked to property used for hosting Bible studies, prayer meetings, and as boarding facilities for members of the US Congress [[99]

Teachings on Ministry and Government

YWAM's founder Loren Cunningham, along with Bill Bright of Campus Crusade developed a strategy in 1975 for influencing what they felt were seven main segments or spheres of society and culture. One of these segments included fighting a spiritual "battle" to "take back", or redeem, the "mountain of government."[100] Although the idea behind this teaching is to influence government through spiritual means, it has been the cause for some concern in the blogosphere.[101]

Criticism and controversy

Template:Criticism-section Along with positive experiences within YWAM,[27][102][103] there have also been allegations by former members that a few YWAM leaders with authoritarian personalities have intimidated subordinates and traumatized those deemed to be "rebellious."[104][105][106][107] Some of the political involvements of its founders and members have also been examined by the media.[11][96][107][108][109][110] It is also claimed by Christian apologists that YWAM has taught some controversial doctrines.[111][112][113]

Staff & Leadership Concerns

In 1990, controversial researcher and self-proclaimed cult specialist Rick Ross published an evaluation of Youth with a Mission. Ross' research included an interview with several YWAM members, information obtained from Christian Research Institute, the pre-Scientology Cult Awareness Network, the book Spiritual Warfare by Sara Diamond, and further mention of YWAM in Charisma Magazine, although the source material is not fully documented in his research.[107] Ross' self-published report cited both positive and negative aspects of, and experiences in, YWAM. Ross's 1990 conclusion was that he did not "recommend Youth With A Mission" or it's programs. No further updates or clarifications have been published by Ross in the intervening decades.

In the wake of the 2007 shootings, the Fox News Network asked Rick Ross to clarify his position. "Youth With A Mission is not a cult," stated Ross, "However, I have received very serious complaints about Youth With a Mission from former staffers, family members and also others concerned."[91]

Correcting impressions

The Wellington New Zealand Star-Times also examined politician Bernie Ogilvy's connection to the organization during this time period. In the report, Ogilvy confirmed that the group has been called a "cult" by overseas sceptics but said that impression had been corrected. The Star-Times reported that YWAM made enough money to buy up to 12 Auckland houses and that Ogilvy at one point lived in a large house with a swimming pool as the National Director. Ogilvy stated that the houses were all sold and the money given away.[114] James B. Jordan, however, persisted in calling YWAM a cult as late as April 1994.[113]

Theological concerns

Evangelical theologians Alan Gomes and E. Calvin Beisner claim that certain unorthodox doctrines were taught at some YWAM locations from the 1970s until the 1990s.[111][112]

YWAM's endorsement of Moral Government Theology (Arminian view of the Atonement) and teaching on Spiritual mapping has been controversial as well.

Responses to criticism

As of 2008, David Clark, director of Youth With A Mission in Minneapolis, acknowledges these concerns with a rebuttal in two main points. "People have been hurt," stated Clark which he attributes to the freedom of the leadership of each base combined with the actions of a few "bad apples" who haven't adhered to core principles. Clark addressed the theological concerns by citing Youth With A Mission's acceptance of the National Association of Evangelicals Statement of Faith. He noted that many YWAM critics are "radical individuals who do not appreciate theological diversity" and "hard-core Calvinists", while claiming the ecumenical spirit within the organization embraces Calvinists.[115]

References

Notes

  1. "Founders - Loren and Darlene Cunningham". YWAM.
  2. Ari L. Goldman. "A Valentine bargain". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE1D91231F930A25751C0A965958260. Retrieved 2008-01-30. 
  3. Bishop, Bryan. "Hui Heaven". YWAM. 1 January 2001.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "The 1990s to Present: Looking With Both Eyes". YWAM.
  5. Youth with a Mission in Derry visit - Derry Today
  6. Rhoda Tse (August 1, 2005). "New Yorkers Pray for London Bombings". Christian Post. http://www.christianpost.com/article/20050801/13601_New_Yorkers_Pray_for_London_Bombings.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-30. 
  7. "1956: Beginnings". YWAM.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 Rhoda Tse (April 25, 2005). "Interview with the Executive Director of YWAM". Christian Post. http://www.christianpost.com/article/20050425/13425_Interview_with_the_Executive_Chairman_of_YWAM,_Lynn_Green.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-28. "The vision was really a picture that he had in his spirit. It was a globe - as if seen from space - and there were waves lapping each continent, and each wave would come up further inland until he saw that each continent was completely covered. Upon closer inspection, the waves were actually young people. He knew then that the young people would be taking the gospel to the world." 
  9. 9.0 9.1 "The 1960's: The Vision of YWAM Comes to Life". YWAM.
  10. "Loren Cunningham". Catalyst Ministries UK.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Anton Chaitkin (September 17, 2006). "Behind the ABC 9/11 Docudrama: The Axis of YWAM". Executive Intelligence Review. http://mathaba.net/news/?x=543208. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 "The 1970s: Two Hotels, a Shipwreck, and a Vision". YWAM.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "U of N's Founding Father Dr. Howard V. Malmstadt". University of the Nations, Kona, Hawaii.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Ted Olsen (October 2, 2000). "Some Day: Empty Windows". Christianity Today. http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2000/october2/10.70.html. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Deann Alford (December 14, 2007). "Saving Faces". Christianity Today. http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2007/december/24.50.html. Retrieved 2008-01-27. 
  16. "Miracle-working surgeons float to Africa's poor". Mathaba. November 4, 2005. http://mathaba.net/news/?x=543208. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  17. "The 1980s: Mercy Ministry Grows Up". YWAM.
  18. Moring, Mark. "Go!". Campus Life. January/February 1999, Vol. 57, No. 6, Page 38.
  19. Benson, Brett. "Yvonne Robinson". Today's Christian. May/June 1998.
  20. "In Brief". Christianity Today. 03-01-1999. http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/1999/march1/9t323b.html. Retrieved 2008-01-27. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 Dawn Herzog Jewell (March 1, 2006). "Winning the Oral Majority". Christianity Today. http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2006/march/30.56.html. Retrieved 2008-01-27. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Bishop, Bryan, ed. YWAM Go Manual, Youth With A Mission’s World Guide, (Seattle, YWAM Publishing, 2007), p 12.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 http://www.ywam.org/contents/abo_wha_structure.htm
  24. http://www.ywam.org/contents/abo_doc_faith.htm
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 http://www.ywam.org/contents/abo_doc_values.htm
  26. Sara Diamond (1989). Spiritual Warfare. South End Press. p. 206. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 Cayman Net News: Working for God in the South Pacific
  28. YWAM Associates InTouch Renewal Gathering to be Held in Switzerland
  29. Christianity.ca - Everyone Benefits from STM
  30. According to the Christian Post, the 2006 Winter Olympic outreach in Turino was YWAM's 16th, yet the total number of Olympic Summer and Winter games from 1972 to 2006 would need include the 1980 Summer Olympics and still only amount to 15 games. One supposes that the Christian Post has knowledge of YWAM activities at Moscow and one previous event.
  31. Olympian outreach games in LA attracting thousands of evangelists
  32. Major faiths to race for souls of 7,200 athletes
  33. "Performing arts". Youth With A Mission, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  34. Freethought Challenges Of The '90s
  35. DAWN News from USA (Atlanta Olympics), Islamic World, Russia
  36. NEWS: 1,800 Churches Participating in Olympic Outreach | Christianity Today | A Magazine of Evangelical Conviction
  37. 37.0 37.1 http://www.atheists.org/ftpfiles/admin/AANEWS/aanews01.098
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  49. "Q&A with Loren". Transformations, volume 3, page 2, 2006. University of the Nations, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii.
  50. "Perspective: A Fire of Cleansing, in Every Area". International DTS Centre, YWAM. 1 February 2005.
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  56. Angela Holman (December 14, 2006). "Carlsbad students help build housing for the homeless". San Diego Union-Tribune. http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/northcounty/20061214-9999-lz1mi14lauren.html. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  57. Fresh Produce Sportswear Brings Color and Hope to Underprivileged Families in Mexico. | PR Newswire (January, 2007)
  58. 58.0 58.1 Reuters AlertNet - Christian Aid partners help those left homeless by Ugandan rebels
  59. Reuters AlertNet - Lemar returns to Africa for Christian Aid Week
  60. Marine Reach - - Youth With a Mission
  61. Christian Aid and Development Organisation - ARMS
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  63. http://arms.org.au/Jan2005.pdf
  64. FOM-Apr 05
  65. Advocate_May_4030.indd
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  68. Australian Relief and Mercy Services
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  73. Maria Mackay (July 29, 2007). "Relief Agencies Continue to Respond to Silent Cries of Pakistan Flood Victims". Christian Post. http://www.christianpost.com/article/20070729/28654_Relief_Agencies_Continue_to_Respond_to_Silent_Cries_of_Pakistan_Flood_Victims.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-28. 
  74. Katherine T. Phan (September 2, 2005). "YWAM Houses, Prepares Aid for Hurricane Katrina Victims". Christian Post. http://www.christianpost.com/article/20050902/13704_YWAM_Houses,_Prepares_Aid_for_Hurricane_Katrina_Victims.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-28. 
  75. Bette Nunn (January 12, 2005). "Missionaries spared from tsunami's path". Mooresville-Decatur Times. http://www.md-times.com/?module=displaystory&story_id=7008&format=html. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  76. Free Health Care in East Texas. KLTV.
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  83. Epiphany School given new life - PittsburghLIVE.com
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  85. What Others Say About Us
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  90. Meyer, Jeremy P.; Erin Emery, Christopher N. Osher (December 10, 2007). "Police believe revenge motivated shooter". The Denver Post. http://www.denverpost.com/ci_7686693. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 
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  92. Patrick Butler (December 11, 2007). "Shooting Won't Change YWAM". Tyler Telegraph. 
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  96. 96.0 96.1 Sara Diamond (1989). Spiritual Warfare: The Politics of the Christian Right. Boston, MA: South End Press. ISBN 9780896083615.  | quote = Ríos Montt's ascension to power [by coup in 1982] was celebrated by the U.S. Christian Right as a sign of divine intervention in Central America.... In May, 1982, [Pat] Robertson told the New York Times that his Christian Broadcasting Network would send missionaries and more than a billion dollars in aid to help Rios Montt rule the country. While Robertson's offer never came to fruition, it enabled Rios Montt to convince the U.S. Congress that he would not seek massive sums of U.S. aid. Instead, he would rely on "private aid from U.S. evangelicals. Toward that end, Rios Montt's aide... came to the United States for a meeting with... [Reagan consigliore] Edwin Meese, Interior Secretary James Watt... and Christian Right leaders Pat Robertson, Jerry Falwell, and Loren Cunningham). }}
  97. Ohio Pastor Launches $30-Million Campaign For Nation's 'Restoration'
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  99. Roig-Franzia, Manuel (June 26, 2009) "The Political Enclave That Dare Not Speak Its Name." Washington Post. Retrieved on July 12, 2009
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  107. 107.0 107.1 107.2 Ross, Rick A. (October 1990). "Youth With A Mission". http://www.rickross.com/reference/youth/youth6.html. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 
  108. "This Week In Blogging the Religious Right: The Path to 9/11 Edition". http://www.politicalcortex.com/story/2006/9/8/213312/8102. Retrieved 2007-12-22. "Ríos Montt's ascension to power [by coup in 1982] was celebrated by the U.S. Christian Right as a sign of divine intervention in Central America.... In May, 1982, [Pat] Robertson told the New York Times that his Christian Broadcasting Network would send missionaries and more than a billion dollars in aid to help Rios Montt rule the country. While Robertson's offer never came to fruition, it enabled Rios Montt to convince the U.S. Congress that he would not seek massive sums of U.S. aid. Instead, he would rely on "private aid from U.S. evangelicals. Toward that end, Rios Montt's aide... came to the United States for a meeting with... [Reagan consigliore] Edwin Meese, Interior Secretary James Watt... and Christian Right leaders Pat Robertson, Jerry Falwell, and Loren Cunningham (head of Youth With a Mission)." 
  109. Max Blumenthal. "ABC 9/11 Docudrama's Right-Wing Roots". http://www.thenation.com/doc/20060925/path_to_911/. "According to Sara Diamond's book Spiritual Warfare, during the 1980's YWAM "sought to gain influence within the Republican party" while assisting authoritarian governments in South Africa and Central America. Cunningham, Diamond noted, was a follower of Christian Reconstructionism, an extreme current of evangelical theology that advocates using stealth political methods to put the United States under the control of Biblical law and jettison the Constitution." 
  110. "ABC 9/11 Docudrama's Right-Wing Roots". September 11, 2006. http://www.thenation.com/doc/20060925/path_to_911. Retrieved 2007-12-16. "Last June, Cunningham's TFI announced it was producing its first film, mysteriously titled Untitled History Project. "TFI's first project is a doozy," a newsletter to YWAM members read. "Simply being referred to as: The Untitled History Project, it is already being called the television event of the decade and not one second has been put to film yet. Talk about great expectations!" (A web edition of the newsletter was mysteriously deleted last week after its publication by the blogger Digby, but has been cached on Google at the link above)." 
  111. 111.0 111.1 Gomes, Alan W. (1981). Lead Us Not Into Deception - A Biblical Examination of Moral Government Theology
  112. 112.0 112.1 Beisner, E. Calvin. (1994). The False God and Gospel of Moral Government Theology.
  113. 113.0 113.1 James B. Jordan (April 1994). "PROLIFISM: A New Humanism". http://www.biblicalhorizons.com/biblical-horizons/no-60-profilism-a-new-humanism/. Retrieved 2008-01-27. 
  114. "MP linked to controversial 'cult'". The Wellington New Zealand Star-Times. August 11, 2002. http://www.rickross.com/reference/youth/youth7.html. Retrieved 2007-12-11. "New United Future MP Bernie Ogilvy established a religious organization which provoked controversy in the 1970s over the treatment of teenagers in its care. The evangelical organization, Youth With A Mission, (YWAM) established in Auckland by Ogilvy in the late 1970s, took teens off the street and then put them to work - but it drew criticism over the amount of wages it retained." 
  115. David Clark. "Concerns about YWAM". Youth With A Mission, Minneapolis. http://www.ywam-mn.org/index.php/ywam-about/ywam-statement/ywam-concerns. Retrieved 2008-01-04. 

Further reading

  • Blumenthal, Max. The Nightmare of Christianity The Nation (September 9, 2009)
  • Cunningham, L. w/ Rogers, Janice, The Book that Transforms Nations, YWAM Publishing, 2007. ISBN 1576583813
  • Cunningham, L., Is That Really You God?, YWAM Publishing, 1984. ISBN 1-57658-244-2
  • McClung, Floyd Jr. and Charles Paul Conn. Just Off Chicken Street. USA, Fleming H. Revell, 1975. ISBN 0800706994.
  • McClung, Floyd. Basic Discipleship. InterVarsity Press, 1992. ISBN 0830813195.
  • McClung, Floyd. The Father Heart of God: Experiencing the Depths of His Love for You. Harvest House Publishers, 2004. ISBN 0736912150.
  • Schaeffer, Edith, Francis A. Schaeffer and Deirdre Ducker. L'Abri. USA, Crossways Books, 1992. ISBN 0891076689.
  • Schaeffer, Francis. The God who is There. 1968.

External links

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