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Yoma (Hebrew: יומא, lit. "Day") is the fifth tractate of Seder Moed ("Order of Festivals") of the Mishnah and of the Talmud. It is concerned mainly with the laws of the Jewish holiday Yom Kippur, on which Jews atone for their sins from the previous year. It consists of eight chapters and has a Gemara ("Completion") from both the Jerusalem Talmud and the Babylonian Talmud.
Preparations of the High Priest before Yom Kippur
The first chapter is regarding the seven days before Yom Kippur in which the Kohen Gadol is separated from his wife and moves into a chamber on the Beit HaMikdash, sprinkled with water from the Red Heifer and taught the laws relating to the Yom Kippur sacrifices.
Services of the Day
The second through seventh chapters deal with the order of services on Yom Kippur, both those specific to Yom Kippur and the daily sacrificies. Some of the issues addressed include those of the lottery employed to assign services to Kohanim, laws regarding the scapegoat, and the incense sacrifices performed by the Kohen Godol in the Kodesh Kedoshim.
Afflictions on Yom Kippur
The last chapter deals with the five afflictions of Yom Kippur, which apply in the absence of a Temple, including modern times. Five abstentions are required:
- Eating or drinking
- Wearing leather shoes
- Anointing oneself with oil
- Marital relations