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Yavne

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Yavne
150px
Coat of arms of Yavne
District Center
Government City
Hebrew יַבְנֶה
Arabic ياڨني, يبنة
Population 32,200 (2007)
Area 10700 dunams (10.7 km2; 4.1 sq mi)
Mayor Zvi Gov-Ari
Founded in 1949
For the religious kibbutz, see Kvutzat Yavne. For the town with a similar name, see Gan Yavne.

Yavne (Hebrew: יַבְנֶה‎; Arabic: ياڨني‎ or يبنة, Yibnah; Latin: Iamnia; traditional English spelling Jabneh or Jamnia) is a city in the Central District of Israel. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), at the end of 2007 the city had a total population of 32,200.[1]

History

The Hebrew Bible refers to Yavne as Yavne'el (Joshua 15:11) (Douay-Rheims: Jebneel), a border city between the tribal allotments of Dan and Judah. However it should not be confused with the walls later breached by King Uzziah in his battle against the Philistines (2Chronicles 26:6). Both cities are different in English and original Hebrew translations.

The Romans called the city Iamnia. It was bequeathed by King Herod upon his death to his sister Salome. Upon her death it passed to Caesar Augustus who managed it as a private imperial estate, a status it was to maintain for at least a century. After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakkai moved the Sanhedrin to Yavne. Shortly thereafter, the Council of Yavne met there, whence Rabbinical Judaism emerged. The Sanhedrin left Yavne for Usha in 80 CE, only to return in 116 CE, before leaving Yavne for good.

The Crusaders called the city Ibelin and built a castle there in 1141. Its namesake noble family, Ibelin, was important in the Kingdom of Jerusalem and later in the Kingdom of Cyprus. Ibelin itself was captured by Saladin in 1187.

Before the establishment of Israel there was an Arab village of Yibna located there.

During Operation Cast Lead Yavne was the most northern city which was attacked by the Palestinian terrorist organizations.[2]

Demographics

According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), in 2001 the ethnic makeup of the city was Jewish and others, without significant Arab population. See Population groups in Israel. In 2001, the population included 15,800 men and 16,000 women. The ages of city residents were fairly spread out:

  • 38.5% aged 19 years or younger
  • 16.7% aged 20 to 29
  • 18.6% aged 30 to 44
  • 18.2% aged 45 to 59
  • 2.1% aged 60 to 64
  • 5.8% aged 65 years or older

The population growth rate in 2001 was 0.5%. 103 new residents moved to Yavne in that year.

Income

According to CBS, as of 2000, in the city there were 10,910 salaried workers and 966 are self-employed. The mean monthly wage in 2000 for a salaried worker in the city is ILS 5,699, a real change of 4.1% over the course of 2000. Salaried males have a mean monthly wage of ILS 7,430 (a real change of 1.1%) versus ILS 4,042 for females (a real change of 10.8%). The mean income for the self-employed is 7,631. There are 640 people who receive unemployment benefits and 2,396 people who receive an income guarantee.

Education

According to CBS, there are 16 schools and 7,445 students in the city. They are spread out as 11 elementary schools and 4,037 elementary school students, and 9 high schools and 3,408 high school students. 59.6% of 12th grade students were entitled to a matriculation certificate in 2001.

Ecomomy

Major companies based in Yavne include: Ormat Industries, Aeronautics Defense Systems, Avisar and Orbotech.

Sport

Maccabi Yavne is the city's major football club. During the 1980s the club played in the top division and in 1985 won the Toto Cup. Today they are in Liga Leumit. and the Basketball team, Elitzur Yavne play in the Liga Leumit (basketball) Since 2007.

Notable residents

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Yavne is twinned with:

See also

References

Some or all of this article is forked from Wikipedia. The original article was at Yavne. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.

External links

Coordinates: 31°53′N 34°44′E / 31.883°N 34.733°E / 31.883; 34.733

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