Beliefs and practices
The Vishnu sahasranama (Sanskrit viṣṇusahasranāma, a tatpurusha compound translating literally to "the thousand names of Vishnu") is a list of 1,000 names (sahasranama) of Vishnu, one of the main forms of God in Hinduism and the personal supreme God for Vaishnavas (followers of Vishnu). It is also one of the most sacred and commonly chanted stotras in Hinduism. The Vishnu sahasranama as found in the Mahabharata is the most popular version of the 1000 names of Vishnu. Another version exists in the Padma Purana. Each name eulogizes one of His countless great attributes.
According to the 149th chapter of Anushāsanaparva in the epic Mahabharata, the names were handed down to Yudhisthira by the famous warrior Bhishma who was on his death bed at the battle of Kurukshetra. Yudhisthira asks Bhishma the following questions:
kimekam daivatam loke
kim vāpyekam parāyaṇam
stuvantaḥ kam kamarcantaḥ prāpnuyurmānavāḥ subham
ko dharmaḥ sarva dharmāṇām bhavataḥ paramo mataḥ
kim japan mucyate jantuḥ janmasamsārabandhanāt
In this universe who is the one Deva of all? (i.e., at whose command all beings function?, or who is God of all?. Who is the one greatest refuge for all? Who is the one Divinity by praising and by worshipping whom a man attains good? Which according to you is that highest form of Dharma (capable of bestowing salvation and prosperity on man)? What is that by uttering or reciting which any living being can attain freedom from cycle of births and deaths?—Verses 7:8
Bhisma answers by stating that mankind will be free from all sorrows by chanting the Vishnu sahasranāma' which are the thousand names of the all-pervading Supreme Being Vishnu, who is the master of all the worlds, the supreme light, the essence of the universe and who is Brahman. All matter animate and inanimate reside in him and he in turn resides within all matter.
The Vishnu sahasranāma has been the subject of numerous commentaries. Adi Shankaracharya wrote a definitive commentary on the sahasranāma in the 8th century, which has been particularly influential for many schools of Hinduism. Parasara Bhattar, a follower of Ramanujacharya wrote a commentary in the 12th century, detailing the names of Vishnu from a Vishishtadvaita perspective. Hindu literature includes sahasranamas dedicated to Shiva, Devi, Ganesha and other popular deities.
In Sanskrit, sahasra means "a thousand" and nāma (nominative, the stem is nāman-) means "name". The compound is of the Bahuvrihi type and may be translated as "having a thousand names". In modern Hindi pronunciation, nāma is pronounced [na:m]. It is also pronounced sahasranāmam.
There are Sahasranāma for many forms of God (Vishnu, Shiva, Ganesha, Shakti, and others). The Vishnu Sahasranāma is popular among common Hindus, and a major part of prayer for devout Vaishnavas, or followers of Vishnu. While Vaishanvas venerate other deities, they believe that the universe, including the other divinities such as Shiva and Devi, is ultimately a manifestation of the Supreme Lord Vishnu. Followers of Shaivism similarly give prominence to Shiva. Interestingly, despite the existence of other sahasranamas of other forms of God, referring a sahasranama as "The Sahasranama," generally refers to the Vishnu Sahasranama alone, thereby indicating its wide popularity and use. .
In fact, the Shri Rudram, one of the most sacred prayers for Hindus and Shaivites in particular, describe Vishnu as an aspect of Shiva in the fifth anuvaka. Likewise, two of the names in Vishnu sahasranama that refer to Shiva are "Shiva" (names #27 and #600 in Adi Sankara's commentary) itself, "Shambhu" (name #38), "Eesanah" (name #64), and "Rudra" (name #114). Most notably, Adi Shankara, according to one interpretation, has not interpreted these to mean that the deity Shiva and the deity Vishnu are the same . Specifically, he asserts that the deity Vishnu is Brahman itself (not just an aspect of Brahmam) . Again, he notes that "only Hari (Vishnu) is eulogized by names such as Shiva" , a position consistent with interpretations of the Srivaishnavite commentator Parasara Bhattar. However, this interpretation has been challenged by Swami Tapasyananda's translation of Sankara's commentary on the Vishnu sahasranama.  He translates the 27th name, Shiva to mean:" One who is not affected by the three Gunas of Prakrti, Sattva, Rajas,and Tamas; The Kaivalaya Upanishad says: He is both Brahma and Shiva. In the light of this statement of non-difference between Shiva and Vishnu, it is Vishnu Himself that is exalted by the praise and worship of Shiva."  Based on this commonly held Advaitan point of view which has been adopted by Smartas, Vishnu and Shiva are viewed as the one and the same God, being different aspects of preservation and destruction respectively. As many Sanskrit words have multiple meanings it is possible that both Vishnu and Shiva share names in this instance. For example, the name Shiva itself means "auspicious" which could also apply to Vishnu. The deity of Harihara in particular is worshipped by both Vaishnavas and Shaivites as a combination of both personalities.
However, the Vaishnava commentator, Parasara Bhattar, a follower of Ramanujacharya has interpreted the names "Shiva" and "Rudra" in Vishnu sahasranama to mean qualities or attributes of Vishnu, and not to indicate that Vishnu and Shiva are one and the same God. Vaishnavas worship Vishnu in his four-armed form, carrying conch, disc, flower and mace in his hands, believing that to be the Supreme form. However, Smarthas do not subscribe to this aspect or personification of God, as Smarthas say that God is pure and thus devoid of form. Additionally, they believe that God is not limited by time nor limited by shape and color. Vaishnava traditions are of the opinion that Vishnu is both unlimited and yet still capable of having specific forms, as to give arguments to the contrary (to say that God is incapable of having a form) is to limit the unlimitable and all-powerful Supreme
In other Vaishnava traditions too, the Vishnu Sahasranama is considered an important text. Within Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Vallabha sampradaya, Nimbarka sampradaya and among Ramanandis, the chanting of the names of Krishna and Rama to be superior to that of Vishnu. Based on another verse in the Padma Purana which says that the benefit of chanting the one thousand names of Vishnu can be derived from chanting one name of Rama, and a verse in the Brahma Vaivarta Purana equating the benefit of chanting three names of Rama with one name of Krishna. However, it is important to realize that those verses in those puranas are not to be interpreted literally, as many believe that there is no difference between Vishnu and Krishna. This theological difference can be expressed as follows: Many Vaishnava groups recognize Krishna as an avatar of Vishnu, while others, instead, consider Him to be svayam bhagavan, or the original form of the Lord. Yet these verses can be interpreted as it is more important to have pure bhakti or devotion than merely repeating the many names of God without emotion. Indeed, Shri Krishna Himself said, "Arjuna, One may be desirous of praising by reciting the thousand names. But, on my part, I feel praised by one shloka. There is no doubt about it.” 
Within Vaisnavism some groups, such as Sri sampradaya, adhere to and follow the Rig Veda: V.I.15b.3, which states "O ye who wish to gain realization of the supreme truth, utter the name of Vishnu at least once in the steadfast faith that it will lead you to such realization." 
Interpretations alluding to the power of God in controlling karma
Many names in the Vishnu Sahasranama, the thousand names of Vishnu allude to the power of God in controlling karma. For example, the 135th name of Vishnu, Dharmadhyaksha, in Sankara's interpretation means, "One who directly sees the merits (Dharma) and demerits (Adharma), of beings by bestowing their due rewards on them." 
Other names of Vishnu alluding to this nature of God are Bhavanah, the 32nd name, Vidhata, the 44th name, Apramattah, the 325th name, and Sthanadah, the 387th name.  Bhavanah, according to Sankara's interpretation, means "One who generates the fruits of Karmas of all Jivas for them to enjoy."  The Brahma Sutra (3.2.28) "Phalmatah upapatteh" speaks of the Lord's function as the bestower of the fruits of all actions of the jivas. 
In the classic text, the Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra, Sage Parashara frequently recommends the recitation of the Vishnu Sahasranama as the best remedial measure for planetary afflictions. For example, see the following verse:
"The most effective and beneficial remedial measure for the prolongation of longevity and to obtain relief from other evil effects is recitation of Vishnu Sahasranam." ch 56 verse 30
Sage Parashara mentions this practice more than ten times in his text. Here's another verse:
"The remedial measure to obtain relief from the above evil effects, is recitation of Vishnu Sahasranama." ch 59 verse 77
Sections from Swami Tapasyananda's translation of the concluding verses of Vishnu sahasranama, state the following: "Nothing evil or inauspicious will befall a man here or hereafter who daily hears or repeats these names." That comment is noteworthy. King Nahusha, a once righteous king, ancestor of Yudhisthira, according to excerpt from C. Rajagopalachari's translation of the Mahabharata, , become an Indra, king of devas, but was later expelled from Swarga or heaven due to a curse by the great sage Agastya for his eventual gain in pride and arrogance and become a python for thousands of years.
Thus, chanting of Vishnu sahasranama will help lead to success in this life and hereafter.
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada gives a Gaudiya Vaishnava interpretation of verse 7.24 from the Bhagavad Gita, wherein he quotes the avatar, Krishna, as saying: "Unintelligent men, who do not know Me perfectly, think that I, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna, was impersonal before and have now assumed this personality. Due to their small knowledge, they do not know My higher nature, which is imperishable and supreme." Prabhupada has also stated that “I beg to point out that the Hindu religion is perfectly based on the personal conception of God, or Vishnu."
In Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of the Bhagavad Gita, he gives an opposite interpretation of the same verse, 7:24, "men of poor understanding think of Me, the unmanifest, as having manifestation, not knowing My supreme state, immutable and unsurpassed." Swami Chidbhavananda, holding Advaita views, gives more importance to God being formless while Srila Prabhupada, following Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's philosophy, gives importance to God with form. Ramakrishna analogized God with form and without form as being like ice and liquid water, as being both the same but in different states.
Pronunciation and Merits of Recitation
In the linked preface prayer (But not in the succeeding Sahasranama) non-formal pronunciation is used, since correct representation of pronunciation requires extensive use of diacritic marks. An example: Sanskrit/Hindi has three letters representing S, which are represented here as 's', 'sh', the third 'sh', as used in the Sanskrit word shatkona (= "hexagon"), Vishnu, Krishna and others is actually a retroflex phoneme and has no equivalent in English. Retroflex phonemes are those where the tongue is slightly coiled back in the palate and released along with the phoneme's sound. Also, the 'n' in Vishnu and Krishna is retroflex. In formal transliteration of Sanskrit alphabet to English, this set-up is denoted by placing dots above or below the letter 's'. More details can be found at Sanskrit language#Consonants.
Although devotion is considered the most important thing while reciting any prayer or mantra (Unless used for tantric purposes, where the sound's vibration plays the major role), use of the correct pronunciation is believed by devotees to enhance the satisfaction derived from the recital, in the case of both vocal and mental chants.
Believers in the recitation of the Sahasranama claim that it brings unwavering calm of mind, complete freedom from stress and brings eternal knowledge. A translation of the concluding verses (Phalasruti) of Vishnu sahasranama, state the following: "Nothing evil or inauspicious will befall a man here or hereafter who daily hears or repeats these names.. Whichever devoted man, getting up early in the morning and purifying himself, repeats this hymn devoted to Vasudeva, with a mind that is concentrated on Him, that man attains to great fame, leadership among his peers, wealth that is secure and the supreme good unsurpassed by anything. He will be free from all fears and be endowed with great courage and energy and he will be free from diseases. Beauty of form, strength of body and mind, and virtuous character will be natural to him.... One who reads this hymn every day with devotion and attention attains to peace of mind, patience, prosperity, mental stability, memory and reputation.... Whoever desires advancement and happiness should repeat this devotional hymn on Vishnu composed by Vyasa....Never will defeat attend on a man who adores the Lotus-Eyed One (Kamala Nayana), who is the Master of all the worlds, who is birthless, and out of whom the worlds have originated and into whom they dissolve."
In orthodox Hindu tradition, a devotee should daily chant the Upanishads, Gita, Rudram, Purusha Sukta and Vishnu sahasranama. If one cannot do all this on any day, it is believed that chanting Visnu sahasranama alone is sufficient. Vishnu sahasranama can be chanted at any time, irrespective of gender.
Varahi Tantra says that in the age of Kali yuga, most stotras are cursed by Parashurama and hence are ineffective. While listing the ones which are free from this curse and hence suitable during Kali Yuga, it is said, "Gita of the Bhishma Parva, Vishnu Sahasranama of Mahabharata and Chandika Saptashati' are free from all Doshas and grant fruits immediately in Kali Yuga." 
It is customary to commence the Vishnu sahasranama with a devotional prayer to Vishnu.
Recitation and aggregation
An alternative approach is to say the starting prayer, and then say the names collected in stanzas (As they were originally said by Bhishma.) Such stanzas are called Shlokas in Sanskrit. The Sahasranama (apart from the initial and concluding prayers) has a total of 108 shlokas.
For example, the first shloka is:
- Om Vishvam Vishnurvashatkaaro Bhootbhavyabhavatprabhuh
- Bhootkrid Bhootbhridbhaavo Bhootaatma Bhootbhavanah
Notice the aggregation of several words and the omission of their intervening spaces. For example, the last word of the first line of this Shloka:
- OM Bhoota Bhavya Bhavat Prabhave Namaha
of the expanded version.
This joining-together of words is a common feature of Sanskrit and is called Samasa. It makes the shlokas compact and easier to remember, which was necessary in ancient India since the religious scriptures were seldom written down and were memorised by Brahmins, or the priest class. This collection of memorised knowledge was passed by word-of-mouth from Guru to disciple[which is called in Hindi, SHRUTI GYANA]
The Thousand names
- 1. Vishwam ( विश्वं )
- 2. Vishnu ( विष्णुः )
- 3. Vashatkara ( वषट्कारः )
- 4. Bhuta Bhavya Bhavatprabhu ( भूतभव्य भवत्प्रभुः )
- 5. Bhutakrut ( भूतक्रुत )
- 6. Bhutabhrut ( भूतभ्रुत )
- 7. Bhava ( भावः )
- 8. Bhutatma ( भूतात्मा )
- 9. Bhutabhavanah ( भूतभावनः )
- 10.Putatma ( पूतात्मा )
- 11.Paramatma (परमात्मा )
- 12.Muktanam Parama Gatih ( मुक्तानां परम गतिः )
Some other names
The names are generally derived from the anantakalyanagunas (meaning: infinite auspicious attributes). Some names are:
- Achintya (Incomprehensible, beyond understanding)
- Acyutah (infallible)
- Ananta (endless, eternal, infinite)
- Damodara (having a rope (dama) around his belly (udara): a name of Krishna)
- Govinda (protector of the cows & brahmins; master of the senses: a name of Krishna)
- Hari (one who takes away)
- Hayagriva (giver of knowledge)
- Jagannatha (Owner/Ruler of the world/universe)
- Janardana (One who is worshiped by people for Wealth)
- Kesava (slayer of Keshi, having long or much or handsome hair, from Atharvaveda viii , 6 , 23)
- Krishna (born during the third epoch or yuga, his deeds range from cow protection (go rakshya) to absolving the earth of load of sins)
- Madhava (relating to the season of spring)
- Madhusudana (he who destroyed the demon called Madhu)
- Narayana (said to mean "he who is the abode of nār (= ether)", i.e., the whole universe's shelter. Also means "The supreme Man who is the foundation of all men". Another meaning is "He who lies (i.e., rests) in the water".
- Padmanabha (lotus-naveled one, from whose navel sprang the lotus which contained Brahma, who created the universe)
- Perumal This name is not in the Vishnu sahasranama; It is a name in Tamil
- Purushottama - The Supreme Eternal Being
- Rama (born during the second epoch or Yuga, his deeds primarily established the ideal living principles for a man)
- Hrishikesh (Lord of the senses or Lord within the heart; "hri" root meaning the heart)
- Rohit(another Name of Vishnu)
- Satyanarayana (a combination of satya and Narayana meaning 'protector of truth')
- Shikhandee: He who wears a peacock feather.
- Souryarayan (the one who destroys the evil/sins and who comforts us) described in Vishnu kautuvam.
- Sridhara (consort of Sri = Laxmi or Ultimate wealth)
- Siddhartha (one who attains perfection, birth name of Buddha avatar in the last epoch of Kali Yuga)
- Sriman (the pride of Shri or Lakshmi); Often Sriman is combined with the name, Narayana , to form a compound word, Sriman Narayana.
- Srinivasa (the abode of Shri) (also specifically referring to his form in the temple at Tirupati). Also the form of Vishnu at Tirupati is well-known as Venkateswara.
- Trivikrama (Conqueror of the three worlds, as in Vamana avatara).
- Vishal (Immense, The Unstoppable One).
- Vamana (dwarfish, small or short in stature, a dwarf brahmana)
- Vāsudeva ( "All-Pervading god", with the long vowel A; it also means "the son of Vasudeva", i.e Krishna)
- Shreesh (Husband of Goddess Lakshmi).
- Guruvayurappan Lord of Guruvayur(Temple made by Guru(Brihaspati) & Vayu deva)
- Jaganath is the south eastern name of Vishnu. the word juggernaut(the mightiest) is derived from this name
- Sohama means the most intelligent, it is strongest form of Vishnu with a thousand brains and hands
Tradition of recitation
From ancient times, until as recently as the 19th century, many Hindus in learned families daily recited the Sahasranama, or a similar set of prayer Shlokas of their chosen deity. (Such a collection of Shlokas which are used for recital purposes is generally called a Stotra (Both 't's have soft pronunciation.))
With increasing Westernization, the practice of the Sahasranama rituals are reducing in commonality, and have been criticized for becoming more mechanical and devoid of feeling. Though a very significant number of Hindu households still have daily prayer/worship sessions (Called a Puja. In ancient Vedic times, it was also called a Sandhya).
Inclusion of other deities
One notable thing about the Sahasranama is that it includes names of other Hindu deities such as Shiva, Brahma, etc. within it. According to followers of Vaishnava theology, this is an example of Vishnu considered in His universal aspect, as an aggregation, and basis of all other deities which emanate from Him. In this cosmic aspect, Vishnu is also called Mahavishnu (Great Vishnu). By an Advaitan interpretation, this notation is not surprising as followers of Advaita philosophy, in particular, Smartas believe that Vishnu and Shiva are the same and are hence different aspects of the one Supreme Being.
Quotes about Vishnu Sahasranama
- Sri N. Krishnamachari, a Vaishnavite scholar, at Steven Knapp's web site, quoting Vaishnavite scholars, states that there are six reasons for the greatness of Vishnu sahasranama:
- "1. Vishnu sahasranama is the essence of the Mahabharata;
- 2. Great sages such as Narada, the Alvars, and composers including Saint Tyagaraja have made repeated references to the "Thousand Names of Vishnu" in their devotional works;
- 3. The person who strung together the thousand names as part of the Mahabharata and preserved it for the world was none other than Sage Veda Vyasa, the foremost knower of the Vedas, who is considered an avatar of Vishnu;
- 4. Bhishma considered chanting of the Vishnu sahasranama the best and easiest of all dharmas, or the means to attain relief from all bondage;
- 5. It is widely accepted that the chanting of this Stotram gives relief from all sorrows and leads to happiness and peace of mind;
- 6. Vishnu sahasranama is in conformity with the teachings of the Gita." 
- Adi Sankaracharya, the Advaita enlightened master, in verse 27 of his hymn, Bhaja Govindam,, said that the Gita and Vishnu sahasranama should be chanted and the form of the Lord of Lakshmi, Vishnu should always be meditated on. He also said that the Sahasranama bestowed all noble virtues on those who chanted it. 
- Parasara Bhattar , a follower of Ramanujacharya had said that Vishnu sahasranama absolves people of all sins and has no equal
- Madhvacharya, the Dvaita philosopher, said that the Sahasranama was the essence of the Mahabharata which in turn was the essence of the Shastras and that each word of the Sahasranama had 100 meanings.
- Swaminarayan, founder of the Hindu Swaminarayan faith, said in verse 118 of the scripture, Shikshapatri, that one should "either recite or have the 10th canto,(of Bhagavata Purana ) and also other holy scriptures like the Vishnu Sahasranama recited at a holy place according to one's capacity. The recital is such that it gives fruits according to whatever is desired." 
- Swaminarayan also said in verses 93-96, "I have the highest esteem for these eight holy scriptures: the four Vedas, the Vyas-Sutra,(i.e., Brahma Sutras, the Shreemad Bhagavata Purana, the Shree Vishnu Sahasranama in the Mahabharata, and the Yaagnavalkya Smruti which is at the center of the Dharma Scriptures; and all My disciples who wish to prosper should listen to these 8 holy scriptures, and brahmins under My shelter should learn and teach these holy scriptures and read them to others."
- Swami Sivananda, in his 20 important spiritual instructions, stated that the Vishnu sahasranama, along with other religious texts, should be studied systematically.
- Quote by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada; on February 15, 1970 to J.F.Staal; Professor of Philosophy and of South Asian Languages. Second paragraph, states:
”In this way we find all the scriptures aiming at the Supreme Person. In the Rig Veda (1.22.20) the mantra is om tad vishnoh paramam padam sada pashyanti surayah ("The demigods are always looking to that supreme abode of Vishnu"). The whole Vedic process, therefore, is to understand Lord Vishnu, and any scripture is directly or indirectly chanting the glories of the Supreme Lord, Vishnu.”
- sri rama rama rameti rame rame manorame; sahasra nama tat tulyam rama nama varanane
- "O Varanana (lovely-faced woman), I chant the holy name of Rama, Rama, Rama and thus constantly enjoy this beautiful sound. This holy name of Ramachandra is equal to one thousand holy names of Lord Vishnu." (Brhad-visnu-sahasranama-stotra, Uttara-khanda, Padma Purana 72.335)
- Brahmānda Purana said:
- sahasra-namnam punyanam, trir-avrttya tu yat phalam; ekavrttya tu krsnasya, namaikam tat prayacchati
- "The pious results (punya) achieved by chanting the thousand holy names of Vishnu (Vishnu sahasra nama stotram) three times can be attained by only one utterance of the holy name of Krishna."
- Shri Krishna Himself said, "Arjuna, One may be desirous of praising by reciting the thousand names. But, on my part, I feel praised by one shloka. There is no doubt about it.”
- From the oldest scriptural text in Hinduism, the Rig Veda; V.I.15b.3, it states:
"O ye who wish to gain realization of the Supreme Truth, utter the name of "Vishnu" at least once in the steadfast faith that it will lead you to such realization."
Benefits of chanting Vishnu Sahasranama
The following lines are from the Mahabharata and are quoted portions from the text. Believers believe that regular chanting of the hymn can accrue benefits.
On avoiding evil, succeeding in battle, and gaining affluence, pleasure, happiness, and offspring:
- Bhisma said, "Even thus have I recited to thee, without any exception, the thousand excellent names of the high-souled Kesava whose glory should always be sung. That man who hears the names every day or who recites them every day, never meets with any evil either here or hereafter. If a Brahmana does this he succeeds in mastering the Vedanta; if a Kshatriya does it, he becomes always successful in battle. A Vaisya, by doing it, becomes possessed of affluence, while a Sudra earns great happiness."
- If one becomes desirous of earning the merit of righteousness, one succeeds in earning it (by hearing or reciting these names). If it is wealth that one desires, one succeeds in earning wealth (by acting in this way). So also the man who wishes for enjoyments of the senses succeeds in enjoying all kinds of pleasures, and the man desirous of offspring acquires offspring (by pursuing this course of conduct)."
On acquiring fame, prosperity, prowess, energy, strength, beauty, removing fear, avoiding calamity, and being cured of disease:
- "That man who with devotion and perseverance and heart wholly turned towards him, recites these thousand names of Vasudeva every day, after having purified himself, succeeds in acquiring great fame, a position of eminence among his kinsmen, enduring prosperity, and lastly, that which is of the highest benefit to him (viz., emancipation Moksha itself). Such a man never meets with fear at any time, and acquires great prowess and energy. Disease never afflicts him; splendour of complexion, strength, beauty, and accomplishments become his. The sick become hale, the afflicted become freed from their afflictions; the frightened become freed from fear, and he that is plunged in calamity becomes freed from calamity."
- The man who hymns the praises of that foremost of Beings by reciting His thousand names with devotion succeeds in quickly crossing all difficulties. That mortal who takes refuge in Vasudeva and who becomes devoted to Him, becomes freed of all sins and attains to eternal Brahman. They who are devoted to Vasudeva have never to encounter any evil. They become freed from the fear of birth, death, decrepitude, and disease."
On acquiring righteousness and intelligence, and avoiding the sins of evil:
- "That man who with devotion and faith recites this hymn (consisting of the thousand names of Vasudeva) succeeds in acquiring felicity of soul, forgiveness of disposition, Prosperity, intelligence, memory, and fame. Neither wrath, nor jealousy, nor cupidity, nor evil understanding ever appears in those men of righteousness who are devoted to that foremost of beings. The firmament with the sun, moon and stars, the welkin, the points of the compass, the earth and the ocean, are all held and supported by the prowess of the high-souled Vasudeva. The whole mobile and immobile universe with the deities, Asuras, and Gandharvas, Yakshas, Uragas and Rakshasas, is under the sway of Krishna."
On the origins of the soul, the source of righteous behavior, and the basis of all knowledge and existence:
- "The senses, mind, understanding, life, energy, strength and memory, it has been said, have Vasudeva for their soul. Indeed, this body that is called Kshetra, and the intelligent soul within, that is called the knower of Kshetra, also have Vasudeva for their soul. Conduct (consisting of practices) is said to be the foremost of all topics treated of in the scriptures. Righteousness has conduct for its basis. The unfading Vasudeva is said to be the Lord of righteousness. The Rishis, the Pitris, the deities, the great (primal) elements, the metals, indeed, the entire mobile and immobile universe, has sprung from Narayana. Yoga, the Sankhya Philosophy, knowledge, all mechanical arts, the Vedas, the diverse scriptures, and all learning, have sprung from Janardana. Vishnu is the one great element or substance which has spread itself out into multifarious forms. Covering the three worlds, He the soul of all things, enjoys them all."
- His glory knows no diminution, and He it is that is the Enjoyer of the universe (as its Supreme Lord). This hymn in praise of the illustrious Vishnu composed by Vyasa, should be recited by that person who wishes to acquire happiness and that which is the highest benefit (viz., emancipation). Those persons that worship and adore the Lord of the universe, that deity who is inborn and possessed of blazing effulgence, who is the origin or cause of the universe, who knows no deterioration, and who is endued with eyes that are as large and beautiful as the petals of the lotus, have never to meet with any discomfiture."
Bhisma's quote cited from Kisari Mohan Ganguli's translation of Vishnu Sahasranama (public domain)
- ↑ For IAST version of Sanskrit for these verses, see: Sankaranarayan 1996, pp. 2-5.
- ↑ For Sanskrit text and translation, see: Tapasyananda, pp. 3-4.
- ↑ Tapasyananda, pg. iv.
- ↑ Transcription of Sankara's commentary to Vishnusahasranamastotra, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur. The names "Shiva", "Shambhu", "Eesanah", and "Rudra" are to be found in slokas 17, 18, 21, and 26 respectively
- ↑ Commentary to sloka 13, "yatra puMliGgashabdaprayOgaH, tatra viSNurvishESyaH; yatra strIliMga shabdaH, tatra dEvatA prayOgaH; yatra napuMsaliGga prayOgaH, tatra brahmEti vishEshyatE (where a word of masculine gender is used, the noun is Vishnu, in feminine gender the noun is Devata, and in neuter gender the noun is Brahma)", Transcription of Sankara's commentary to Vishnusahasranamastotra
- ↑ Commentary to sloka 17 in Transcription of Sankara's commentary to Vishnusahasranamastotra, "sivAdi nAmabhiH hariH eva stUyate"
- ↑ Tapasyananda, pg. 47.
- ↑ Tapasyananda, pg. 47.
- ↑ Bhag-P 4.4.14 "Siva means mangala, or auspicious"
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Srivaishnavism
- ↑ Foreword of P. Sankaranarayan's translation of Vishnu sahasranama, Bhavan's Book University
- ↑ Tapasyananda, Swami. Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, pg. 62.
- ↑ Tapasyananda, Swami. Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, pgs. 48, 49, 87, and 96.
- ↑ Tapasyananda, Swami. Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, pg. 48.
- ↑ Tapasyananda, Swami. Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, pg. 48.
- ↑ http://home.att.net/~gitaprasad/mahabharata.htm], story #53
- ↑ B-Gita 7.24 Chapter 7: Knowledge of the Absolute
- ↑  First sentence of letter
- ↑ Words of Sri Ramakrishna
- ↑ http://www.kamakotimandali.com/srividya/saptashati.html
- ↑ http://www.stephen-knapp.com/thousand_names_of_the_supreme.htm
- ↑ Bhaja Govindam: kamakoti.org
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 23.2 The Hindu: Entertainment Bangalore / Book Review: On the Buddha in verse
- ↑ Shree Swaminarayan Temple Cardiff - Scriptures - Shikshapatri
- ↑ 20 Important Spiritual Instructions
- ↑ The Krishna Consciousness Movement is the Genuine Vedic Way
- Sankaranarayan, P. (1996), Śrī Viṣṇu Sahasranāma Stotram, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan . With an English Translation of Sri Sankara Bhagavatpada's Commentary
- Tapasyananda, Swami, Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, Chennai: Sri Ramakrishna Math . Sanskrit and English, with an English translation of Sri Sankara Bhagavatpada's commentary.
- Sanskrit & Hindi: Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh 273005, India
- Sanskrit & English: The Thousand Names of Vishnu and the Satyanarayana Vrat, translated by Swami Satyananda Saraswati, Devi Mandir, Napa.
- Sanskrit & Gujarati: Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram; translated by Shri Yogeshwarji, India @ www.swargarohan.org
- Sanskrit & English: Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram; translated by Swami Vimalananda, Sri Ramakrishna Tapovanam, Tiruchirapalli, India, 1985
- Full text in Sanskrit in the Devanagari alphabet (श्रीविष्णुसहस्रनामस्तोत्रम्) (Wikisource)
- A 5-volumes english commentary at Ahobilavalli site
- Vishnu sahasranama
- Hindi Translation of Introductory and Final Conversations between Sri Bheesham Pitamah and Yudhishthira, along with Sanskrit Text of The 1000 Names of Bhagwaan Vishnu
- Vishnu sahasranama names and meanings.
- Vishnu sahasranama excerpt from the Mahabharata by Kisari Mohan Ganguly (published between 1883 and 1896)
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- Vishnu sahasranama and other books at VedaGnana