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Vicarius Filii Dei (Latin: Vicar or Representative of the Son of God) is a phrase used in the forged medieval Donation of Constantine to refer to Saint Peter. It also features in the argument put forth by some Protestant groups who identify the phrase with the "number of the beast" (666) from the book of Revelation and subsequently the Pope with Antichrist, based on the counting method (gematria) of Roman numerals.
Origins of the controversy
The earliest extant record of a Protestant writer on this subject is that of Professor Andreas Helwig in 1612. In his work Antichristus Romanus he took fifteen titles in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin and computed their numerical equivalents in those languages, arriving at the number 666 mentioned in the Book of Revelation. Out of all these titles, he preferred to single out Vicarius Filii Dei, used in the Donation of Constantine, for the reason that it met "all the conditions which [Cardinal] Bellarmine had thus far demanded." Besides being in Latin, the title was "not offensive or vile," but rather was "honorable to this very one." (The sum works as follows: VICARIVS FILII DEI = 5+1+100+1+5+1+50+1+1+500+1 = 666, where 'U' was historically written as 'V').
Helwig suggested that the supposed title was an expansion of the historical title Vicarius Christi, rather than an official title used by the Popes themselves. Additionally, he said nothing about the title appearing on tiaras or mitres. Helwig's interpretation did not become a common one until about the time of the French Revolution. Some later Protestant figures directly claimed that Vicarius Filii Dei was an official title of the Pope, some claimed that this title appeared on the papal tiara and/or a mitre.
Seventh-day Adventist claims
In 1866, Uriah Smith was the first to propose the interpretation to the Seventh-day Adventist Church. See Review and Herald 28:196, November 20, 1866. In The United States in the Light of Prophecy he wrote
- The pope wears upon his pontifical crown in jeweled letters, this title: "Vicarius Filii Dei," "Viceregent of the Son of God;" the numerical value of which title is just six hundred and sixty-six The most plausible supposition we have ever seen on this point is that here we find the number in question. It is the number of the beast, the papacy; it is the number of his name, for he adopts it as his distinctive title; it is the number of a man, for he who bears it is the "man of sin."
Ellen G. White did not directly comment on the number "666" in her published writings; however she did assert the number is identified with the first beast of Revelation 13, which she believed represents the papacy.
Prominent Adventist scholar J. N. Andrews also adopted this view. Uriah Smith maintained his interpretation in the various editions of Thoughts on Daniel and the Revelation, which was highly influential in the church. However other Adventists at the time disagreed. Ellen G. White did not comment on the discussion in any of her published writings. No proof for the assertion has been discovered, and while most Adventist leaders today reject the claim (see below), there remain some individuals or groups who believe the claims; but the position is no longer denominationally held or supported.
To promote the claim in the mid 20th century, one Adventist book included a doctored photograph of a papal tiara with the words "Vicarius Filii Dei" added by an artist. The book was a republished edition of Uriah Smith's Daniel and Revelation, by the Southern Publishing Association (now merged with Review and Herald). The original photograph was taken by English evangelist C. T. Everson at the Vatican Museums, on assignment from W. W. Prescott. However Prescott, the leading opponent of the interpretation in his day, was shocked when he saw the modified photograph in the book. The General Conference gave orders to cease the book's printing until the photograph be removed.
The issue was little known at the time, and forgotten until 1935 when it came to the fore. When F. D. Nichol asserted in an article that the phrase was the pope's official title, he was challenged by Catholic newspaper Our Sunday Visitor.
According to Adventist historian Le Roy Froom,
- . . . in attempting to re-illustrate one of the standard books on the prophecies, took this genuine photograph of a plain tiara and lettered upon it the three words Vicarius, Filii, and Dei-one on each of the three crowns-on the premise that such was the name the Pope bore, and if were not actually on the tiara, it might well be by way of illustration. One of our leading publishing houses, and the General Conference, to whom the altered photograph was submitted, emphatically rejected it as misleading and deceptive, and refused to allow its use. Regrettably, some of our evangelists who do not have all the facts, and to whom the appeal of the moment has sometimes outweighed the ethics of the case, and who perhaps have not thought through the fraudulent character of such plausible but specious evidence, have occasionally continued to use this or similar fabrication.
The first version of the Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary supported the claim, although this was later changed. The 1957 edition refers to an earlier issue of Our Sunday Visitor which asserted the tiara bears no inscription at all. The Commentary states, "Whether the inscription Vicarius Filii Dei appears on the tiara or the mitre is really beside the point. The title is admittedly applied to the pope, and that is sufficient for the purposes of prophecy." See also the Adventist Encyclopedia. However later versions differ on this point, as do other recent mainstream sources (see below).
The Catholic Encyclopedia states that "many of the recent critical students of the document, (Donation of Constantine), locate its composition at Rome and attribute the forgery to an ecclesiastic, their chief argument being an intrinsic one: this false document was composed in favour of the popes and of the Roman Church, therefore Rome itself must have had the chief interest in a forgery executed for a purpose so clearly expressed".
During the Middle Ages, the Donation of Constantine was widely accepted as genuine for about 800 years and was used by medieval Popes to bolster territorial and secular claims to power. The document was acknowledged by the church as fraudulent about the time Andreas Helwig published Antichristus Romanus (1612) which identifies Vicarius Dei Filli with the number of the beast.
The statements are however rare and regarded by scholars as based on factual errors. Russell's claim, for example, that the term was used in the papal coronation is demonstrably false. The actual wording at the moment never contained the words Vicarius Filii Dei. The Cardinal deacon who crowned the Pope actually said:
- Accipe thiaram tribus coronis ornatam, et scias te esse Patrem Principum et Regum, Rectorem Orbis, in terra Vicarium Salvatoris Nostri Jesu Christi, cui est honor et gloria in sæcula sæculorum.
- (Receive the tiara adorned with three crowns and know that thou art father of princes and kings, director of the World, vicar on earth of Our Savior Jesus Christ, to whom is honor and glory forever and ever.)
Though there are thousands of images dating back a millennium of papal tiaras (busts, paintings, drawings, photographs, design plans, etc) none shows any tiara with any writing spelling out words in diamonds, much less Vicarius Filii Dei. Only handful possessed any writing at all, and in those cases it was different words spelt out on the individual tiaras, not on the body of the Papal Tiara, which is the claim regularly made by proposers of the claim.
The Papal Tiara claim
Promoters of the claim that Popes hold the title Vicarius Filii Dei in past alleged that the proof could be found on the Papal Tiara, the papal crown, on which they claimed the words could clearly be seen spelt out in jewels. Some Protestant groups in the past claimed that it is a title possessed by the Pope. The claim was particularly strongly made by the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Central to the claim that Vicarius Filii Dei is a papal title is the statement that when numerised in a certain way (see below), the words Vicarius Filii Dei produce the total of 666, the number described as the 'number of the beast' (i.e., the Antichrist in the Book of Revelation). This was used, among other things, to identify the Pope is the Antichrist. The conviction that the Pope is the Antichrist was once a common belief among Protestants. Most mainstream Protestant denominations have since rejected this teaching, but it is still part of the confession of faith of some Protestant churches, such as those within Confessional Lutheranism.
Many famous names, film titles and even political offices when numerised total 666. Even the name of the prophetess of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, Ellen Gould White, when numerised amounts to 666, though it has been pointed out that it may be artificial to use Roman numerals on a non-Roman name. Such coincidences are seen as numerical quirks and are seen as carrying no theological, much less demonic, meaning. Among other items accused of being demonic because of their numerical value are some offices of the United Nations (when translated into other languages) and some Liberal politicians.
The Roman Catholic Church has consistently denied the existence of such a title for Popes and labeled it an "anti-Catholic myth". Critics of the claim argue that whether or not the numerised total of the letters in Vicarius Filii Dei produce the total '666' is irrelevant because the existence of such a title has never been independently verified.
Sources for the claims
Proponents of the claim usually base themselves on the following sources:
- In an 1832 book, The Reformation: A True Tale of the Sixteenth Century, by Anne Tuttle Jones Bullard, a Miss Emmons reported that a gentleman had seen the Pope wearing a mitre with "VICARIUS FILII DEI" upon it in "full, blazing letters". Though this book refers to a mitre, the reference is often given as evidence for such a writing on a tiara.
- Pope Gregory XVI had supposedly worn a papal tiara with these words clearly visible on it at a Pontifical High Mass during the Easter rite in 1845, according to Presbyterian minister, and former Catholic, Balthazer Hoffmann. Another former Catholic, M. De Latti, claimed to have seen the same tiara.
- The rumoured existence of a photograph of a papal funeral at the start of the twentieth century (which probably means the funeral of Pope Leo XIII in 1903 but could possibly be Pope Pius X's in 1914) showing the words on a papal tiara.
- A belief that the tiara (with the words mentioned) is always used to crown Popes, but specifically was used in 1939 to crown Eugenio Pacelli as Pope Pius XII.
- Various Catholic articles have made mention to such a title
Multiple tiaras, not one
While the claims speak of the papal tiara, in reality there is not one tiara but many. All but one of the ancient papal tiaras were destroyed by invading French troops in 1798. The sole surviving pre-19th century tiara (image 1) has no writing. Starting in 1800, new tiaras were periodically created. A number of 19th century Popes, notably Popes Gregory XVI, Pius IX and Leo XIII received a number of tiaras during their reign, from among other sources their previous cardinalate sees, religious orders, the Palatine Guard, the women of the Belgian Court and heads of state such as the Catholic Queen Isabella of Spain and the Protestant Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany. Gregory XVI received three tiaras, Pius IX six and Leo XIII four. Many were either never worn or worn rarely. In the twentieth century a number of tiaras were given to various Popes up to and including Pope Paul VI in 1963. Though the number of tiaras grew, only a small number were normally worn, principally the Palatine Tiara given to Pius IX in 1877, which was used by among others Popes Pius XII and John XXIII for their coronations. Pope Pius XI's tiara was also worn by Pope John, while his own tiara, given by the people of Venice in 1959, was worn also. The decision on which tiara to wear was usually decided by issues such as papal headsize, age of the tiara (older ones tended to be treated as museum pieces), sturdiness of construction (wear and tear can lead to damage and constant repair), comfort of individual Popes and papal age (older Popes due to their age and infirmity wore lighter tiaras towards the end of their reigns). The claim by proponents of the Vicarius Filii Dei story frequently stated that there was just one tiara and that it was always used in coronations. That is demonstrably false.
No evidence of writing on tiaras existing in 1832
In 1832 when it was claimed Gregory XVI was seen wearing a tiara with Vicarius Filii Dei on it, only four tiaras existed; one from the eighteenth century (image 1), an 1800 papier-mâché tiara manufactured during the papal exile that resulted from the occupation of Rome by French troops (image 2) the one given by Emperor Napoleon I to Pope Pius VII in 1804 and the 1820 tiara of Pope Pius VIII. No Pope has ever worn the 1804 tiara. It was deliberately designed on Napoleon's orders to be too small to fit on a head and far too heavy to wear. Popes also refused to wear it on principle because it was made up from parts of older tiaras broken up and stolen from the Vatican in 1798. So Gregory XVI could only have been wearing one of three tiaras; the 18th century tiara or the tiaras from 1800 or 1820. All three exist, are on public display and none contain writing. Nor do the records of their manufacture and maintenance contain any evidence that it might at any stage have writing.
Tiaras never worn during Mass
Popes never wore papal tiaras while celebrating Mass, as tiaras were never seen as ecclesiastical vestments. They were worn only for specific ceremonies: state ceremonies where the Pope was acting as head of the Patrimony of St. Peter (Papal States), when being carried in state on the sedia gestatoria (portable throne) (see image below) or when giving the urbi et orbi . None of these ceremonies took place at the altar and so could not potentially be confused with a celebration of Mass at the High Altar in St. Peter's. The only time tiaras had any association with an altar was when, prior to the start of a Pontifical High Mass, the Pope might place the tiara to one side on the special platform on the altar to symbolise Christ's reign over the Church. (To wear a secular symbol such as a crown while celebrating Mass was seen as disrespectful to Christ and the Eucharist being celebrated.)
Hoffman's claims about 1845
By 1845 the Pope had received up to three new tiaras (image 3). That one tiara which it is definitely known had been given to him by Easter 1845, had been donated in 1834. It does not contain any writing. Nor, given the large size of the three crowns on it, is there space between them to place letters in jewels in a way they could be seen. Only two tiaras have any major writing at all. The Belgian tiara of 1871 (Image 4) does not feature Vicarius Filii Dei or words even remotely similar. It reads CHRISTI VICARIO – IN TERRA – REGUM, with the words spread out in the three crowns. Only one word of the alleged writing appears in the actual words on the 1871 tiara, and even there the word is in a different grammatical case. (For pictures of Popes wearing these tiaras, see Papal Tiara.) Writing also appears on the 1903 Gold Tiara given to Pope Leo XIII but which due to its considerable weight has rarely been worn. Leo, who was in his nineties when he received it, was too ill to wear a heavy tiara (he opted for lightweight tiaras given to Gregory XVI and Pius IX) while later Popes, having considered wearing it also declined to do so due to its weight. (Pius X's tiara and that of John XXIII were both made lightweight at the request of both Popes because they found the main tiaras too uncomfortable and heavy.)
The source of the claim about 1845 was B. Hoffman, a retired Presbyterian pastor, who claimed to be a former Catholic seminarian who had witnessed Pope Gregory XVI celebrating the "Easter service" wearing a tiara contained the words Vicarius Filii Dei written in three rows. Critics have noted inconsistencies in his claims:
- Though supposedly a former Catholic seminarian he used the wrong terminology to describe the Catholic Easter rite, using the Protestant term "Service" rather than the Catholic "Mass". (Using the correct terminology would have had the additional benefit for some Protestants of linking the tiara with the "blasphemous" words to a rite they also regarded as blasphemous. No explanation was given as to how a supposed ex-Catholic who supposedly once studied for the priesthood could fail to know the correct Catholic terminology for the ceremony he claimed to have witnessed.
- If he was a Catholic seminarian in the 1840s, Hoffman would have fallen afoul of the rigid court and ecclesiastical rituals of St. Peter's Basilica and found himself placed far from the Pope behind rows of ordained priests, bishops, archbishops, cardinals, ambassadors, courtiers, papal nobility and royalty. From such a vantage point he would have been hard-pressed to see a papal tiara closely enough to have read writing on it.
- Popes entered St. Peters "in state" carried aloft on the sede gestatoria. As a result the Pope would have been nearly ten feet in the air, with his tiara a further couple of feet higher. In the circumstances, to have been able to see, much less read, any words on a tiara, would have been extremely difficult, particularly for someone seated far away behind dignitaries.
- Hoffman described the words as having been spelt out clearly in jewels. Given that the delicate papier-mâché tiara was no longer worn (it had only been created as a temporary crown in 1800 because no tiara was available in exile), of the other potential tiaras available only the 1820 tiara had sufficient space between the three crowns to place lettering big enough to be read. No evidence exists that that tiara ever contained jewels outside the three crowns. Gregory's own 1834 tiara (image 3) had no room between the lower two crowns for any large lettering, nor was there any room at the top between the top crown and the monde to place readable lettering.
- Hoffman claimed that the word Dei was spelt in diamonds. Papal tiaras traditionally were made from silver (either solid silver or a tight mesh), laid on top of a felt inlay. No explanation was given as to how colourless diamonds could have been seen against a silver backdrop.
- Hoffman maintained that the lettering was on the silver, not attached to the crowns. Neither method of making tiaras would have made this possible. Meshed tiaras consisted of such a tight mesh that it was not possible to thread diamonds into the mesh without risking serious damage either to the tiara or the diamonds. (see an example of the meshing on the 1877 Palatine tiara). It would not be possible to attach diamonds, freestanding, to solid silver other than by a form of glue that would damage both the silver and the diamonds. Yet Hoffman's description claims that the three layers of jewels were somehow freestanding and not part of any of the three crowns.
No images from any sources of supposed Vicarius Filii Dei tiara
All of the tiaras in existence at the time of the creation of photography and hence in the timeframe for the mysterious 'photographic evidence' still exist and seem to have been accounted for, through receipts, repair records, valuations, etc. Given the bureaucracy associated with the use of state items such as crowns in all states and the value of each tiara (some have a modern value of millions of euros), each occasion where such items are worn are formally recorded in files (listing what crown was worn where and for how long, with its removal and return to the location where it was stored formally recorded), and their wearing witnessed by staff, diplomats, the media and the public if the ceremony if occurring in public in St. Peter's Basilica, St. Peter's Square, the Basilica of St. John Lateran or elsewhere. No records exist either in newspapers, media coverage, paintings, photographs, state records or in the Vatican suggesting the existence of any tiaras since 1800 other than those existing at present.
Though the evidence supposedly 'exists' in the form of a photograph, in nearly one hundred years no-one has been able to produce the photograph, or even give definitive evidence of its existence, such as stating where exactly it was published.
Technical limitations to photography in 1903 and 1914
Even if, contrary to all the known evidence a triple tiara with those words on it did exist and had been photographed (presumably placed on the coffin of the late Pope), in the absence of modern photographic technology or even telephoto lenses, with constant movement during the funeral ceremony and slow shutter speeds, the chances a camera being able from a distance (and given the restrictions imposed on photographers during a papal funeral, it would have to have been at a distance) to capture lettering on a tiara are remote in the extreme. (One of the websites 'claiming' such a photograph exists shows a photograph of a papal tiara placed on top of the glass-sided coffin of Pius X at his canonisation. Even in the 1950s when that picture was taken, the photographic technology was such that neither the Pope's remains nor the tiara could be clearly seen.)
Tiaras on public display
While 'promoters' of the story constantly demand that the tiaras be 'released so that they can be inspected', the tiaras are all on open display. Many of the most prominent papal tiaras are displayed as part of the Saint Peter and the Vatican: The Legacy of the Popes exhibition which travels the world; it visited the United States in 2005. Among the tiaras in this exhibition is the 1877 Palatine Tiara which some claim possesses Vicarius Filii Dei on it. The eighteenth century tiara is on public display in St. Peter's basilica itself on 29 June every year, where it is placed on the head of a statue of St. Peter. All the tiaras owned by the Vatican displayed either separately or in groups, not just within the Vatican but even in the United States, where the 'story' first originated. They have also been displayed around Europe. A minority of tiaras are no longer owned by the Vatican, but were given to churches or cathedrals, where they are on display. One of Pius IX's tiaras is on display in a church in Rome while Paul VI's tiara is on permanent display in Washington DC. Having been seen by large numbers, no-one, whether member of the public, critic or journalist has reported seeing the words Vicarius Filii Dei on the side of a papal tiara, as is the claim.
Tiara used in 1939 coronation only manufactured in 1877
The papal tiara used in the coronation of Pope Pius XII, which was explicitly stated in one website as being the tiara with the Vicarius Filii Dei words spelt out in jewels and diamonds was in fact manufactured in 1877 and so could not have been the tiara with those words supposedly seen in 1832 or 1845. As Pope Pius XII's coronation was filmed and shown in cinemas around the world, had his papal tiara contained such words, they would have been captured by the camera and seen by millions worldwide in cinemas. Even if the actual placing of the crown on Pius's head was not seen clearly from a distance by film cameras, photographers were allowed access, being able to photograph the coronation from within a few feet of the Supreme Pontiff. Pius as a result was pictured from different angles up close. If lettering existed on Pius's exterior crown, it could not but have been seen and pictured. Pius also posed for a series of photographs wearing the tiara. None show lettering on it. During his reign, Pius was photographed wearing the tiara from all angles. No writing was seen either on the front, back or sides of the tiara.
No evidence on mitres
In the absence of any hard evidence of Vicarius Filii Dei on any papal crown, it has been suggested that it exists on a papal mitre. The Vatican has an extensive collection of papal mitres covering three categories: the Golden Mitre (mitra auriphrygiata), the Precious Mitre (mitra pretiosa) and the Simplex Mitre (mitra simplex). Only one, the mitra pretiosa was jewelled and so had the potential for lettering. The other two were plain in colour: one gold, one plain white silk. Images of Popes wearing mitres have existed for centuries, whether as paintings, drawings or in more modern times, photographs.
No independent source unconnected with the religions promoting the Vicarius Filii Dei claims have reported seeing those words on a mitre. Whereas tiaras as secular symbols of papal power may occasionally have been worn where only small groups were present (e.g., meetings with members of the Diplomatic Corp) as well as large gatherings, mitres were unambiguously liturgical in nature and so were worn at religious ceremonies with groups or large congregations in attendance. No independently verified reports exist, however, of a Pope wearing a mitre with the words Vicarius Filii Dei on them.
Many of the Vatican's mitres, but most especially the mitra pretiosa, given their jewelled decoration, are displayed as part of the Saint Peter and the Vatican: The Legacy of the Popes exhibition, in particular the mitra pretiosa of Popes Leo XIII and Paul VI. Other papal mitres, like papal tiaras, are permanently displayed in the Vatican.
Some Adventists abandon tiara claim
Today some Seventh-day Adventist scholars reject the interpretation. The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary states, "...no proof for [Uriah Smith's] assertion that these words appear on the papal crown has been discovered". The Adult Sabbath School Lesson for April–June 2002, "Great Apocalyptic Prophecies" cast doubt on the early interpretation, instead advocating a symbolic interpretation of "intensified rebellion, six used three times, and total independence from God". It was principally authored by Ángel Rodríguez. Samuele Bacchiocchi an Adventist scholar rejects the tiara claim but has documented the pope using such a title.
We noted that contrary to some Catholic sources who deny the use of Vicarius Filii Dei as a papal title, we have found this title to have been used in official Catholic documents to support the ecclesiastical authority and temporal sovereignty of the pope. Thus the charge that Adventists fabricated the title to support their prophetic interpretation of 666, is unfair and untrue.
– ' Samuele Bacchiocchi, http://www.biblicalperspectives.com/endtimeissues/et_196.htm slide 116
However, some groups within the church still hold on to the belief that such a tiara with such a title existed.
The search was resurrected by a minority of individual members when a member of the Seventh-day Adventist Church reproduced the original Our Sunday Visitor article, the article itself being treated as evidence that efforts of the Roman Catholic Church to 'suppress' the truth had failed. (Because the magazine's claim was being used by anti-Catholic campaigners in the United States as proof that the Pope was the Antichrist, the magazine removed that particular issue from its archives, leading to further accusations of a Catholic conspiracy to suppress the 'truth'.) An article in the April 18, 1915 issue of 'Our Sunday Visitor' had the following question and answer "What are the letters on the Pope’s crown and what do they signify if anything? Answer: The letters on the Pope's crown are these, 'Vicarius Filii Dei,' which is a Latin for 'Vicar of the Son of God.'" Both statements made by the writer of the 1914 and 1915 articles later withdrew his comments. An issue published in 1941 also issued a rebuttal stating that the tiara has no inscription bearing Vicarius Fili Dei A rebuttal was also mentioned in 1922.
The Pope claims to be the vicar of the Son of God, while the Latin words for this designation are not inscribed, as anti-Catholics maintain, on the Pope's tiara.
– Our Sunday Visitor, 11, No. 14, July 23, 1922
Claim about Pope John Paul's book and the title debunked
Additional claims have been made that the words Vicarius Filii Dei supposedly exist in a book by Pope John Paul II. However every "quote" produced from the book has been shown to be a mistranslation of the original text. The phrase "who represents the Son of God" from John Paul's book Crossing the Threshold of Hope was described by some promoters of the claim as translating into Latin as "Vicarius filii Dei". Its actual translation is " Filium Dei Repraesentat" (the error was caused when the verb represents was mistranslated as the noun representative.)
- ↑ See Leroy Edwin Froom, Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers, vol. 2, pp. 605-608. Compare Ibid., p. 649; vol. 3, pp. 228, 242. These titles are available online: see the article on Froom
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, 223
- ↑ Uriah Smith, The United States in the Light of Prophecy. Battle Creek, Michigan: Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association (1884), 4th edition, p.224.
- ↑ The Great Controversy (book)The Great Controversy by Ellen White, Chapter 25 "God's Law Immutable", p445
- ↑ The Three Angels of Revelation XIV. 6-12, p.109. 1877 reprint. Cited from Adventist Bible Commentary
- ↑ Gilbert M. Valentine, The Shaping of Adventism: The Case of W. W. Prescott (Andrews University Press, 1992), p273–75
- ↑ "Dubious Pictures of the Tiara" by Le Roy Froom. Ministry 21:11 (November 1948), p35 (see also Adventist Archives version, in DjVu and PDF formats)
- ↑ Our Sunday Visitor August 3, 1941, p7; as referenced in the commentary
- ↑ Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary ed. Francis D. Nichol (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1957). Commentary on Revelation 13:18 in vol. 7, p823–24
- ↑ "Number of the Beast", p898–902 of the Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia, volume 10 of the Commentary Reference Series. (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1966); more recent versions have since been published
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Donation of Constantine, New Advent, Catholic Encyclopedia
- ↑ "Pope Fiction" by Patrick Madrid, Envoy magazine, March/April 1998.
- ↑ Gregory XVI received three tiaras during his reign. One was given in 1834. Another was given in 1845, while a third lightweight one was given at a date about which there is confusion. It is not known for certain whether this last tiara was given before of after 1845 and whether the 1845 was given before or after Easter 1845. None of the three tiaras contain the words Vicarius Filii Dei.
- ↑ Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, vol. 11, p. 223.
- ↑ Adult Sabbath School Lesson for April–June 2002. See lesson 10 (June 1–7), "The Dragon Versus the Remnant Part 2"; particularly the studies for Thursday and Friday
- ↑ http://www.biblicalperspectives.com/endtimeissues/et_145.htm
- ↑ http://www.biblicalperspectives.com/endtimeissues/et_146.htm
- ↑ http://biblelight.net/OSV1915.gif
- ↑ http://biblelight.net/OSV-1941.gif
- Bruinsma, Reinder. (1994). Seventh-day Adventist Attitudes Toward Roman Catholicism 1844–1965, Berrien Springs, Michigan. ISBN 1-883925-04-5.
- Heim, Bruno (1978). Heraldry in the Catholic Church: Its Origins, Customs and Laws, Gerrards Cross, Eng.: Van Duren. ISBN 0-905715-05-5.
- Noonan, James-Charles. (1996). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman Catholic Church, New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-86745-4.
- Smith, Uriah (1881). Thoughts, Critical and Practical on the Book of Revelation, Battle Creek, Mich.: Seventh-day Adventist.
- Smithe, Jefferson (1902). Roman Catholic Ritual, London.
- The Number of the Beast
- A question and answer session on claims about the Papal Tiara
- Roman Catholic rebuttal of claims regarding the inscription "vicarius filii dei" on the Papal Tiara
- How Seventh-day Adventists view Roman Catholicism (official document)