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The Vedanga ( vedāṅga, "member of the Veda") are six auxiliary disciplines for the understanding and tradition of the Vedas.
- Shiksha (śikṣā): phonetics and phonology (sandhi)
- Chandas (chandas): meter
- Vyakarana (vyākaraṇa): grammar
- Nirukta (nirukta): etymology
- Jyotisha (jyotiṣa): astrology and astronomy, dealing particularly with the auspicious days for performing sacrifices.
- Kalpa (kalpa): ritual
Traditionally, vyākaraṇa and nirukta are shared across all four Vedas, while each veda has its own śikṣā, chandas, kalpa and jyotiṣa. The Vedangas are first mentioned in the Mundaka Upanishad as topics to be observed by students of the Vedas. Later, they developed into independent disciplines, each with its own corpus of Sutras.
- Moritz Winternitz: Geschichte der Indischen Literatur, Leipzig, 1905 - 1922, Vol. I - III. English translation: History of Indian Literatur, Motilal Barnarsidass, Delhi, 1985, Vol I - III
- Vedanga on the online Hindu Encyclopedia