V'Zot HaBerachah, VeZot Haberakha, or Zos Habrocho (וזאת הברכה — Hebrew for "and this is the blessing," the first words in the parshah) is the 54th and last weekly Torah portion (parshah) in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the 11th in the book of Deuteronomy. It constitutes Deuteronomy 33:1–34:12. Jews generally read it in September or October on the Simchat Torah festival. Immediately after reading parshah V'Zot HaBerachah, Jews also read the beginning of the Torah, Genesis 1:1–2:3 (the beginning of parshah Bereishit), as the second Torah reading for Simchat Torah.

Aleppo Codex (Deut)

Deuteronomy 32:50–33:29 in the Aleppo Codex



“The Lord . . . came from the myriads holy, at His right hand was a fiery law to them.” (Deuteronomy 33:2.)

The blessing of Moses

Before he died, Moses, the man of God, bade the Israelites farewell with this blessing: God came from Sinai, shone on them from Seir, appeared from Paran, and approached from Ribeboth-kodesh, lightning flashing from God’s right. (Deuteronomy 33:1–2.) God loved the people, holding their hallowed in God’s hand. (Deuteronomy 33:3.) The people followed in God’s steps, accepting God’s Torah as the heritage of the congregation of Jacob. (Deuteronomy 33:3–4.) God became King in Jeshurun when the chiefs of the tribes of Israel assembled. (Deuteronomy 33:5.)

Moses prayed that the Tribe of Reuben survive, though its numbers were few. (Deuteronomy 33:6.)

Moses asked God to hear the voice of the Tribe of Judah, restore it, and help it against its foes. (Deuteronomy 33:7.)

Moses prayed that God would be with the Levites, who held God’s Urim and Thummim, whom God tested at Massah and Meribah, who disregarded family ties to carry out God’s will, who would teach God’s laws to Israel, and who would offer God’s incense and offerings. (Deuteronomy 33:8–10.) Moses asked God to bless their substance, favor their undertakings, and smite their enemies. (Deuteronomy 33:8–11.)

Moses said that God loved and always protected the Tribe of Benjamin, who rested securely beside God, between God’s shoulders. (Deuteronomy 33:8–12.)

White Sands NM12

“Zebulun . . . and Issachar . . . shall suck the abundance of the seas and the hidden treasures of the sand.”

Moses called on God to bless the Tribe of Joseph with dew, the yield of the sun, crops in season, the bounty of the hills, and the favor of the Presence in the burning bush. (Deuteronomy 33:13–16.) Moses likened the tribe to a firstling bull, with horns like a wild ox, who gores the peoples from one end of the earth to the other. (Deuteronomy 33:17.)

Moses exhorted the Tribe of Zebulun to rejoice on its journeys, and the Tribe of Issachar in its tents. (Deuteronomy 33:18.) They invited their kin to the mountain where they offered sacrifices of success; they drew from the riches of the sea and the hidden hoards of the sand. (Deuteronomy 33:19.)

Passing lion Babylon AO21118

“Gad . . . dwells like a lion.” (Deuteronomy 33:20.) (brick panel from the Procession Way of Babylon, now at the Louvre)

Moses blessed the God who enlarged the Tribe of Gad, who was poised like a lion, who chose the best, the portion of the revered chieftain, who executed God’s judgments for Israel. (Deuteronomy 33:20–21.)

Moses called the Tribe of Dan a lion’s whelp that leapt from Bashan. (Deuteronomy 33:22.)

Moses told the Tribe of Naphtali, sated with favor and blessed by God, to take possession on the west and south. (Deuteronomy 33:23.)

Moses prayed that the Tribe of Asher be the favorite among the tribes, dip its feet in oil, and have door bolts of iron and copper and security all its days. (Deuteronomy 33:24–25.)

Moses said that there was none like God, riding through the heavens to help, an everlasting refuge and support, Who drove out the enemy. (Deuteronomy 33:26–27.) Thus Israel dwelt untroubled in safety in a land of grain and wine under heaven’s dripping dew. (Deuteronomy 33:28.) Who was like Israel, a people delivered by God, God’s protecting Shield and Sword triumphant over Israel’s cringing enemies. (Deuteronomy 33:29.)

The Death of Moses (crop)

The Death of Moses (illustration from a Bible card published 1907 by the Providence Lithograph Company)

Holman The Death of Moses

The Death of Moses (illustration from the 1890 Holman Bible)

The death of Moses

Moses went up from the steppes of Moab to Mount Nebo, and God showed him the whole land. (Deuteronomy 34:1–3.) God told Moses that this was the land that God had sworn to assign to the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. (Deuteronomy 34:4.)

So Moses the servant of God died there, in the land of Moab, at God’s command, and God buried him in the valley in the land of Moab, near Beth-peor, although no one knew his burial place. (Deuteronomy 34:5–6.) Moses was 120 years old when he died, but his eyes were undimmed and his vigor unabated. (Deuteronomy 34:7.) The Israelites mourned for 30 days. (Deuteronomy 34:8.) Joshua was filled with the spirit of wisdom because Moses had laid his hands on him, and the Israelites heeded him. (Deuteronomy 34:9.)

Never again did there arise in Israel a prophet like Moses, whom God singled out, face to face, for the signs and portents that God sent him to display against Pharaoh and Egypt, and for all the awesome power that Moses displayed before Israel. (Deuteronomy 34:10–12.)

In inner-biblical interpretation

Deuteronomy chapter 33

Genesis 49:3–27, Deuteronomy 33:6–25, and Judges 5:14–18 present parallel listings of the twelve tribes, presenting contrasting characterizations of their relative strengths:

Tribe Genesis 49 Deuteronomy 33 Judges 5
Reuben Jacob’s first-born, Jacob’s might, the first-fruits of Jacob’s strength, the excellency of dignity, the excellency of power; unstable as water, he would not have the excellency because he mounted his father's bed and defiled it let him live and not die and become few in number among their divisions were great resolves of heart; they sat among the sheepfolds to hear the piping for the flocks, and did not contribute; at their divisions was great soul-searching
Simeon brother of Levi, weapons of violence were their kinship; let Jacob’s soul not come into their council, to their assembly, for in their anger they slew men, in their self-will they hewed oxen; cursed was their fierce anger and their cruel wrath, Jacob would divide and scatter them in Israel not mentioned not mentioned
Levi brother of Simeon, weapons of violence were their kinship; let Jacob’s soul not come into their council, to their assembly, for in their anger they slew men, in their self-will they hewed oxen; cursed was their fierce anger and their cruel wrath, Jacob would divide and scatter them in Israel his Thummim and Urim would be with God; God proved him at Massah, with whom God strove at the waters of Meribah; he did not acknowledge his father, mother, brothers, or children; observed God’s word, and would keep God’s covenant; would teach Israel God’s law; would put incense before God, and whole burnt-offerings on God’s altar; God bless his substance, and accept the work of his hands; smite the loins of his enemies not mentioned
Judah his brothers would praise him, his hand would be on the neck of his enemies, his father's sons would bow down before him; a lion's whelp, from the prey he is gone up, he stooped down, he couched as a lion and a lioness, who would rouse him? the scepter would not depart from him, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, as long as men come to Shiloh, to him would the obedience of the peoples be; binding his foal to the vine and his ass's colt to the choice vine, he washes his garments in wine, his eyes would be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk God hear his voice, and bring him in to his people; his hands would contend for him, and God would help against his adversaries not mentioned
Zebulun would dwell at the shore of the sea, would be a shore for ships, his flank would be upon Zidon he would rejoice in his going out, with Issachar he would call peoples to the mountain; there they would offer sacrifices of righteousness, for they would suck the abundance of the seas, and the hidden treasures of the sand they that handle the marshal's staff; jeopardized their lives for Israel
Issachar a large-boned ass, couching down between the sheep-folds, he saw a good resting-place and the pleasant land, he bowed his shoulder to bear and became a servant under task-work he would rejoice in his tents, with Zebulun he would call peoples to the mountain; there they would offer sacrifices of righteousness, for they would suck the abundance of the seas, and the hidden treasures of the sand their princes were with Deborah
Dan would judge his people, would be a serpent in the way, a horned snake in the path, that bites the horse's heels, so that his rider falls backward a lion's whelp, that leaps forth from Bashan sojourned by the ships, and did not contribute
Gad a troop would troop upon him, but he would troop upon their heel blessed be God Who enlarges him; he dwells as a lioness, and tears the arm and the crown of the head; he chose a first part for himself, for there a portion of a ruler was reserved; and there came the heads of the people, he executed God’s righteousness and ordinances with Israel Gilead stayed beyond the Jordan and did not contribute
Asher his bread would be fat, he would yield royal dainties blessed above sons; let him be the favored of his brothers, and let him dip his foot in oil; iron and brass would be his bars; and as his days, so would his strength be dwelt at the shore of the sea, abided by its bays, and did not contribute
Naphtali a hind let loose, he gave goodly words satisfied with favor, full with God’s blessing, would possess the sea and the south were upon the high places of the field of battle
Joseph a fruitful vine by a fountain, its branches run over the wall, the archers have dealt bitterly with him, shot at him, and hated him; his bow abode firm, and the arms of his hands were made supple by God, who would help and bless him with blessings of heaven above, the deep beneath, the breast and the womb; Jacob’s blessings, mighty beyond the blessings of his ancestors, would be on his head, and on the crown of the head of the prince among his brothers blessed of God was his land; for the precious things of heaven, for the dew, and for the deep beneath, and for the precious things of the fruits of the sun, and for the precious things of the yield of the moons, for the tops of the ancient mountains, and for the precious things of the everlasting hills, and for the precious things of the earth and the fullness thereof, and the good will of God; the blessing would come upon the head of Joseph, and upon the crown of the head of him that is prince among his brothers; his firstling bullock, majesty was his; and his horns were the horns of the wild-ox; with them he would gore all the peoples to the ends of the earth; they were the ten thousands of Ephraim and the thousands of Manasseh out of Ephraim came they whose root is in Amalek
Benjamin a ravenous wolf, in the morning he devoured the prey, at evening he divided the spoil God’s beloved would dwell in safety by God; God covered him all the day, and dwelt between his shoulders came after Ephriam

In classical rabbinic interpretation

Abraham and the Three Angels

Abraham and the Three Angels (engraving by Gustave Doré)

Deuteronomy chapter 33

The Tosefta found in Deuteronomy 33:2 demonstration of the proposition that Providence rewards a person measure for measure. Thus just as Abraham rushed three times to serve the visiting angels in Genesis 18:2, 6, and 7, so God rushed three times in service of Abraham’s children when in Genesis 18:2, God “came from Sinai, rose from Seir to them, [and] shined forth from mount Paran.” (Tosefta Sotah 4:1.)

The students of Rav Shila’s academy deduced from the words “from His right hand, a fiery law for them” in Deuteronomy 33:2 that Moses received the Torah from God’s hand. (Babylonian Talmud Sotah 4b.)

Rabbi Hanina taught that the world was unworthy to have cedar trees, but God created them for the sake of the Tabernacle (for example, in the acacia-wood of Exodus 26:15) and the Temple, as Psalm 104:16 says, “The trees of the Lord have their fill, the cedars of Lebanon, which He has planted,” once again interpreting Lebanon to mean the Temple. Rabbi Samuel ben Nahman in the name of Rabbi Jonathan taught that there are 24 kinds of cedars, of which seven are especially fine, as Isaiah 41:19 says, “I will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the acacia-tree, and the myrtle, and the oil-tree; I will set in the desert the cypress, the plane-tree, and the larch together.” God foresaw that the Tabernacle would be made of these trees, as Psalm 104:17 says, “Wherein the birds make their nests,” and “birds” refers to those birds that the priests offered. And when Psalm 104:17 says, “As for the stork (חֲסִידָה, hasidah), the fir-trees are her house,” the חֲסִידָה, hasidah (stork) refers to the High Priest, of whom Deuteronomy 33:8 says, “Your Thummim and Your Urim be with Your holy one (חֲסִידֶךָ, hasidekha).” (Exodus Rabbah 35:1.)

A midrash employed a parable to explain why God held Aaron as well as Moses responsible when Moses struck the rock, as Numbers 20:12 reports, “and the Lord said to Moses and Aaron: ‘Because you did not believe in me.’” The midrash told how a creditor came to take away a debtor's granary and took both the debtor's granary and the debtor's neighbor’s granary. The debtor asked the creditor what his neighbor had done to warrant such treatment. Similarly, Moses asked God what Aaron had done to be blamed when Moses lost his temper. The midrash taught that it on this account that Deuteronomy 33:8 praises Aaron, saying, “And of Levi he said: ‘Your Thummim and your Urim be with your holy one, whom you proved at Massah, with whom you strove at the waters of Meribah.’” (Numbers Rabbah 19:9.)

Rabbi Meir taught that when the Israelites stood by the sea, the tribes competed with each other over who would go into the sea first. The tribe of Benjamin went first, as Psalm 68:28 says: “There is Benjamin, the youngest, ruling them (rodem),” and Rabbi Meir read rodem, “ruling them,” as rad yam, “descended into the sea.” Then the princes of Judah threw stones at them, as Psalm 68:28 says: “the princes of Judah their council (rigmatam),” and Rabbi Meir read rigmatam as “stoned them.” For that reason, Benjamin merited hosting the site of God’s Temple, as Deuteronomy 33:12 says: “He dwells between his shoulders.” Rabbi Judah answered Rabbi Meir that in reality, no tribe was willing to be the first to go into the sea. Then Nahshon ben Aminadab stepped forward and went into the sea first, praying in the words of Psalm 69:2–16, “Save me O God, for the waters come into my soul. I sink in deep mire, where there is no standing . . . . Let not the water overwhelm me, neither let the deep swallow me up.” Moses was then praying, so God prompted Moses, in words parallel those of Exodus 14:15, “My beloved ones are drowning in the sea, and you prolong prayer before Me!” Moses asked God, “Lord of the Universe, what is there in my power to do?” God replied in the words of Exodus 14:15–16, “Speak to the children of Israel, that they go forward. And lift up your rod, and stretch out your hand over the sea, and divide it; and the children of Israel shall go into the midst of the sea on dry ground.” Because of Nahshon’s actions, Judah merited becoming the ruling power in Israel, as Psalm 114:2 says, “Judah became His sanctuary, Israel His dominion,” and that happened because, as Psalm 114:3 says, “The sea saw [him], and fled.” (Babylonian Talmud Sotah 36b37a.)

The Mishnah applied to Moses the words of Deuteronomy 33:21, “He executed the righteousness of the Lord and His ordinances with Israel,” deducing therefrom that Moses was righteous and caused many to be righteous, and therefore the righteousness of the many was credited to him. (Mishnah Avot 5:18.) And the Tosefta taught that the ministering angels mourned Moses with these words of Deuteronomy 33:21. (Tosefta Sotah 4:9.)

Schnorr von Carolsfeld Bibel in Bildern 1860 064

Moses Viewing the Promised Land (woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld from the 1860 Bible in Pictures)

Deuteronomy chapter 34

Rabbi Samuel ben Nahman in the name of Rabbi Jonathan cited Deuteronomy 34:4 for the proposition that the dead can talk to each another. Deuteronomy 34:4 says: “And the Lord said to him (Moses): ‘This is the land that I swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying . . . .’” Rabbi Samuel ben Nahman reasoned that the word “saying” here indicates that just before Moses died, God told Moses to say to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob that God had carried out the oath that God had sworn to them. (Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 18b.) The Gemara explained that God told Moses to tell them so that they might be grateful to Moses for what he had done for their descendants. (Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 19a.)

The Mishnah and Tosefta also cited Deuteronomy 34:6 for the proposition that Providence treats a person measure for measure as that person treats others. And so because, as Exodus 13:19 relates, Moses attended to Joseph’s bones, so in turn, none but God attended him, as Deuteronomy 34:6 reports that God buried Moses. (Mishnah Sotah 1:7–9; Tosefta Sotah 4:8.) The Tosefta deduced that Moses was thus borne on the wings of God’s Presence from the portion of Reuben (where the Tosefta deduced from Deuteronomy 32:49 that Moses died on Mount Nebo) to the portion of Gad (where the Tosefta deduced from the words “there a portion of a ruler was reserved” in Deuteronomy 33:21 that Moses was buried). (Tosefta Sotah 4:8.)

The Tosefta deduced from facts reported in Deuteronomy 34:8 and Joshua 1:1–2, 1:10–11, and 4:19 that Moses died on the seventh of Adar. (Tosefta Sotah 11:7.)


According to Maimonides and Sefer ha-Chinuch, there are no commandments in the parshah. (Maimonides. Mishneh Torah. Cairo, Egypt, 1170–1180. Reprinted in Maimonides. The Commandments: Sefer Ha-Mitzvoth of Maimonides. Translated by Charles B. Chavel, 2 vols. London: Soncino Press, 1967. ISBN 0-900689-71-4. Sefer HaHinnuch: The Book of [Mitzvah] Education. Translated by Charles Wengrov, 5:443. Jerusalem: Feldheim Pub., 1988. ISBN 0-87306-497-6.)

Figures The Israelites Pass the River Jordan

The Israelites Pass the River Jordan (illustration from the 1728 Figures de la Bible)


The haftarah for the parshah is:

Dore joshua crossing

The Children of Israel Crossing the Jordan (illustration by Gustave Doré)


After Moses’ death, God told Moses' minister Joshua to cross the Jordan with the Israelites. (Josh. 1:1–2.) God would give them everyplace on which Joshua stepped, from the Negev desert to Lebanon, from the Euphrates to the Mediterranean Sea. (Josh. 1:3–4.) God enjoined Joshua to be strong and of good courage, for none would be able to stand in his way, as God would lead him all of his life. (Josh. 1:5–6.) God exhorted Joshua strictly to observe God’s law, and to meditate on it day and night, so that he might succeed. (Josh. 1:7–8.)

Joshua told his officers to have the Israelites prepare food, for within three days they were to cross the Jordan to possess the land that God was giving them. (Josh. 1:10–11.) Joshua told the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh to remember their commitment to Moses, whereby God would give them their land on the east side of the Jordan and their wives, children, and cattle would stay there, but the men would fight at the forefront of the Israelites until God gave the Israelites the land of Israel. (Josh. 1:12–15.) They answered Joshua that they would follow his commands just as they had followed Moses. (Josh. 1:16–17.) Whoever rebelled against Joshua’s command would be put to death. (Josh. 1:18.)

Connection to the Parshah

The haftarah carries forward the story in the parshah. As the parshah concludes the Torah, the haftarah begins the Prophets. The parshah (in Deuteronomy  34:5) and the haftarah (in Joshua  1:1–2) both report Moses’s death. The haftarah (in Joshua  1:6–9) echoes God’s encouragement to Joshua to be “strong and resolute,” which God had voiced in text just before the parshah (in Deuteronomy  31:23).

In the liturgy

Jews call on God to restore God’s sovereignty in Israel, reflected in Deuteronomy 33:5, with the words “reign over us” in the weekday Amidah prayer in each of the three prayer services. (Reuven Hammer. Or Hadash: A Commentary on Siddur Sim Shalom for Shabbat and Festivals, 6. New York: The Rabbinical Assembly, 2003. ISBN 0-916219-20-8.)

In the Yigdal hymn, the seventh verse, “In Israel, none like Moses arose again, a prophet who perceived His vision clearly,” derives from the observation of Deuteronomy 34:10 that “there has not arisen a prophet since in Israel like Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face.” (Menachem Davis. The Schottenstein Edition Siddur for Weekdays with an Interlinear Translation, 16–17. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-57819-686-8.)

The Weekly Maqam

In the Weekly Maqam, Sephardi Jews each week base the songs of the services on the content of that week's parshah. For parshah V'Zot HaBerachah, which falls on the holiday Simchat Torah, Sephardi Jews apply Maqam Ajam, the maqam that expresses happiness, to commemorating the joy of finishing up the Torah readings, getting ready to begin the cycle again.

Further reading

The parshah has parallels or is discussed in these sources:




Early nonrabbinic

Classical rabbinic

  • Mishnah Sotah 1:7–9; Avot 5:18. Land of Israel, circa 200 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, 449, 688. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-05022-4.
  • Tosefta: Maaser Sheni 5:27; Sotah 4:1, 8–9, 11:7; Bava Kamma 8:18; Sanhedrin 4:9. Land of Israel, circa 300 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., The Tosefta: Translated from the Hebrew, with a New Introduction, 1:330, 844, 847–48, 879; 2:999, 1160. Translated by Jacob Neusner. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Pub., 2002. ISBN 1-56563-642-2.
  • Sifre to Deuteronomy 342:1–357:20. Land of Israel, circa 250–350 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., Sifre to Deuteronomy: An Analytical Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, 2:399–462. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987. ISBN 1-55540-145-7.
  • Jerusalem Talmud: Berakhot 23a, 77a. Land of Israel, circa 400 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Yerushalmi. Edited by Chaim Malinowitz, Yisroel Simcha Schorr, and Mordechai Marcus, vols. 1–2. Brooklyn: Mesorah Pubs., 2006.
  • Genesis Rabbah 1:4, 11; 6:9; 36:3; 39:11; 68:9; 72:5; 75:6, 12; 77:1; 82:5; 84:6; 86:3; 93:6–7; 95; 95:1, 4; 96; 97; 98:4, 12–13, 20; 99:2, 4, 9, 12; 100:9, 12. Land of Israel, 5th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Genesis. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
  • Leviticus Rabbah 1:4; 4:1; 9:3; 10:7; 21:2, 6; 25:2; 28:6; 30:2; 31:4; 32:2; 35:11; 36:4. Land of Israel, 5th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Leviticus. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
First page of the first tractate of the Talmud (Daf Beis of Maseches Brachos)



  • Deuteronomy Rabbah 2:5, 9; 3:12; 5:4; 7:5; 8:2; 11:1–10. Land of Israel, 9th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Deuteronomy. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
  • Exodus Rabbah 1:16; 2:6; 5:9–10; 15:14; 19:5; 25:8; 30:8; 33:7; 35:1; 38:4; 40:1, 2; 41:4; 43:4; 48:4; 52:1. 10th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Exodus. Translated by S. M. Lehrman. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
  • Solomon ibn Gabirol. A Crown for the King, 14:167–68. Spain, 11th Century. Translated by David R. Slavitt, 22–23. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-511962-2.
Rashi woodcut


  • Rashi. Commentary. Deuteronomy 33–34. Troyes, France, late 11th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Rashi. The Torah: With Rashi’s Commentary Translated, Annotated, and Elucidated. Translated and annotated by Yisrael Isser Zvi Herczeg, 5:371–403. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1997. ISBN 0-89906-030-7.
  • Numbers Rabbah 1:12; 2:7, 10; 3:6; 8:9; 10:8; 11:2; 12:1, 3–4, 9; 13:4, 8, 15–18, 20; 14:1, 4, 9–10; 15:12–13, 18; 19:9, 13; 20:4; 22:9. 12th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Numbers. Translated by Judah J. Slotki. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
  • Esther Rabbah 7:11, 13; 10:4.
  • Song of Songs Rabbah 1:13, 49, 56; 3:19, 23; 4:8, 17; 5:7, 9, 15; 7:12.
  • Lamentations Rabbah 2:6; 3:1, 22.
  • Ecclesiastes Rabbah 4:7; 10:20.
  • Zohar 1:6b, 10a, 70a, 163a, 170b, 185b, 192b, 198a, 200b, 227b, 235a, 236a–b, 238b, 241b, 244b, 246b; 2:27a, 81a, 82a, 84a, 89a, 90b, 131a, 135a, 166b, 206b, 215a; 3:14a, 104b, 192a. Spain, late 13th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., The Zohar. Translated by Harry Sperling and Maurice Simon. 5 vols. London: Soncino Press, 1934.
Thomas Hobbes (portrait)





  • Thomas Mann. Joseph and His Brothers. Translated by John E. Woods, 788. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005. ISBN 1-4000-4001-9. Originally published as Joseph und seine Brüder. Stockholm: Bermann-Fischer Verlag, 1943.
  • Morris Adler. The World of the Talmud, 40. B’nai B’rith Hillel Foundations, 1958. Reprinted Kessinger Publishing, 2007. ISBN 0548080003.
  • Martin Buber. On the Bible: Eighteen studies, 80–92. New York: Schocken Books, 1968.
  • Jeffrey H. Tigay. The JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy: The Traditional Hebrew Text with the New JPS Translation, 317–40, 519–25. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1996. ISBN 0-8276-0330-4.
  • William H.C. Propp. “Why Moses Could Not Enter The Promised Land.” Bible Review. 14 (3) (June 1998).
  • Alan Lew. This Is Real and You Are Completely Unprepared: The Days of Awe as a Journey of Transformation, 226. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 2003. ISBN 0-316-73908-1.
  • Esther Jungreis. Life Is a Test, 266. Brooklyn: Shaar Press, 2007. ISBN 1-4226-0609-0.

See also

External links



Old book bindings

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