The Views of Six Samana in the Pali Canon
(based on the Sāmaññaphala Sutta1)
|Question: "Is it possible to point out the fruit of the|
contemplative life, visible in the here and now?"1
|Amoralism: denies any reward or|
punishment for either good or bad deeds.
|Fatalism: we are powerless;|
suffering is pre-destined.
with death, all is annihilated.
|Eternalism: Matter, pleasure, pain and|
the soul are eternal and do not interact.
|Restraint: be endowed with, cleansed by|
and suffused with the avoidance of all evil.2
|Agnosticism: "I don't think so. I don't think in|
that way or otherwise. I don't think not or not not."
|Notes:||1. DN 2 (Thanissaro, 1997; Walshe, 1995, pp. 91-109).|
2. DN-a (Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi, 1995, pp. 1258-59, n. 585).
- sense-pleasure clinging (kamupadana)
- wrong-view clinging (ditthupadana)
- rites-and-rituals clinging (silabbatupadana)
- self-doctrine clinging (attavadupadana).
The Buddha once stated that, while other sects might provide an appropriate analysis of the first three types of clinging, he alone fully elucidated clinging to the "self" and its resultant suffering.
- sense-pleasure clinging: repeated craving of worldly things.
- wrong-view clinging: such as eternalism (e.g., "The world and self are eternal") or nihilism.
- rites-and-rituals clinging: believing that rites alone could directly lead to liberation, typified in the texts by the rites and rituals of "ox practice" and "dog practice."
- self-doctrine clinging: self-identification with self-less entities (e.g, illustrated by MN 44, and further discussed in the skandha and anatta articles).
According to Buddhaghosa, the above ordering of the four types of clinging is in terms of decreasing grossness, that is, from the most obvious (grossest) type of clinging (sense-pleasure clinging) to the subtlest (self-doctrine clinging).
Interdependence of clinging types
Buddhaghosa further identifes that these four clinging types are causally interconnected as follows:
- 1. self-doctrine clinging: first, one assumes that one has a permanent "self."
- 2. wrong-view clinging: then, one assumes that one is either somehow eternal or to be annihilated after this life.
- 3. resultant behavioral manifestations:
- (a) rites-and-rituals clinging: if one assumes that one is eternal, then one clings to rituals to achieve self-purification.
- (b) sense-pleasure clinging: if one assumes that one will completely disappear after this life, then one disregards the next world and clings to sense desires.
This hierarchy of clinging types is represented diagrammatically to the left.
Thus, based on Buddhaghosa's analysis, clinging is more fundamentally an erroneous core belief (self-doctrine clinging) than a habitualized affective experience (sense-pleasure clinging).
Manifestations of clinging
In terms of consciously knowable mental experiences, the Abhidhamma identifies sense-pleasure clinging with the mental factor of "greed" (lobha) and the other three types of clinging (self-doctrine, wrong-view and rites-and-rituals clinging) with the mental factor of "wrong view" (ditthi). Thus, experientially, clinging can be known through the Abhidhamma's four-fold definitions of these mental factors as indicated in the following table:
|greed (lobha)||grasping an object||sticks, like hot-pan meat||not giving up||enjoying things of bondage|
|wrong view (ditthi)||unwise interpreting||presumes||wrong belief||not hearing the Dhamma|
To distinguish craving from clinging, Buddhaghosa uses the following metaphor:
- "Craving is the aspiring to an object that one has not yet reached, like a thief's stretching out his hand in the dark; clinging is the grasping of an object that one has reached, like the thief's grasping his objective.... [T]hey are the roots of the suffering due to seeking and guarding."
Thus, for instance, when the Buddha talks about the "aggregates of clinging," he is referring to our grasping and guarding physical, mental and conscious experiences that we falsely believe we are or possess.
As part of the causal chain of suffering
In the Four Noble Truths, the First Noble Truth identifies clinging (upādāna, in terms of "the aggregates of clinging") as one of the core experiences of suffering. The Second Noble Truth identifies craving (tanha) as the basis for suffering. In this manner a causal relationship between craving and clinging is found in the Buddha's most fundamental teaching.
- Upādāna (Clinging) is dependent on Tṛṣṇā (Craving) as a condition before it can exist.
- "With Craving as condition, Clinging arises".
- Upādāna (Clinging) is also the prevailing condition for the next condition in the chain, Becoming (Bhava).
- "With Clinging as condition, Becoming arises."
According to Buddhaghosa, it is sense-pleasure clinging that arises from craving and that conditions becoming.
Upādāna as fuel
Professor Richard F. Gombrich has pointed out in several publications, and in his recent Numata Visiting Professor Lectures at the University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), that the literal meaning of upādāna is "fuel". He uses this to link the term to the Buddha's use of fire as a metaphor. In the so-called Fire Sermon (Āditta-pariyāya) (Vin I, 34-5; SN 35.28) the Buddha tells the bhikkhus that everything is on fire. By everything he tells them he means the five senses plus the mind, their objects, and the operations and feelings they give rise to - ie everything means the totality of experience. All these are burning with the fires of greed, hatred and delusion.
In the nidana chain, then, craving creates fuel for continued burning or becoming (bhava). The mind like fire, seeks out more fuel to sustain it, in the case of the mind this is sense experience, hence the emphasis the Buddha places on "guarding the gates of the senses". By not being caught up in the senses (appamāda) we can be liberated from greed, hatred and delusion. This liberation is also expressed using the fire metaphor when it is termed nibbāna (Sanskrit: Nirvāṇa) which means to "go out", or literally to "blow out". (Regarding the word Nirvāṇa, the verb vā is intransitive so no agent is required.)
Probably by the time the canon was written down (1st Century BCE), and certainly when Buddhaghosa was writing his commentaries (4th Century CE) the sense of the metaphor appears to have been lost, and upādāna comes to mean simply "clinging" as above. By the time of the Mahayana the term fire was dropped altogether and greed, hatred and delusion are known as the "three poisons".
| Succeeded by|
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Upadana means material basis or cause.
- ↑ See, for example, Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 149; and, Gombrich (2005).
- ↑ Below are some excerpts from the Pali Canon indicative of the statement that clinging's cessation leads to Nirvana:
- "For the sake of what, then, my friend, is the holy life lived under the Blessed One?"
- "The holy life is lived under the Blessed One, my friend, for the sake of total Unbinding [nibbana] through lack of clinging."
- — from "Relay Chariots" (Ratha-vinita Sutta MN 24) (Thanissaro, 1999).
- "Bhikkhus, when ignorance is abandoned and true knowledge has arisen in a bhikkhu, then with the fading away of ignorance and the arising of true knowledge he no longer clings to sensual pleasures, no longer clings to views, no longer clings to rules and observances, no longer clings to a doctrine of self. When he does not cling, he is not agitated. When he is not agitated, he personally attains Nibbana. He understands: 'Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.'"
- — from "The Shorter Discourse on the Lion's Roar" (Cula-sihanada Sutta MN 11) (Ñanamoli & Bodhi, 1993).
- "Now during this utterance, the hearts of the bhikkhus of the group of five were liberated from taints through clinging no more."
- — from "The Discourse on the Not-self Characteristic" (Anatta-lakkhana Sutta SN 22.59) (Ñāṇamoli, 1981).
- "...From the cessation of craving comes the cessation of clinging/sustenance. From the cessation of clinging/sustenance comes the cessation of becoming. From the cessation of becoming comes the cessation of birth. From the cessation of birth, then aging, illness & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair all cease. Such is the cessation of this entire mass of suffering & stress."
- — from "Clinging" (Upadana Sutta SN 12.52) (Thanissaro, 1998b).
- ↑ Examples of references to upadana in the Sutta Pitaka can be found in the "Culasihanada Sutta" ("Shorter Discourse on the Lion's Roar," MN 11) (see Nanamoli & Bodhi, 2001, p. 161) and the "Nidanasamyutta" ("Connected Discourses on Causation," SN 12) (see Bodhi, 2000b, p. 535).
- ↑ Cula-sihanada Sutta ("Shorter Discourse on the Lion's Roar," MN 11) (Ñanamoli & Bodhi, 1993).
- ↑ In the Abhidhamma, the Dhammasangani §§ 1213-17 (Rhys Davids, 1900, pp. 323-5) contains definitions of the four types of clinging.
- ↑ Abhidhamma commentaries related to the four types of clining can be found, for example, in the Abhidhammattha-sangaha (see Bodhi, 2000b, p. 726 n. 5) and the Visuddhimagga (Buddhaghosa, 1999, pp. 585-7).
- ↑ It is worth noting that, in reference to "wrong view" (Pali: miccha ditthi) as used in various suttas in the Anguttara Nikaya's first chapter, Bodhi (2005), p. 437, n. 10, states that wrong views "deny the foundations of morality, especially those views that reject a principal of moral causation or the efficacy of volitional effort."
- ↑ See, for instance, Buddhaghosa (1999), p. 587. For a reference to these particular ascetic practices in the Sutta Pitaka, see MN 57, Kukkuravatika Sutta ("The Dog-Duty Ascetic," translated in: Nanamoli & Khantipalo, 1993; and, Nanamoli & Bodhi, 2001, pp. 493-97).
- ↑ Thanissaro (1998a).
- ↑ Buddhaghosa (1999), pp. 586-7.
- ↑ Buddhaghosa (1999), p. 587.
- ↑ Bodhi (2000a), p. 267.
- ↑ Bodhi (2000a), pp. 83-4, 371 n. 13.
- ↑ Buddhaghosa (1999), p. 586.
- ↑ The idea that the Four Noble Truths identifies craving as the proximate cause of clinging is mentioned, for instance, in Thanissaro (2000).
- ↑ See, for example, SN 12.2 as translated by Thanissaro (1997a).
- ↑ Buddhaghosa (1999), pp. 586, 593.
- Bodhi, Bhikku (2000a). A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma: The Abhidhammattha Sangaha of Acariya Anuruddha. Seattle, WA: BPS Pariyatti Editions. ISBN 1-928706-02-9.
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- Gombrich, Richard F. (2005). How Buddhism Began: The Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings. Routledge. ISBN 0415371236.
- Ñāṇamoli, Bhikkhu (trans.) Anatta-lakkhana Sutta: The Discourse on the Not-self Characteristic (SN 22.59). Retrieved from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn22/sn22.059.nymo.html.
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- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997a). Paticca-samuppada-vibhanga Sutta: Analysis of Dependent Co-arising (SN 12.2). Retrieved from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn12/sn12.002.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997). Samaññaphala Sutta: The Fruits of the Contemplative Life (DN 2). Retrieved from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/dn/dn.02.0.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998a). Culavedalla Sutta: The Shorter Set of Questions-and-Answers (MN 44). Retrieved from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.044.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998b). Upadana Sutta: Clinging (SN 12.52). Retrieved from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn12/sn12.052.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1999). Ratha-vinita Sutta: Relay Chariots (MN 24). Retrieved from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.024.than.html.
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- Walshe, Maurice O'Connell (trans.) (1995). The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Dīgha Nikāya. Somerville: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-103-3.