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The two witnesses, as depicted in the Bamberg Apocalypse, an 11th century illuminated manuscript.

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The Two Witnesses (Hebrew: עֵדִ֔ים, "Rhodim") are two individuals, concepts or "corporate beings" described in chapter 11 of the Book of Revelation in the events leading up to the second coming of Christ.

"'And I will give power to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy one thousand two hundred and sixty days, clothed in sackcloth.' These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands standing before the God of the earth. And if anyone wants to harm them, fire proceeds from their mouth and devours their enemies. And if anyone wants to harm them, he must be killed in this manner. these have power to shut heaven, so that no rain falls in the days of their prophecy; and they have power over waters to turn them to blood, and to strike the earth with all plagues, as often as they desire. When they finish their testimony, the beast that ascends out of the bottomless pit will make war against them, overcome them, and kill them. And their dead bodies will lie in the street of the great city which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified. Then those from the peoples, tribes, tongues, and nations will see their dead bodies three-and-a-half days, and not allow their dead bodies to be put into the graves. And those who dwell on the earth will rejoice over them, make merry, and send gifts to one another, because these two prophets tormented those who dwell on the earth. Now after three-and-a-half days the breath of life from God entered them, and they stood on their feet, and great fear fell on those who saw them. And they heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, 'Come up here.' And they ascended to heaven in a cloud, and their enemies saw them. In the same hour there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell. In the earthquake seven thousand people were killed, and the rest were afraid and gave glory to the God of heaven." (Revelation 11:3-13 - New King James Version)


Growing interest in the identity of the two witnesses of Revelation 11 and the timing of their appearance, has inspired eschatological debate for centuries.[1] Are they two literal individuals or are they symbolic of a concept (e.g., the Old and New Testaments of the Bible[2]) or corporate entities which symbolize peoples? Are they here now[3] if they are personified - or are they yet future, as millenarian Hal Lindsey[4] claims they are - ready to appear on the apocalyptic scene, along with the Antichrist? Perhaps they represent the witnessing Church[5] since Jesus sent out his disciples "two by two".[6] On the other hand, could they be some form of reincarnation[7] of Moses and Elijah[8] because both of them were prophets; Moses[9] struck the waters of the Nile and they turned into blood; and Elijah[10] commanded the heavens that it rained not and did so for three-and-one-half years.[11] Indeed, the other witness may be Enoch[12] (i.e., Elijah and Enoch), because he, like Elijah "was taken"[13] (i.e., did not suffer physical death). They could simply be two Jewish prophets (as the Left Behind Series claims) who in the period of the 70th Week of Daniel (yet future or partial)[14] come in the power of Moses and Elijah and are representative of the law (Moses) and the prophets (Elijah).[15] Indeed, some claim that the notion of a yet future 70th Week of Daniel is a Catholic (Jesuit) conspiracy[16] to take the heat off the papacy as the "seat of the antichrist system"[17] and to place the onus on a yet future and literal person who will be the incarnation of Satan himself[18] - who, as the beast will "make war against them, overcome them, and kill them"[19] -- hence, this prophecy of a future personification of "The Antichrist" is erroneous and has already been fulfilled[20] in history. To be certain - Roman Catholic eschatology affirms the coming of the Antichrist.[21]

Their description as "two olive trees and two lampstands"[22] is taken as symbolism and/or allegorical. This hermeneutical approach to the Bible is adjudged by some as "hyper-allegorical"[23] juxtaposed to a more "literal" interpretation; however, those who adhere to a Christian fundamentalist reading of the Bible (i.e., inerrancy) do not find common ground on the exposition of the identity of these Two Witnesses. Through commentary and exposition[24] the Two Witnesses could be considered as both symbolic and as literal (i.e., representative of peoples). Controversy over the symbolic, as well as literal interpretations of the Two Witnesses, as Israel[25] (the "two olive trees") and the Church (the "two lampstands") creates a great deal of eschatological debate between strict Dispensationalists and Progressive Dispensationalists; whereas such debate may be considered as non sequitur insofar as Preterists and Historicists[26] whose views of the Two Witnesses place them outside the chronological timeline (70 AD for Preterists)[27] or wholly in the realm of the symbolic - relegated to the Church only in any future unfolding of prophecy as seen by many Historicists.[28]


The Two Witnesses - These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands standing before the God of the earth. Revelation 11:4

Views among those who adhere to a literal one-thousand years premillennial earthly kingdom (i.e., the millennium is yet future) complicate the Church's participation in the 70th Week of Daniel (i.e., yet future). The three dominant positions among these Premillenarians (be they evangelical,[29] Catholic[30] or Orthodox[31] Christians - and for that matter, among other Christian sects)[32] regarding the final 70th Week of Daniel insofar as the Church's participation concerns are: Pretribulational[33] (the Church will rapture[34] at the commencement of the 70th Week of Daniel), whose commencement is normally announced by the infamous "Treaty of Hell and Death"[35] (i.e., the treaty or "defense pact" of the Antichrist with Israel);[36] Mid-Tribulational[37] or "Pre-Wrath"[38] (the Church will be raptured in the middle of Daniel's 70th Week - i.e., after approximately three-and-one-half years); and Post-Tribulational (the Church will be raptured will take place at the end of the 70th Week of Daniel's prophecy[39] just prior to the "wrath of God"[40] or "wrath of the Lamb").[41] Some theologians believe that the two olive branches represent the peace on Earth that the witnesses try to bring to the sinful Earth, and the two lampstands represent the light for Christ that they shine for Christ.

Post-Tribulational icon Dr. Robert H. Gundry states in his classic, The Church and the Tribulation,[42] especially in reference to Post-tribulationalism and the identity of the Two Witnesses - having both the Church and Israel throughout the 70th Week of Daniel's prophecy presents formidable eschatological challenges to wit:

“If the Church is to go through the tribulation, God will work simultaneously with two groups of covenant people, Israel and the Church. Millenarians of all varieties, including pretribulationists, should find the possibility of such simultaneous workings hard to deny . . . But it is not merely a matter of dealing with two groups at once. It is a matter of dealing simultaneously with, and through, two groups of redeemed people and witnesses. Will two diverse groups of saints, those who belong to the Church and those who belong to Israel coexist on earth and perhaps live according to different regulations? If so, will the tribulational Church be composed exclusively of Gentile believers? Will two distinct companies of witnesses preach the Gospel, maybe variations of it? Such questions arise quite naturally if we take the tribulation as transitional. But the mere existence of these questions does not preclude the possibility of the presence of the Church in the tribulation.” (The Church and the Tribulation, Robert H. Gundry, Zondervan Publishing House, 1973, p. 23).

What Gundry suggests is anathema to strict Dispensationalists[43] whose pre-tribulationalism demands a complete separation of the Church from Israel[44] and a primary commitment of the Almighty to Israel within the crucible of the 70th Week of Daniel—although Dispensationalists recognize a redemptive witness to the Gentiles through the evangelistic witness of the 144,000[45] Jewish evangelists. Those "saints"[46] evangelized through this preaching of the "gospel of the kingdom"[47] and who perish under the onslaught of the beast, constitute the tribulation saints[48] who "come out of great tribulation."[49]

Religious-political ramifications of Israel and the Church

Obvious collaboration between the "witnesses" is "eschatologically suggested" by those who espouse the two to be Israel and the Church—what form of cooperative witness seems crucial; especially with regards to the religious-political ramifications thereof. Naturally, evangelical support for the nation of Israel is viewed by a growing number of Israeli Jews, as well as diasporic Jews (especially Zionists), as beneficial to the survival of Israel and highly influential upon American foreign policy,[50] whether the imagery of the Two Witnesses is reflected in this Evangelical-Jewish Zionist alliance or not. Furthermore, if the book of Revelation is to be viewed as a cosmic courtroom wherein the "Great City" is on trial, and the "Judge of all the earth" is pending a conviction by calling forth witnesses to "testify" against Babylon the Great (i.e., "the Holy City" vs. the "Great City" or New Jerusalem vs. Babylon the Great)[51] - then "Biblical collaboration" at the mouth of "two witnesses"[52] prior to a conviction and ultimate sentence would be mandatory.

Declaration of State of Israel 1948

Founding of the State of Israel

David Brog, former chief counsel and later chief of staff to Senator Arlen Specter, recently highlighted the current support for Israel, among evangelical Christians in his book Stand with Israel: Why Christians Support the Jewish State.[53] Brog's central thesis, both as a Jewish American and as the current Executive Director of the newly-formed Christians United for Israel, is unabashedly pro-Israel,[54] and affirms that evangelical support for Israel should be encouraged by American Jews and should provide a forum for evangelical Christians to express their views on Capitol Hill. He is at the helm in galvanizing support for this newly-founded Evangelical-Jewish lobbying organization[55] on behalf of Israel. Brog (who is Jewish, not Christian) has an executive board for Christians United for Israel consisting of prominent evangelicals: Michael Little,[56] John Hagee,[57] Gary Bauer,[56] and George Morrison[56][58] — all evangelicals, and all actively engaged in pro-Israel activities — activities which include "A Night to Honor Israel"[59] held throughout North America, as well as recent involvement[60] in the annual AIPAC gathering in Washington, D.C.[61] (Jerry Falwell was also a member of the executive board of Christians United for Israel until his death.[62]) Such support for Israel is vehemently opposed by many on the left and right.

Christian Zionism – a phenomenon commenced in Great Britain[63] in support of the Jewish State and championed by many American evangelical leaders[64] throughout the past century, sees in Israel's rebirth the fulfillment of Bible prophecy[65] and the countdown to the Second Coming of Christ.[66] The proliferation of evangelical Christian organizations or Jewish organizations reaching out to one another with the common goal of supporting the survival of the nation of Israel in the U.S. and elsewhere includes: Bridges for Peace[67]; the International Fellowship of Christians and Jews[68]; the International Christian Embassy Jerusalem[69]; Operation Exodus[70]; Israel Awareness Day[71] (and their writings[72] attest as well). Likewise, but with less verbosity are those mainline Christian organizations[73] and some evangelical leaders[74] (along with their writings)[75] who oppose the current alliance between Jews and evangelicals in support of Israel and her policies.

Most evangelical churches and organizations in the USA in support of Israel are Premillenarian[76] in their Weltanschauung – with the majority being pretribulational;[77] hence, criticism on the part of many Jews that the main purpose of such support for Israel among evangelicals is self-interest and spurious at best,[78] and conversionary[79] at worst. Furthermore, some evangelicals propose that the current Evangelical-Jewish alliance in support of Israel will not last and is contrary to Bible prophecy.[80]

In addition to these suspicions from both Jews and evangelical Christians, there is religious-political angst expressed amongst co-religionists[81] (Jewish and Christian) who view this Jewish-Christian solidarity on behalf of Israel as a mixture of Church and State and ipso facto contrary to the American experiment;[82] especially, as it pertains to neocons both within[83] and without[84] the immediate US political administration, who some say are egging the alliance forward to suffice their own socio-political agenda and have little or no spiritual interest in the dynamic. They point out that theocons (in particular American Catholics),[85] who are allied with neocons (notwithstanding Jewish suspicions from time to time among the neocons)[86] are drawing American evangelicals, who affirm they are under "Biblical mandate" to "bless Israel",[72] into a religio-politico maelstrom[87] which, in the end, will politicize the American Church[88] and compromise her "spiritual mission" and put America into a "crusader" mindset[89] in defeating radical Islamists and hedonist secularism in America, rather than fulfilling the great commission of Jesus in the saving of souls for the coming premillenarian kingdom, not the "kingdom now". Instead, some Theocons are now about galvanizing Evangelicals and Catholics[90] in a great crusade against American hedonistic secularization and, interestingly enough, Israel is inadvertently caught up within that dynamic.

Exegetical considerations

B Escorial 100

In attempting to exegete Revelation 11 commentators who hold to a Premillenarian eschatology generally fall into three areas of interpretation in the identification of the Two Witnesses: (1) The Two Witnesses are individuals either manifested in some form of reincarnation; or “in the spirit” of Biblical prophets who once appeared in Bible history; or simply as two individuals newly arrived on the earth; (2) the Two Witnesses are corporate in nature (human) standing for the Church only or for Israel only; or both Israel and the Church; or for both Jewish and Gentiles believers in Jesus; and (3) the Two Witnesses express Biblical concepts (i.e., the Old and New Testaments; the Law and the Prophets; Mercy and Grace).

Their chronological order aside, the purpose and destiny of the Two Witnesses is to decry the reign of the Antichrist-Beast,[91] and to attest against that “Great City”—Babylon the Great. Likewise, in that they are called to “prophesy” and wear “sackcloth”[92] (a Biblical designation of a “call to repentance”) they assuredly are at the nexus of announcing the “gospel of the kingdom.”[93]

John's Apocalypse (i.e., The Revelation of Jesus Christ) is considered by most Christian theologians to be the apostolic writings which incorporate more Hebrew (i.e., Old Testament) Scriptures into the text than any other book of the New Testament.[94] The images, symbolism, and allegorical language used throughout the Revelation are impossible to fathom or interpret without a fairly comprehensive knowledge of the original "Testament".

Israel and the Church

The Two Witnesses have been identified as Israel and the Christian Church. The number two has been associated with the witness of Israel to the gentile nations during the 70th Week of Daniel's prophecy.[95][96] The olive tree in the Scripture signifies Israel.[97][98] The "witness of the Church" is signified by the two lampstands, whose identity was disclosed by the seven golden lampstands (i.e., candlesticks) revealed in Revelation 2-3 as the “churches.”


Albrecht Dürer, Apocalypse of St John, The Dragon with the Seven Heads

The two witnesses can be interpreted as representing the Church or similar concept. The 1599 Geneva Study Bible asserts the two witnesses are the exclusive purvue of the church.[99] Matthew Henry's Complete Commentary on the Whole Bible gives a somewhat collective expression of the Church as the singular witness.[100] John Wesley in his commentary on Revelation 11 suggests a more spiritual, almost ambiguous, application.[101] John Gill's Exposition of the Bible interprets the two witnesses as the true Church in counterdistinction to the antichrist system of Roman Catholicism.[102] Ross Taylor's Verse by Verse Commentary on Revelation clearly defines the Church as the "two olive trees and the two lampstands."[103]


The identity and importance of the Two Witnesses as actual individuals is held by numerous Biblical literalists. Thomas L. Constable, John Walvoord and J. Dwight Pentecost of Dallas Theological Seminary provide a dispensationalist interpretation of the two witnesses as two "new individuals" to arrive on the prophetic scene yet future.[104][105][106] Paul D. Feinberg defends the pre-tribulational rapture.[107]

The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that the Two Witnesses will be Enoch and Elias (the two individuals who entered bodily into heaven), who will be sent back to earth to preach during the Great Tribulation, and they will be the last martyrs before the Second Coming.

Biblical literalists have incorporated the developments in electronic communications systems with the interpretations of the scripture: "And they of the people and kindreds and tongues and nations shall see their dead bodies three days and an half, and shall not suffer their dead bodies to be put in graves" (Revelation 11:9).

During the 1930s, when television became commercially available, Knoch stated that invention merely needed to be developed further for the literal fulfillment of the above scripture.[108] Two years after the launch of Sputnik, Bloomfield said the events of Revelation 11:9 would be covered by “some kind of television.”[109] In 1962, the first satellite to relay a television signal from Europe to North America was Telstar. Hal Lindsey referred to that specific communication system in his explanation.[110] By 1999, John F. Walvoord,[105]:574 Tim LaHaye,[111] and Grant Jeffrey,[112] leading proponents of the literalist view and authors of best sellers, had explained Revelation 11:9 in terms of literal fulfillments through some form of worldwide satellite television system.

Finally, some note that Jesus' remarks in John 21:22 have a miraculous connotation associated with them – “If I will that he remain till I come, what is that to you? You follow Me.” They say this has strong implication that one of the Apostles is still alive, a feat that is easy to do when it comes to the power of God. Jesus was talking with Peter but referred to John when Peter inquired of what death he would die. They conjecture that with this type of interpretation, individuals like Enoch, Elijah or Moses would not be suitable in that they were under Old Testament law and not under the grace found in the New Testament … therefore, one of the apostles could still be alive today? Some think John must have died after he wrote the Revelation – but his death has never been confirmed in history.

See also

Relevant Biblical texts

Notes and references

  1. Kroll, Paul (1999). "The Two Witnesses". Worldwide Church of God. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  2. "If I Were Told the Future -- Lesson 57: The Two Witnesses". Cyberspace Ministry. 2002. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  3. Blank, Wayne. "Are The Two Witnesses Here Now?". Daily Bible Study. The Church of God. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  4. "Hal Lindsey". 
  5. Taylor, R A (2000-03-17). "Revelation: A Reference Commentary" (PDF). pp. 111–112. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  6. Mark 6:7.
  7. Millett, Michael G. "Reincarnation and Christianity". Elevated Therapy International. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  8. "WELS Topical Q&A: Endtime/Prophecies Two Witnesses". Communication Services. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  9. Exodus 7:16-18.
  10. 1 Kings 17:1-7.
  11. James 5:17.
  12. Wunderlich, Bob. "Eight Good Reasons Why Enoch Must Be One of the Two Witnesses!". Apocalypse Soon: The Xcellent Files. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  13. Hebrews 11:5.
  14. Amy, Stephen. "Daniel 9:24-27". Worship at the Altar. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  15. Dominguez, J. "The Temple... and the Two Witnesses". Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  16. "The Great Catholic Diversion Revealed". Sabbath & Antichrist Truth Revealed. 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-27. 
  17. "Statement on the Antichrist". CICR: WELS Doctrinal Statements. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-27. 
  18. Koenig, Don (2004). "Revelation chapter 17 commentary". The Revelation of Jesus Christ Through the Ages. Retrieved 2007-06-27. 
  19. Revelation 11:7.
  20. "Daniel's 70th Week--Future or Fulfilled?". Used by permission from Ralph Woodrow. Retrieved 2007-06-27. 
  21. "Antichrist". The Catholic Encyclopedia. 1907. Retrieved 2007-06-27. 
  22. Revelation 11:4.
  23. "Hesychius of Jerusalem". The Catholic Encyclopedia. 1907. Retrieved 2007-06-27. 
  24. "Bible Commentaries". Precept Austin. 2007-06-07. Retrieved 2007-06-27. 
  25. "Israel and the Church as the Two Witnesses of Revelation 11 and Daniel 12". The Tribulation Network. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  26. "Historicism Research Foundation". Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  27. "What is the Preterist View of Bible Prophecy?". International Preterist Association. 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  28. Haynes, J. L. "The Meaning of the "Two Witnesses"". Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  29. "Defining Evangelicalism". Institute for the Study of American Evangelicals. April 2005. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  30. "Millennium and Millenarianism". The Catholic Encyclopedia. 1911. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  31. Crutchfield, Larry V. "The Early Church Fathers and the Foundations of Dispensationalism". Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  32. "Christian Millenarianism/Indiana University Press". Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  33. Strandberg, Todd. "The Pretribulation Rapture". Rapture Ready. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  34. Ice, Thomas (2003). "Other articles by Dr. Thomas Ice". Pre-Trib Research Center. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  35. Krieger, Doug (2005-12-25). "Your Covenant with Death...Your Agreement With Hell...The U.S.-Israel Strategic Alliance". Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  36. Ice, Thomas. "The Israeli Elections" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-08-23. 
  37. Lemke, Steve W. "The Biblical Case for Mid-Tribulationalism". Retrieved 2007-08-23. 
  38. Stanton, Gerald B. "A review of the Pre-Wrath rapture of the Church". Retrieved 2007-08-23. 
  39. "The Return of Jesus Christ". Retrieved 2007-08-23. 
  40. Lee-Warner, Bill. "Are the seals of Revelation 6 the wrath of God?". Sola Scriptura. Retrieved 2007-08-23. 
  41. Totten, Rhett (1999). "The "Pre-Wrath Rapture Teaching" Evaluated". The Second Coming of Christ and Rapture Site. Retrieved 2007-08-23. 
  42. ISBN 978-0310254010
  43. "Dispensationalism and its errors Part 2". Sean's Faith Website. Retrieved 2007-08-23. 
  44. "Pre-Trib?...Pre-Mill?....Left Behind". Reformation Theology. 2006-06-23. Retrieved 2007-08-23.  Quoting from Samuel E. Waldron, The End Times Made Simple.
  45. Cooper, Charles. "Who are the 144,000?". Sola Scriptura. Retrieved 2007-08-23. 
  46. Strandberg, Todd. "Tribulation Saint Wannabes". Rapture Ready. Retrieved 2007-08-23. 
  47. Ice, Thomas. "An Interpretation of Matthew 24—25, Part XII". Rapture Ready. Retrieved 2007-08-23. 
  48. Coates, C. A. "Tribulation Saints (extract)". Retrieved 2007-08-24. 
  49. Jeffrey, Grant R. "Why Do Some Teach that the Church will Endure the Tribulation?". Prophecy On Line. Grant R. Jeffrey Ministries. Retrieved 2007-08-24. 
  50. Kirkpatrick, David D (2006-11-14). "For Evangelicals, Supporting Israel Is ‘God's Foreign Policy’". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-08-24. 
  51. Shearer, S.R. "Chapter VIII: Tribulation & Judgment". The New Antipas Papers. Antipas Ministries. Retrieved 2007-08-24. 
  52. Deuteronomy 19:15.
  53. ISBN 978-1591859062.
  54. Patterson, Margot (2006-07-28). "Evangelicals rally for Israel, warn of Iran threat". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 2007-08-24. 
  55. Blumenthal, Max (2006-08-08). "Birth Pangs of a New Christian Zionism". Retrieved 2007-08-24. 
  56. 56.0 56.1 56.2 "Executive Board". Christians United for Israel. 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-25. 
  57. Benhorin, Yitzhak (2006-11-05). "A blessing or a curse? American evangelists explained".,7340,L-3323758,00.html. Retrieved 2007-08-25. 
  58. "Meet Pastor George". Faith Bible Chapel. Retrieved 2007-08-25. 
  59. "A Night To Honor Israel". John Hagee Ministries. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  60. Greene, Richard Allen (2006-07-19). "Evangelical Christians plead for Israel". BBC News. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  61. Baer, Kenneth (2005-05-26). "Security Measures". TNR Online. The New Republic. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  62. Hagee, John (2007-05-16). "Dr. Jerry Falwell- A Pioneer of Christian Zionism". Christians United for Israel. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  63. Wagner, Donald (2003-10-09). "Christians and Zion: British stirrings". The Daily Star. Information Clearing House. Retrieved 2007-09-08. 
  64. Rausch, D A (May 1997). "Christian Zionism: Advanced Information". Elwell Evangelical Dictionary. BELIEVE Religious Information Source. Retrieved 2007-09-08. 
  65. Higgins, Andrew (2006-07-27). "Mr. Hagee Draws Evangelicals By Arguing Jewish State Fulfills Biblical Prophecy". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2007-09-08. 
  66. Haas, Danielle (2002-07-10). "U.S. Christians find cause to aid Israel: Evangelicals financing immigrants, settlements". San Francisco Chronicle. pp. A-1. Retrieved 2007-09-08. 
  67. "A Concise Summary of Who We Are". Bridges for Peace. 2006. Retrieved 2007-09-09. 
  68. "Churches and Ministries that Support Israel". International Fellowship of Christians and Jews. 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-09. 
  69. "About Us: Your Embassy in Jerusalem". International Christian Embassy Jerusalem. Retrieved 2007-09-09. 
  70. "About Ebenezer". Operation Exodus. Ebenezer Emergency Fund International. 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-09. 
  71. "Faith Bible Chapel Adopts Ariel". Shalom Ariel. Ariel Development Fund. Autumn 1996. pp. 4–5. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  72. 72.0 72.1 Brog, David (2006). Standing with Israel: Why Christians Support the Jewish State. Frontline. ISBN 9781591859062. 
  73. "Alternative Voice to Christian Zionism". First Congregational Church. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  74. Wagner, Donald (2003-06-28). "The Evangelical-Jewish Alliance". The Christian Century. pp. 20–24. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  75. "Challenging Christian Zionism". 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  76. "Premillenarian". 
  77. "pretribulational;". 
  78. "Christian Zionists: Fundamentalist Christians' support of Israel could blunt Jewish opposition to religious right agenda". Jews On First!. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  79. Krusch, David (2007). "Christian Zionism". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Exchange. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  80. Shearer, S.R.. "The Religious Right and Israel; A Relationship That Cannot Hold, Part III". Antipas Ministries. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  81. Shearer, S. R (2006-12-12). "The Neo-Conservatives". Antipas Ministries. Retrieved 2007-12-17. 
  82. Korten, David (2004-11-07). "Renewing the American Experiment: A Post Election Reflection". Yes! Online. Retrieved 2007-12-17. 
  83. Green, Stephen (2004-02-28). "Serving Two Flags: Neo-Cons, Israel and the Bush Administration". Counterpunch. Retrieved 2007-12-17. 
  84. Lobe, Jim (2003-03-27). "All in the Neocon Family". AlterNet. Independent Media Institute. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  85. Neuhaus, Richard John (2006-11-03). "RJN: Neocons v. Theocons: The Sequel". First Things: On the Square. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  86. Moore, Scott H. (Winter 1998). "The End of Convenient Stereotypes: How the First Things and Baxter Controversies Inaugurate Extraordinary Politics" ([dead link]Scholar search). Pro Ecclesia 7 (1): 17–47. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  87. "Cliff Potts Releases Theocon Nation: The Unvarnished, Politically Incorrect Truth About the Roots, Threat and Response to the Religious Right Political Movement". Press release. 2006-05-26. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  88. Krieger, Doug. "Theo-Neo-Paleo Cons: …I saw a woman mounted on a Scarlet-colored Beast (Rev. 17:3 – ASV/the Message: Part XII – The Prophetic Sequence". The Tribulation Network. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  89. Linker, Damon. "Damon Linker". Retrieved 2007-12-24. 
  90. "Evangelicals & Catholics Together: The Christian Mission in the Third Millennium". First Things: pp. 15–22. May 1994. Retrieved 2007-12-24. 
  91. "The Dragon and Two Beasts of Revelation". Atlantis Station. 2006-09-21. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  92. Revelation 11:3
  93. Matthew 24:14
  94. Fruchtenbaum, Arnold G. (2006-10-26). "Premillennialism in the Old Testament (Part 1)". Believer's Web. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  95. Bullinger, E. W. (2001) [1921]. Number in Scripture: Its Supernatural Design and Spiritual Significance (4th ed. rev. ed.). London: Eyre & Spottiswoode (Bible Warehouse). Retrieved 2007-12-24. 
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  97. McCall, Thomas S. (March 2001). "What is the Olive Tree?". Levitt Letter. Zola Levitt Ministries. Retrieved 2007-12-25. 
  98. Kuenzi, Vernon L. (2001). "Restoring the Vision of the End Times Church". Retrieved 2007-12-25. 
  99. "Revelation 11". Geneva Study Bible. 
  100. Matthew Henry. "Revelation 11". 
  101. John Wesley. "Revelation 11". 
  102. John Gill. "Revelation 11:3". 
  103. Ross Taylor. "Ch 11: The Two Witnesses". 
  104. Constable, Thomas L. (2007). "Notes on Revelation: 2007 Edition" (PDF). Sonic Light. pp. 98. Retrieved 2007-08-28. 
  105. 105.0 105.1 Walvoord, John (1999). Every Prophecy of the Bible. David C. Cook. ISBN 1564767582. 
  106. Pentecost, J. Dwight (1962). Things to Come. Findlay, Ohio: Dunham Publishing Company. p. 308. 
  107. Archer, Gleason L. (2008). "Three Views on the Rapture – Pre-, Mid-,or Post Tribulation". Zondervan Publishing Company. 
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