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Twelve Heavenly Generals

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Tijinoyakusi2

Bhaisajyaguru Buddha (center) accompanied by one of the Twelve Heavenly Generals

In some Buddhist denominations, the Twelve Heavenly Generals or Twelve Divine Generals are the protective deities, or yaksha, of Bhaisajyaguru, the buddha of healing. They are introduced in the Bhaiṣajyaguruvaidūryaprabharāja Sūtra.[1] They are collectively named as follows:

The names of the generals are:[2]

Sanskrit Japanese
(kanji)
Japanese
(romanized)
Chinese
(Pinyin)
Kumbhīra 宮毘羅
金毘羅
Kubira
Konpira (Shinto deity)
Guan1pi2luo4,
Jin1pei2luo4
Vajra 伐折羅 Basara, Bazara Fa2zhe2luo4
Mihira 迷企羅 Mekira, Meikira Mi2qi3luo4
Aṇḍīra 安底羅 Anteira
Anchira
An1di4luo4
Anila 頞儞羅 Anira E4ni2luo4
Śaṇḍilya 珊底羅 Santeira, Sanchira Shan1di4luo4
Indra 因達羅
帝釈天
Indara, Indatsura Yin1da4luo4, Di4shi4tian1
Pajra 波夷羅 Haira Bo1yi4luo4
Mahoraga 摩虎羅
摩睺羅伽
Makora, Makura Mo4hu3luo4, Mo4hou2luo2jia1
Kinnara 真達羅 Shintara, Kimnara Zhen1da4luo4
Catura 招杜羅 Shōtora
Shatora
Zhao1du4luo4
Vikarāla 毘羯羅 Bikara
Bigyara
Pi2jie2luo4

The goddess Marishi-Ten, protector of warriors and protector against fire is sometimes worshipped as one of the Twelve Heavenly Generals.[2]

See also

  • The Glossary of Japanese Buddhism for an explanation of terms concerning Japanese Buddhism, Japanese Buddhist art, and Japanese Buddhist temple architecture.

References

  1. Mary Neighbour Parent (2001). "JAANUS - Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System". Japanese Architectural and Art Historical Terminology (online ed.). http://www.aisf.or.jp/%7Ejaanus/. Retrieved 2009-04-20. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Mark Schumacher. "12 Divine Generals of Yakushi Buddha". A to Z Photo Dictionary: Japanese Buddhist Statuary. http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/12-generals.shtml. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
ja:十二神将

zh:十二神將

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