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Tulayha ibn Khuwaylid ibn Nawfal al-Asadi belonged to the Bani Assad tribe. He was a wealthy chief and a great warrior. In 625 he was defeated in the Expedition of Qatan (against the Muslims). He also took part in the Battle of the Trench in 627. In 630 he submitted to Muhammad. However, he rebelled against Muhammad in 631 when he claimed to be a prophet and the recipient of divine revelation. Thus, Tulayha became the third person to claim prophethood among the Arabs against Muhammad. Many tribes acknowledged him as a prophet, which made him sufficiently strong and powerful to lead a confederacy of numerous tribes against the Muslims. Thereafter, Khalid ibn al-Walid was sent to crush him and his confederacy. The armies of Khalid and Tulayha met at a place named Buzaka in 632. In this engagement, the army of Tulayha was defeated in the Battle of Buzakha. Following this battle, many of the rebellious tribes surrendered and accepted Islam. However, Tulayha escaped from Buzaka and sought refuge in Syria. But when Syria was conquered by the Muslims, Tulayha accepted Islam. In 634, he personally paid homage to Umar after the latter’s assumption of the position of Caliph. Later on, Tulayha enthusiastically took part in the Battle of Jalula, the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah and the Battle of Nahāvand alongside the Muslim armies and later died as a Muslim.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Islamic desk reference, By E. J. van Donzel, pg.458
- ↑ Muhammad, the messenger of Islam By Hajjah Amina Adil, Shaykh Muhammad Nazim Adil Al-Haqqani, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, pg.551
- E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, By Martijn Theodoor Houtsma, T W Arnold, A J Wensinck, pg.831, Tulayha’s characteristics described.
- Islam at war, By George F. Nafziger, Mark W. Walton, pg.17, Tulayha’s humour.
- Islamic History, By M. A. Shaban, pg.30, Tulayha joins the Muslim army to fight the Sassanid Empire.