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Titthāyatana: the 3 'articles of heretical belief'. which in A. III, 61 are declared as leading to inactivity, are: 1 the belief that all happiness and woe are produced through former kamma prenatal actions; 2 that everything is uncaused; 3 that everything is created by God.

1 is the teaching of Niggantha-Nāthaputta, the leader of the Nigganthas, the modern Jains. The fault with this doctrine is that it does not account for that happiness and woe which either are the result of the present life's good or bad action, or are associated with the corresponding action. 2 is the doctrine of Makkhali Gosāla; see: ditthi

According to the above 3 doctrines, man is not responsible for his actions, so that all moral exertions become useless.


Maha Thera Nyanatiloka. Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines, Buddhist Publication Society, first edition 1952.

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