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As the oldest branch of Christianity, along with Eastern Orthodoxy,[1] the history of the Catholic Church plays an integral part of the History of Christianity as a whole. This article covers a period of just under 2,000 years.

Over time, schisms have disrupted the unity of Christianity. The major divisions occurred in c.144 with Marcionism[2], 318 with Arianism, in 1054 the East-West Schism of the Catholic Church with the Eastern Orthodox churches and in 1517 with the Protestant Reformation. The Catholic Church has been the moving force in some of the major events of world history including the evangelization of Europe and Latin America, the spreading of literacy and the foundation of the universities, hospitals, Western monasticism, the development of art, music, literature, architecture, the scientific method, and trial by jury. Also playing a role in world affairs including, the Inquisition, the Crusades, an analytical philosophical method, and the downfall of communism in Eastern Europe in the late 20th century.

Ministry of Jesus and founding Edit

Christ pantocrator daphne1090-1100

Byzantine image depicting Jesus as Christ pantocrator

The Catholic Church's institutional basis is the person and teachings of Jesus Christ (b. 6 – 4 BC Bethlehem, d. AD 33 Jerusalem) as described in the four Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The Gospels describe Jesus as an observant Jewish carpenter from the region of Galilee, who was both the promised Messiah or anointed one (Christos in Greek, giving rise to the title Jesus Christ) and Son of God, in fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy. Catholicism thus considers itself a successor religion to Judaism with the Christian God and the God of the Jews seen as one and the same.

According to the four Gospels, when Jesus was about thirty years of age (Luke 3:23), he left the town of Nazareth and began a ministry of preaching and miraculous healing. In his preaching, he called for repentance (Mark 1:15), presenting God as a loving Father (God the Father) always ready to forgive. He also called on people to imitate the goodness and love of God towards all. He gained a following of people who saw him as a Rabbi and in some cases wondered if he could be the Messiah. He, however, aroused opposition from the Jewish religious leadership and authorities, see Rejection of Jesus. They saw his teachings as dangerous to traditional Jewish doctrine and practice, and felt that his hints about his own personal identity were blasphemous. According to the Gospel of Matthew, chapter 16, thus:

13 When Jesus went into the region of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, "Who do people say that the Son of Man is?" 14

   They replied, "Some say John the Baptist, others Elijah, still others Jeremiah or one of the prophets."

15

   He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?"

16

   Simon Peter said in reply, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God."

17

   Jesus said to him in reply, "Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah. For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father in Heaven.

18

   And so I say unto you, you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hell shall not prevail against it.

19

   And I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven."

20

    Then he strictly ordered his disciples to tell no one that he was the Messiah.

The Gospels give a detailed account of Jesus' final days, when, probably in his mid-thirties, Jesus was arrested by the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem and was charged with blasphemy. During the trial by the Sanhedrin, he declared himself the Messiah. The Sanhedrin then persuaded the authorities of the Roman Empire, who ruled the region as Iudaea Province, to sentence him to death; after which, he was scourged, beaten, and crucified. The Passion of Christ as recounted in the Gospels, tells of the events of Good Friday through Easter, when, according to the New Testament account, Jesus rose from the dead and appeared to his disciples. By its own reckoning, the Church began on the first Pentecost when the Holy Spirit descended on the apostles and disciples in the Upper Room.

Jesus had earlier stated that he would entrust to Simon Peter the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven after being singled out and revealed by God the Father that upon the "rock" (Latin Petrus, Greek Petros, and Aramaic Cepha) of Peter, Jesus would found his Church. Simon Peter was singled out again in the context of the Gospel of John, chapter 21 with the explicit verbal commands of "Feed my lambs", "Tend my sheep" and "Feed my sheep" in verses 15 to 17, thus:

15
   When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you." He said to him, "Feed my lambs."

16

   He then said to him a second time, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you." He said to him, "Tend my sheep."

17

   He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" Peter was distressed that he had said to him a third time, "Do you love me?" and he said to him, "Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you." Jesus said to him, "Feed my sheep."

It is on these foundational bases of scripture that the Catholic Church believes the Pope as the successor of Saint Peter and the singular leader of the whole Church on earth. The doctrines of Papal authority and Primacy of the Roman Pontiff continue to be reasons of division between the Catholic Church and other Christian groups, such as the Eastern Orthodox and Protestants.

Up to 312 AD Edit

  • Although the calculations of Dionysius Exiguus put the birth of Jesus in the year that in consequence is called AD 1, history places his birth more likely some time between 6 and 4 BC.
Mathis Gothart Grünewald 022

Jesus Christ dies on the cross

  • c. 27: Jesus' baptism, start of ministry, and selection of the Apostles. The Gospel of Luke indicates that Christ was baptized during the 15th reign of Tiberius Caesar which is dated in 27 A.D (found in Luke 3:1,21,22). Christian Gospels strongly implicate Peter as leader and spokesman of the Apostles of Jesus being mentioned the most number of times in the Gospels. Peter, and the sons of Zebedee, James and John, constitute the inner circle of the Apostles of Jesus being witnesses to specific important events of the life of Jesus. Major preachings of Jesus, such as the Sermon on the Mount. Performance of miracles, such as raising the dead back to life, feeding five-thousand, walking on water, etc.
  • c. 33: Peter declares and other followers believe Jesus of Nazareth to be the Jewish Messiah promised by Yahweh according to the Jewish Scriptures and the predictions of the Hebrew prophets. Entry into Jerusalem, start of Passion of Christ. Jesus of Nazareth is crucified in Jerusalem under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea during the reign of Tiberius and Herod Antipas, after the Sandhedrin, under the High Priest Caiaphas, accuse Jesus of blasphemy. He was crucified by the Romans, however, under the political crime of sedition and rebellion as the titulus on his cross indicated his crime clearly as: "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews". According to his followers, three days later, "God raised him from the dead",[3] or, as they also express it, he "has risen."[4] Forty days after his resurrection (Ascension), the Christian Gospels narrate that Jesus instructed His disciples thus: "All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of time." (Matthew 28:18-20). Ten days later (Pentecost) Peter makes the first sermon converting 3,000 to be baptized. From this point onwards, the teachings of Jesus are spread throughout the Roman Empire and beyond forming into churches led by the Apostles. Christian tradition records that the Christian Church in Rome was jointly founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul, and that Peter was its first bishop.
  • c. 34: St. Stephen, a deacon and first Christian martyr, stoned to death in Jerusalem.
  • c. 50: Council of Jerusalem
  • c. 52: Traditional arrival of St. Thomas, the Apostle in India.
  • c. 64: Christian persecution begins under Emperor Nero after the great fire of Rome. Persecution continues intermittently until 313 A.D..
  • c. 64-67?: Death of St. Peter and St. Paul in Rome.
  • c. 70: Fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple.
  • c. 72: Martyrdom of St. Thomas the Apostle at Mylapore.
  • c. 96: Traditional date of First Epistle of Clement attributed to Pope Clement I written to the church of Corinth.
  • c. 100: St. John, the last of the Apostles, dies in Ephesus.[5][6]
  • c. 110: Ignatius of Antioch uses the term Catholic Church in a letter to the Church at Smyrna, one of the letters of undisputed authenticity attributed to him. In this and other genuine letters he insists on the importance of the bishops in the Church and speaks harshly about heretics and Judaizers.
  • c. 150: Latin translations (the Vetus Latina) from the Greek texts of the Scriptures are circulated among non-Greek-speaking Christian communities.
  • c. 155: The teachings of Marcion, the gnostic Valentinus and pentecostal Montanists cause disruptions in the Roman community. Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire continues.
  • c. 180: Irenaeus's Adversus Haereses brings the concept of "heresy" further to the fore in the first systematic attempt to counter Gnostic and other aberrant teachings.
  • c. 195: Pope Victor I, first African Pope, excommunicated the Quartodecimans in an Easter controversy. Some think he may have been the first pope to celebrate Mass in Latin instead of Greek.[7]
  • c. 200: Tertullian, first great Christian Latin writer, coined for Christian concepts Latin terms such as "Trinitas", "Tres Personae", "Una Substantia", "Sacramentum"
  • c. 250: Pope Fabian is said to have sent out seven bishops from Rome to Gaul to preach the Gospel: Gatien to Tours, Trophimus to Arles, Paul to Narbonne, Saturnin to Toulouse, Denis to Paris, Austromoine to Clermont, and Martial to Limoges.
  • January 20, 250: Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Pope Fabian is martyred. Afterwards the Donatist controversy over readmitting lapsed Christians disaffects many in North Africa.
  • October 28, 312: Emperor Constantine leads the forces of the Roman Empire to victory at the Battle of Milvian Bridge. Tradition has it that, the night before the battle, Constantine had a vision that he would achieve victory if he fought under the Symbol of Christ; accordingly, his soldiers bore on their shields the Chi-Rho sign composed of the first two letters of the Greek word for "Christ" (ΧΡΙΣΤΌΣ). After winning the battle, Constantine legalized Christianity. He himself was not baptized until shortly before death.

313–476 Edit

Constantine Musei Capitolini

Head of Constantine's colossal statue at Musei Capitolini

477–799Edit

Meister von San Vitale in Ravenna

Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy

800–1453 Edit

Paris Notre-Dame, July 2001

Notre-Dame Cathedral - designed in the Gothic architectural style.

1454–1600 Edit

Michelangelo's Pieta 5450 cropncleaned

Michelangelo's Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City

1600–1800 Edit

Part of a series of articles on
Social Teachings
of the Popes
Emblem of the Papacy SE

Pope Leo XIII
Rerum Novarum

Pope Pius XI
Quadragesimo Anno

Pope Pius XII
Social teachings

Pope John XXIII
Mater et Magistra
Pacem in Terris

Vatican II
Dignitatis Humanae
Gaudium et Spes

Pope Paul VI
Populorum progressio

Pope John Paul II
Centesimus Annus
Laborem Exercens
Sollicitudo Rei Socialis

Pope Benedict XVI
Caritas in Veritate

General
Social Teachings of the Popes
Catholic social teaching
Subsidiarity

19th century Edit

20th centuryEdit

  • 1903-1914:Saint Pope Pius X numerous reforms, staunch defender of the faith, introducing frequent communion, promoting Gregorian Chant Problems with France. He is the most recent Pope to be canonized a saint. Prior to him was Pope St. Pius V.
  • 1914-1918 Pope Benedict XV declares neutrality during World War I his peace innitatives are rejected by both sides as favoring the other. Massive papal charity in Europe.
Part of a series of articles on
20th Century
Persecutions of the
Catholic Church


Mexico
Cristero War  · Iniquis Afflictisque </div>
Saints  · José Sánchez del Río
Persecution in Mexico  · Miguel Pro

Spain
498 Spanish Martyrs
Red Terror (Spain) · Dilectissima Nobis
Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War
Martyrs of Daimiel
Bartolome Blanco Marquez
Innocencio of Mary Immaculate

Germany
Mit brennender Sorge  · Alfred Delp</div>
Alois Grimm · Rupert Mayer </div>
Bernhard Lichtenberg · Max Josef Metzger
Karl Leisner  · Maximilian Kolbe

China
Persecution in China · Ad Sinarum Gentem ·
Cupimus Imprimis  · Ad Apostolorum Principis
Ignatius Kung Pin-Mei · Beda Chang
Dominic Tang
Poland
Stefan Wyszyński
108 Martyrs of World War Two · Policies
Poloniae Annalibus  · Gloriosam Reginam
Invicti Athletae · Jerzy Popiełuszko

Eastern Europe
Jozsef Mindszenty  · Eugene Bossilkov
Josef Beran  · Aloysius Stepinac
Meminisse Juvat  · Anni Sacri

El Salvador
Maura Clarke  · Ignacio Ellacuría </div>
Ita Ford  · Rutilio Grande </div>
Dorothy Kazel  · Ignacio Martín-Baró </div>
Segundo Montes  · Óscar Romero </div>

General
Persecution of Christians
Church persecutions 1939-1958
Vatican and Eastern Europe </div>
Vatican USSR policies
Eastern Catholic persecutions
Terrible Triangle
Conspiracy of Silence (Church persecutions)

  • 1916: Charles I of Austria is crowned Emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He is one of the last Catholic monarchs. Charles attempted to negotiate peace between the warring nations during World War One. His attempts at peace are largely ignored.
  • 1917: Canon Law for the Roman Catholic Church published by Pope Benedict XV

The apparition of Our Lady of Fatima occurs in Fatima, Portugal over the course of six months ending in the Miracle of the Sun. This apparition is considered to be among the most important in the Catholic Church.

1939 St.Patrick's Cathedral in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia was finished being built.

  • During WWII: Convents, monasteries, and the Vatican are used to hide Jews and others targeted by the Nazis for extermination. (see The Myth of Hitler's Pope) St. Maximilian Kolbe is martyred in Auschwitz concentration camp after volunteering to die in place of a stranger. The Nazis imprison and at times execute Catholic clergy, monks and nuns not compliant to Nazi ideology.
  • 1943: Encyclicals of Pope Pius XII Mystici Corporis defining the Catholic Church as the Body of Christ;
  • 1943: Encyclical Mediator Dei, opening biblical research to Catholic scholars
  • 1944: The German Army occupies Rome. Adolf Hitler proclaims he will respect Vatican neutrality; however several incidents, such as giving aid to downed Allied airmen, nearly cause Nazi Germany to invade the Vatican. Rome is liberated by the Allies after only a few weeks of occupation.
  • 1950:Holy Year declared by Pope Pius XII, who announced on December 25, 1950 that the Tomb of Saint Peter had been identified by archeologists underneath Saint Peter Basilica; canonization of Pope Pius X, Maria Goretti; encyclical Humani Generis
  • 1950: The Assumption of Mary is defined as dogma by Pius XII
  • 1954: First Marian year in Church history proclaimed by Pius XII, who introduced Marian Feast Queenship of Mary
  • October 11, 1962: Pope John XXIII opens the Second Ecumenical Vatican Council. The 21st ecumenical council of the Catholic Church emphasized the universal call to holiness and brought many changes in practices, including an increased emphasis on ecumenism; fewer rules on penances, fasting and other devotional practices; and initiating a revision of the services, which were to be slightly simplified and made supposedly more accessible by allowing the use of native languages instead of Latin. Opposition to changes inspired by the Council gave rise to the movement of Traditionalist Catholics who disagree with changing the old forms of worship and disagree with the rise of previously condemned philosophies now being adopted by clergy and laity.
  • December 7, 1965: Joint Catholic-Orthodox Declaration of Pope Paul VI and the Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras I. Mutual excommunication of the Great Schism of 1054 against Catholic and Orthodox is lifted by both parties.
  • December 8, 1965: Pope Paul VI solemnly closes the Second Vatican Council.
  • 1970: Revision of the Roman Missal, following on gradual introduction of vernacular languages in celebration of Mass.
  • 1973: Sister Agnes Katsuko Sasagawa in the remote area of Yuzawadai, near the city of Akita in Japan reports seeing a number of apparitions now known as Our Lady of Akita.
  • August 26, 1978: Pope John Paul I becomes the first pope to use a double regnal name. He reigns for only 33 days.
  • October 16, 1978: Pope John Paul II becomes the first Polish pope and first non-Italian pope elected in 450 years; influential in overthrowing communism in Europe.
  • 1984: First World Youth Day instituted by Pope John Paul II celebrated in Rome. Celebrated between Rome and a different city in alternating sequence every year.
  • 1987 Marian year announced by John Paul II in the encyclical Redemptoris Mater
  • June 30, 1988: Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre of the Society of St. Pius X (SSPX), consecrates four men as bishops at Ecône, Switzerland without the express permission of the Pope. Lefebvre et al. automatically incurs excommunication according to canon law. Traditionalist bishops of the SSPX have been in schism (though this is debated) ever since, however the excommunication does not extend to the priests, religious or lay supporters of the SSPX.[15]
  • December 31, 1991: The Soviet Union is officially dissolved. Persecuted Catholic Church re-emerges out of hiding, especially in the Ukraine and Baltic States.
  • 1992: The new Catechism of the Catholic Church is first published, in Latin and French.
  • 1994: Ordinatio Sacerdotalis, an Apostolic Letter upholding a prohibition against ordination of women to the priesthood, is promulgated by Pope John Paul II.

21st century Edit

Pope Benedictus XVI january,20 2006 (20)

Benedict XVI, the first Pope elected in the 21st century

  • April 30, 2000 : Pope John Paul II canonized St. Faustina and designated the Sunday after Easter as Divine Mercy Sunday in the General Roman Calendar, with effect from the following year.
  • January 1, 2001: The 21st century and the new millennium begin. The Church solemnizes the start of the third Christian millennium by extending into part of the year 2001 the jubilee year that it observes at 25-year intervals and that, in the case of the year 2000, it called the Great Jubilee.
  • January 6, 2001: John Paul II issues Novo Millennio Ineunte, a program for the Church in the new millennium, wherein he placed sanctity through a training in prayer as the most important priority of the Catholic Church in consonance with its purpose.
  • January 18, 2002: Former American priest John Geoghan is convicted of child molestation and sentenced to ten years in prison, as part of the ongoing sex abuse scandal. The Geoghan case was one of the worst scandals of the Catholic Church in the USA.
  • April 2, 2005: Pope John Paul II dies at the age of 84. His funeral is broadcast to every corner of the globe through the modern media. Millions of Catholic pilgrims journey to Rome to pay final respects.
  • April 19, 2005: German-born Cardinal Joseph Alois Ratzinger is elected by the College of Cardinals as Pope Benedict XVI, thus becoming the first Pope elected during the 21st century and the 3rd millennium.
  • August 18, 2005: Pope Benedict XVI attends the World Youth Day in Cologne, Germany, his first trip outside Italy.
  • September 12, 2006: Pope Benedict XVI delivers address on Faith, Reason in University of Regensburg. Benedict maintained that in the Western world, to a large degree, only positivistic reason and philosophy are valid. A concept of reason which excludes the divine, is incapable of entering into the dialogue of cultures, according to Benedict. [16] He quoted negative views of Emperor Manuel II Paleologus, regarding Islam, which several weeks after it was delivered, created violent reactions among Muslims in several parts of the world.[17][18][19][20][21]
  • June 11, 2007 Pope Benedict XVI reverted the decision of his predecessor regarding papal elections,and restored the traditional two-thirds majority required [22]
  • July 7, 2007: Motu proprio Summorum Pontificum is issued by Pope Benedict XVI explicitly liberating the Roman Missal of 1962 as the extraordinary form of the Roman Rite. Hopes of healing the schism between the SSPX and the Catholic Church is implied in accompanying letter to the motu proprio.
  • October 28, 2007: Pope Benedict XVI authorizes the largest beatification ceremony in Church history involving 498 Spanish Martyrs who were killed during the Civil War in Spain.
  • May 2008: A solemn declaration agreed on between Pope Benedict XVI and Muslims, led by Mahdi Mostafavi stressed, that genuine religion is essentially non-violent and that violence can be justified neither by reason nor by faith.[23]
  • July 2008: Pope Benedict XVI participates in Sydney Australia in the World Youth Day and announces Spain as the country to host the next one.

See also Edit

Template:Historyportal

External Links

References Edit

  1. The Eastern Orthodox and some other churches are also apostolic in origin — i.e., they also date their origins back to the founding of the Church at the time of the Apostles
  2. Wikisource-logo.svg "Marcionites". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Marcionites. : "...they were perhaps the most dangerous foe Christianity has ever known."
  3. Acts 2:24, Romans 10:9, 1 Cor 15:15, Acts 2:31-32, 3:15, 3:26, 4:10, 5:30, 10:40-41, 13:30, 13:34, 13:37, 17:30-31, 1 Cor 6:14, 2 Cor 4:14, Gal 1:1, Eph 1:20, Col 2:12, 1 Thess 1:10, Heb 13:20, 1 Pet 1:3, 1:21
  4. Mark 16:9, Luke 24:7, Luke 24:46, John 20:9, Acts 10:41, Acts 17:3, Acts 1:22, Acts 2:31, Acts 4:33,
  5. Wikisource-logo.svg "St. John the Evangelist". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/St._John_the_Evangelist. 
  6. St. John the Evangelist, ewtn.com, retrieved September 30, 2006
  7. This statement is made in derivative websites such as Cultural Catholic (retrieved 28 September 2006) and Catholic Apologetics International (retrieved 28 September 2006); but liturgical scholars are doubtful: early-twentieth-century Adrian Fortescue merely says, in two Catholic Encyclopedia articles, Liturgy of the Mass and Latin Church that, on the basis of the uncertain attribution to him of a work found among the writings of Saint Cyprian, Pope Victor seems to have been the first Pope "to use Latin at Rome" (referring to writing, not to liturgy); and the later Josef Jungmann makes no mention of this theory about Pope Victor, and states that the burial inscriptions of the Popes, which begin to be in Latin only with Pope Cornelius (d. 253), indicate that the change occurred later, while he observes that both languages will have been used in Rome for some centuries, according to the languages of the various groups of Christians in the city (page 65 of volume I of his Missarum Sollemnia - Eine genetische Erklärung der römischen Messe (Vienna, 1949) - the English translation, also in two volumes, is titled "The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Development", and has been referred to as a "classic work", which "may be the best text on this most important mystery of our faith"[1]).
  8. 8.0 8.1 De Imperatoribus Romanis - Constantine I, retrieved February 23, 2007
  9. Date is according to the Catholic Encyclopedia (Wikisource-logo.svg "The First Council of Nicaea". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/The_First_Council_of_Nicaea. ) but is not definitive.
  10. Theodosian Code XVI.1.2 Medieval Sourcebook: Banning of Other Religions by Paul Halsall, June 1997, Fordham University, retrieved September 25, 2006
  11. IMPERATORIS THEODOSIANI CODEX Liber Decimus Sextus, Emperor Theodosius, George Mason University retrieved September 25, 2006
  12. Theodosian Code XVI.1.2:
    It is our desire that all the various nations which are subject to our clemency and moderation, should continue the profession of that religion which was delivered to the Romans by the divine Apostle Peter, as it has been preserved by faithful tradition and which is now professed by the Pontiff Damasus and by Peter, Bishop of Alexandria, a man of apostolic holiness. According to the apostolic teaching and the doctrine of the Gospel, let us believe in the one Deity of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, in equal majesty and in a holy Trinity. We authorize the followers of this law to assume the title Catholic Christians; but as for the others, since in our judgement they are foolish madmen, we decree that they shall be branded with the ignominious name of heretics, and shall not presume to give their conventicles the name of churches. They will suffer in the first place the chastisement of divine condemnation and the second punishment of our authority, in accordance with the will of heaven shall decide to inflict.
    from Henry Bettenson, ed., Documents of the Christian Church, (London: Oxford University Press, 1943), p. 31 [Short extract used under fair-use provisions]
  13. Suave Molecules of Mocha Coffee, Chemistry, and Civilization, New Partisan - A Journal of Culture, Arts and Politics, Mar. 7, 2005, retrieved October 23, 2006
  14. Hubert Jedin, Church history, 619
  15. Schism of SSPX Pete Vere, My Journey out of the Lefebvre Schism: All Tradition Leads to Rome, Catholic Education Resource Center, retrieved November 20, 2006
  16. Benedict XVI, Meeting with the representatives of science in the Aula Magna of the University of Regensburg (September 12, 2006)
  17. Faith, Reason and the University Memories and Reflections from official Vatican website, retrieved October 18, 2006
  18. "Three Stages in the Program of De-Hellenization" by Pope Benedict XVI, Zenit News Agency, retrieved October 18, 2006
  19. Pope Is Regretful That His Speech Angered Muslims, Sep. 17, 2006, L.A. Times, retrieved October 18, 2006
  20. Al Qaeda threat over pope speech, Sep. 18, 2006, CNN.com retrieved October 18, 2006
  21. Qaeda-led group vows "jihad" over Pope's speech, Sep. 18, 2006, Reuters, retrieved October 18, 2006
  22. Moto Proprio, De Aliquibus Mutationibus, June 11, 2007
  23. Kleiber, Reinhard (2008). "Iran and the Pope Easing Relations". Quantara. http://209.85.165.104/search?q=cache:sO2sUod5fnQJ:www.qantara.de/webcom/show_article.php/_c-478/_nr-759/i.html+Pope+Benedict+agreement+with+muslims&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=us. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 

Further reading Edit

Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Revised and expanded ed. New York: Image Books Doubleday, 2005. ISBN 0-385-51613-4

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