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Timeline of Jerusalem

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Old City (Jerusalem)
Jerusalem


This is a partial timeline of major events in the History of Jerusalem:

1800 BCE
The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem).
993 BCE
King David attacks and captures Jerusalem. Jerusalem becomes City of David and capital of the United Kingdom of Israel.
c. 967 BCE
King Solomon builds the First Temple.
937 BCE
Jerusalem becomes the capital of the (southern) Kingdom of Judah led by Rehoboam after the split of the United Monarchy.
712 BCE
The Assyrians lay an unsuccessful siege on Jerusalem.
c. 712 BCE
King Hezekiah builds the Pool of Siloam tunnel in order to supply the Gihon Spring water to the city.
606 BCE-586 BCE
The Babylonians destroy Jerusalem in three waves of attacks. King Nebuchadnezzar burns Solomon's Temple in 586 BCE.
537 BCE
King Cyrus the Great allows the Israelites to return from the Babylonian captivity and rebuild the Temple. The first wave, led by Sheshbazzar, repatriates and reestablishes sacrificial worship on the site of the destroyed Temple. The second wave is led by Zerubbabel, the appointed governor of Judah and the high priest Joshua son of Jehozadak (Haggai 1:12).
516 BCE
The Second Temple is built on the 6th year of Darius the Great.
458 BCE
Ezra leads 1,800 Jews from Babylonia
445 BCE
The appointed governor of Judah Nehemiah rebuilds the Old City walls
410 BCE
The Great Assembly is established in Jerusalem.
332 BCE
Hellenistic domination under Alexander the Great.
313 BCE
Ptolemy I of Egypt rules Jerusalem.
175 BCE-165 BCE
Antiochus Epiphanes sacks Jerusalem and erects an altar to Zeus in the Second Temple after plundering it.
167 BCE-164 BCE
Maccabean revolt.
165 BCE 25 Kislev
The Maccabees recapture Jerusalem, rededicate the Temple (see Hanukkah). Jewish autonomy is restored under the Hasmoneans.
134 BCE
Antiochus VII Sidetes recapture the city and he left the city to John Hyrcanus, who depends on him.
63 BCE
Roman invasion by Pompey.
37 BCE
Jerusalem is the capital of Roman client kingdom under Herod the Great, appointed by Rome.
19 BCE
Herod expands the Temple Mount and rebuilds the Temple (the Herod's Temple).
- CE -
6
Census of Quirinius, Jerusalem becomes a part of the Roman province Iudaea, ruled by procurators.
c.33
Crucifixion of Jesus, see also Jerusalem in Christianity.
c.50
Council of Jerusalem.
66-73
First Jewish-Roman War.
70
Titus besieges and sacks Jerusalem and destroys the Temple on Tisha B'Av. Sanhedrin relocated to Yavne, see also Council of Jamnia.
132-135
Hadrian crushes Bar Kokhba's revolt, reestablishes Jerusalem as the Roman pagan polis Aelia Capitolina, and forbids Jewish presence.
325
Jerusalem receives special recognition in Canon VII of the First Council of Nicaea[1].
361-363
Tolerant to other faiths, pagan Emperor Julian the Apostate announces to the Jews that they are allowed to return to "holy Jerusalem which you have for many years longed to see rebuilt".
390s
Church of the Holy Sepulchre is built.
614
Jerusalem falls to Persians led by General Shahrbaraz. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is burned and the True Cross is captured. "Ever since the Persian occupation, ... the Jews had resumed worship on the (Temple Mount) platform ..." (K. Armstrong: p. 229)
629 March 21
Byzantine Emperor Heraclius retakes Jerusalem.
638
Muslim Arabs under the leadership of Caliph Umar conquer Jerusalem from Christian Byzantine Empire.
687-691
The Dome of the Rock mosque is built by Caliph Abd al-Malik.
692
Orthodox Council in Trullo formally makes Jerusalem one of the Pentarchy (disputed by Roman Catholicism).
715
The Ummayads build Masjid al-Aqsa.
750
The Abbasids take the city.
878
the Tulunids take the city.
904
The Abbasids retake the city.
939
The Ikhshidid take the city.
969
The Fatimid take the city by General Gawhar Al-Siqilli.
1009
Caliph Hakim orders destruction of churches and synagogues.
1077
Seljuk Turks conquer Jerusalem.
1098
Fatimid reconquer Jerusalem.
1099
First Crusaders capture Jerusalem and slaughter most of the city's Muslim and Jewish inhabitants. The Dome of the Rock mosque is converted into a church.
12th century
Jerusalem is visited by Yehuda Halevi (1141), Maimonides (1165), Benjamin of Tudela (1173).
1187
Saladin captures Jerusalem from Crusaders, after Battle of the Horns of Hattin allows Jewish settlement. The Dome of the Rock is converted to the mosque again.
1192
Richard the Lionheart fails to conquer Jerusalem.
1212
300 Rabbis from England and France settle in Jerusalem.
1244
Kharezmian Tatars take the city from the Christians, who will not regain control until 1917[2]
1260
Rule by the Egyptian Mamelukes[3]
1267
Nachmanides goes to Jerusalem and prays at the Western Wall.
1347
The second conquest by the Mamelukes.
1482
The visiting Dominican priest Felix Fabri described Jerusalem as "a collection of all manner of abominations". As "abominations" he listed Saracens, Greeks, Syrians, Jacobites, Abyssianians, Nestorians, Armenians, Gregorians, Maronites, Turcomans, Bedouins, Assassins, a sect possibly Druzes, Mamelukes, and "the most accursed of all", Jews. Only the Latin Christians "long with all their hearts for Christian princes to come and subject all the country to the authority of the Church of Rome".
1517
Sultan Selim of the Ottoman Empire captures Jerusalem.
1535-1538
Suleiman the Magnificent rebuilds walls around Jerusalem.
1541
Muslims seal The Golden Gate to prevent Jewish Messiah's entrance.
1556
Earthquake damages the city.
1700
Judah the Pious with 1,000 followers settle in Jerusalem.
1705
Restrictive legislation against the Jews.
1798
Napoleon occupy this area for conquest of Syria but conquest aim of her was failed at Akka.
1827
First visit by Sir Moses Montefiore.
1831
Sultan Mehemet Ali of Egypt conquers the city.
1838
The first British consulate is opened.
1840
The Ottoman Turks retake the city.
1844
The first census: 7120 Jews, 5760 Muslims, 3390 Christians.
1860
The first Jewish neighborhood (Mishkenot Sha'ananim) is built outside the Old City walls. [1]
1873-1875
Mea Shearim is built.
1898
Theodore Herzl meets German Kaiser Wilhelm outside city walls.
1906
Bezalel Academy of Art and Design is founded.
1917
British Army led by General Allenby captures the city.
1918
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HUJI) is founded (inaugurated in 1925) on Mount Scopus on the land owned by the Jewish National Fund. 1923: The first lecture is delivered by the first president of World Union of Jewish Students (WUJS) Albert Einstein.
1918-1920
Jerusalem is under British military administration.
1920
Arab riots.
1922-1948
The British Mandate of Palestine. Haj Amin al-Husayni is appointed Mufti of Jerusalem.
1929
Arab riots in Hebron, Safed and Jerusalem.
1932
King David Hotel is opened. The first issue of The Palestine Post is published.
1946
King David Hotel is blown up by militant Irgun Tzvai-Leumi Zionists, killing 91 people.
1947 November 29
1947 UN Partition Plan calls for internationalization of Jerusalem (UN General Assembly Resolution 181).
1948-1949
1948 Arab-Israeli War
1951
King Abdullah I of Jordan is assassinated by Arab extremists on the Temple Mount.
1953
Establishment of Yad Vashem.
1964
Pope Paul VI visits the city.
1966
Inauguration of new Knesset building. Israel Museum and Shrine of the Book are established.
1967 5-11 June
The Six Day War.
  • June 7: The Old City is captured by the IDF. The Jewish Quarter is liberated.
  • June 28: Israel declares Jerusalem unified and announces free access to holy sites of all religions.
1969
An Australian Protestant extremist burns a part of the al-Aqsa Mosque.
1977
President of Egypt Anwar Sadat visits Jerusalem.
1978
WUJS headquarters moves from London to Jerusalem.
1980
The Jerusalem Law is enacted leading to UN Security Council Resolution 478.
2000
Final Agreement between Israel and Palestine cannot be achieved, largely because the Palestinian side rejects every compromise on Jerusalem suggested by U.S. President Bill Clinton.
2008
Israeli Sephardic Religious Party, Shas, refuses to form part of the government without a guarantee that there will be no negotiations that will lead to a partition of Jerusalem.


References

  1. Schaff's Seven Ecumenical Councils: First Nicaea: Canon VII: "Since custom and ancient tradition have prevailed that the Bishop of Aelia [i.e., Jerusalem] should be honoured, let him, saving its due dignity to the Metropolis, have the next place of honour."; "It is very hard to determine just what was the “precedence” granted to the Bishop of Aelia, nor is it clear which is the metropolis referred to in the last clause. Most writers, including Hefele, Balsamon, Aristenus and Beveridge consider it to be Cæsarea; while Zonaras thinks Jerusalem to be intended, a view recently adopted and defended by Fuchs; others again suppose it is Antioch that is referred to."
  2. CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Jerusalem (After 1291)
  3. Jerusalem Timeline From David to the 20th Century
  • Karen Armstrong, Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths, 1997, Ballantine Books: New York

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