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Saint Thomas Becket
Archbishop of Canterbury
Enthroned 3 June 1162
Reign ended 29 December 1170
Predecessor Theobald of Bec
Successor Roger de Bailleul
Personal details
Birth name Thomas Becket
Born 1118
Cheapside, London
Died 29 December 1170 (aged 52)
Canterbury
Buried Canterbury Cathedral
Sainthood
Feast day 29 December
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church,
Anglican Communion
Title as Saint Bishop and Martyr
Beatified 21 February 1173
Canonized Pope Alexander III
St. Peter's Church in Segni
Canonized by Pope Alexander III
Attributes Sword, Martyrdom, dressed in chancellor's robe and neck chain
Patronage Exeter College, Oxford; Portsmouth; Arbroath Abbey; secular clergy

Thomas Becket (1118[1] – 29 December 1170), later also known as Thomas à Becket, was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to his death. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II of England over the rights and privileges of the Church and was assassinated by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral.

Name

Thomas Becket is also commonly known as Thomas à Becket, although this form seems not to have been contemporaneous, but a post-reformation adornment, possibly in imitation of Thomas à Kempis..[2] Historian John Strype wrote in his Memorials of Thomas Cranmer (1694): "It is a small error, but being so oft repeated deserveth to be observed into corrected. The name of that archbishop was Thomas Becket. If the vulgar did formerly, as it doth now, call him 'Thomas à Becket' their mistake is not to be followed by learned men." Notwithstanding, the Oxford Dictionary of English, the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, and Chambers Biographical Dictionary all prefer St. Thomas à Becket.

Early life

Thomas Becket was born in c.1118 in Cheapside, London, to Gilbert Beket of Thierville and Matilda (with a familiar name of Roheise or Rosea) of Mondeville near Caen.[3] Gilbert, a knight's son, had taken the trade of mercer but in London was a property-owner, living on his rents.[3] They were buried in Old St. Paul's Cathedral. There is a story that Thomas's mother was a Muslim Saracen princess who met and fell in love with his English father while he was on Crusade or pilgrimage in the Holy Land, followed him home, was baptised and married him. This story has no truth to it, being a fabrication from three centuries after the saint's martyrdom and inserted as a forgery into Edward Grim's contemporary (12th century) Life of St Thomas.[4][5]

One of Thomas's father's rich friends, Richer de L'Aigle, was attracted to Thomas's sisters. He often invited Thomas to his estates in Sussex. There, Thomas learned to ride a horse, hunt, behave like a gentleman, and engage in popular sports such as jousting. Beginning when he was 10, Becket received a brilliant education in civil and canon law at Merton Priory in England, and then overseas at Paris, Bologna, and Auxerre. Richer was later a signatory at the Constitutions of Clarendon against Thomas.

Upon returning to the Kingdom of England, he attracted the notice of Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, who entrusted him with several important missions to Rome and finally made him Archdeacon of Canterbury and Provost of Beverley. He so distinguished himself by his zeal and efficiency that Theobald recommended him to King Henry II when the important office of Lord Chancellor was vacant. Henry accordingly appointed Becket as Chancellor in 1155.

Henry desired to be absolute ruler of his dominions, both Church and State, and could find precedents in the traditions of the throne when he planned to do away with the special privileges of the English clergy, which he regarded as fetters on his authority. As Chancellor, Becket enforced the king’s traditional medieval land tax that was exacted from all landowners, including churches and bishoprics. This created both a hardship and a resentment of Becket among the English Churchmen. To further implicate Becket as a secular man, he became an accomplished and extravagant courtier and a cheerful companion to the king's pleasures. Thomas was devoted to Henry's interests with such a firm and yet diplomatic thoroughness that scarcely anyone, except perhaps John of Salisbury, doubted his allegiance to English royalty.

King Henry even sent his son Henry to live in Becket's household, it being the custom then for noble children to be fostered out to other noble houses. The younger Henry was reported to have said Becket showed him more fatherly love in a day than his father did for his entire life. An emotional attachment to Becket as a foster-father may have been one of the reasons the younger Henry would turn against his father.

Primacy

He achieved his final position of power as the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162, several months after the death of Theobald. Henry intended to further his influence by directing the actions of Thomas, his loyal appointee, and diminish the independence and influence of the Church in England. The famous transformation of Becket into an ascetic occurred at this time. A rift grew between Henry and Thomas as the new Archbishop dropped his Chancellorship and consolidated the landed revenues of Canterbury under his control. So began a series of legal conflicts, such as the jurisdiction of secular courts over English clergy, which accelerated antipathy between the two great offices. Attempts by King Henry to foment the opinion and influence of the other bishops against Thomas began in Westminster in October 1163, where the King sought approval of stated royal privileges. This led to Clarendon, where Thomas was officially asked to sign off on the King’s rights or face political repercussions.

The Constitutions of Clarendon

King Henry II presided over the assemblies at Clarendon Palace on 30 January 1164. In sixteen constitutions, he sought less clerical independence and a weaker connection with Rome. He employed all his skills to induce their consent and was apparently successful with all but the Primate.

Finally even Becket expressed his willingness to agree to the substance of the Constitutions of Clarendon, but he still refused to formally sign the documents. This meant war between the two powers. Henry summoned Becket to appear before a great council at Northampton Castle on 8 October 1164, to answer allegations of contempt of royal authority and malfeasance in the Lord Chancellor's office. Convicted on the charges, Becket stormed out of the trial and fled to the Continent.

Henry pursued the fugitive archbishop with a series of edicts, aimed at all his friends and supporters as well as Becket himself; but Louis VII of France received him with respect and offered him protection. He spent nearly two years in the Cistercian abbey of Pontigny, until Henry's threats against the order obliged him to move to Sens again.

Becket sought to exercise the prerogatives of the Church, particularly the weapons of excommunication and interdict. However, Pope Alexander III, though sympathising with him in theory, favoured a more diplomatic approach. Differences thus arose between Pope and Archbishop and legates were sent in 1167 with authority to act as arbitrators.

Becket's firmness seemed about to meet with its reward when in 1170 the Pope was on the point of fulfilling his threats and excommunicating Henry II. At that point Henry, alarmed by the prospect, held out hopes of an agreement that would allow Thomas to return to England and resume his place.

Assassination

In June 1170, the archbishop of York and the bishops of London and Salisbury held the coronation of Henry the Young King in York. This was a breach of Canterbury's privilege of coronation. In November 1170, Becket excommunicated all three. While the three bishops fled to the king in Normandy, Becket continued to excommunicate his opponents in the church. Soon word of this reached Henry.

After these reports of Becket's activities, Henry is said to have raised his head from his sickbed and roared a lament of frustration. The King's exact words are in doubt, and several versions have been reported. The most commonly quoted, as handed down by "oral tradition", is "Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?",[6] but according to historian Simon Schama this is incorrect: he accepts the account of the contemporary biographer Edward Grim, writing in Latin, who gives us "What miserable drones and traitors have I nourished and brought up in my household, who let their lord be treated with such shameful contempt by a low-born cleric?"[7][8] Many variations have found their way into popular culture.

Whatever the King said, it was interpreted as a royal command, and four knights, Reginald FitzUrse, Hugh de Moreville, William de Tracy, and Richard le Breton, set out to confront the Archbishop of Canterbury. On 29 December 1170 they arrived at Canterbury. According to accounts left by the monk Gervase of Canterbury and eyewitness Edward Grim, they placed their weapons under a sycamore tree outside the cathedral and hid their mail armour under cloaks before entering to challenge Becket.[9] The knights informed Becket he was to go to Winchester to give an account of his actions, but Becket refused. It was not until Becket refused their demands to submit to the king's will that they retrieved their weapons and rushed back inside for the killing.[9] Becket, meanwhile, proceeded to the main hall for vespers. The four knights, carrying naked swords, caught up with him in a spot near a door to the monastic cloister, the stairs into the crypt, and the stairs leading up into the quire of the cathedral, where the monks were chanting vespers. Several contemporary accounts of what happened next exist; of particular note is that of Edward Grim, who was himself wounded in the attack.

This is part of the account from Edward Grim:

The wicked knight leapt suddenly upon him, cutting off the top of the crown which the unction of sacred chrism had dedicated to God. Next he received a second blow on the head, but still he stood firm and immovable. At the third blow he fell on his knees and elbows, offering himself a living sacrifice, and saying in a low voice, "For the name of Jesus and the protection of the Church, I am ready to embrace death." But the third knight inflicted a terrible wound as he lay prostrate. By this stroke, the crown of his head was separated from the head in such a way that the blood white with the brain, and the brain no less red from the blood, dyed the floor of the cathedral. The same clerk who had entered with the knights placed his foot on the neck of the holy priest and precious martyr, and, horrible to relate, scattered the brains and blood about the pavements, crying to the others, "Let us away, knights; this fellow will arise no more."[10]

Following his death, the monks prepared his body for burial. According to some accounts, it was discovered that Becket had worn a hairshirt under his archbishop's garments—a sign of penance.[11] Soon after, the faithful throughout Europe began venerating Becket as a martyr, and in 1173 — barely three years after his death — he was canonised by Pope Alexander III in St. Peter's Church in Segni. On 12 July 1174, in the midst of the Revolt of 1173–1174, Henry humbled himself with public penance at Becket's tomb (see also St. Dunstan's, Canterbury), which became one of the most popular pilgrimage sites in England.

Becket's assassins fled north to Knaresborough Castle, which was held by Hugh de Morville, where they remained for about a year.[12] De Morville held property in Cumbria and this may also have provided a convenient bolt-hole, as the men prepared for a temporary stay in the separate kingdom of Scotland. They were not arrested and neither did Henry confiscate their lands, but he failed to help them when they sought his advice in August 1171. Pope Alexander excommunicated all four. Seeking forgiveness, the assassins travelled to Rome and were ordered by the Pope to serve as knights in the Holy Lands for a period of fourteen years.[13]

In 1220, Becket's remains were relocated from this first tomb to a shrine in the recently completed Trinity Chapel where it stood until it was destroyed in 1538, around the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries, on orders from King Henry VIII. The king also destroyed Becket's bones and ordered that all mention of his name be obliterated.[14] The pavement where the shrine stood is today marked by a lit candle. Modern day archbishops celebrate the Eucharist at this place to commemorate Becket's martyrdom and the translation of his body from his first burial place to the new shrine.

Aftermath

Becket's last public act of defiance was a sermon to the Augustinian foundation at St Mary's Priory at Southwark on 23 December, now the Cathedral. He then left for Canterbury by the principal route to Kent from there, now the A2 road. The pilgrimage started shortly after the murder, encouraged by the Augustinian orders at both Southwark and Canterbury, as a retracing of Becket's last journey. This was given added impetus with Becket's canonization in 1173. The Pilgrimage had very strong advantages to those participating as it was relatively a short distance, between two major cities across a well policed area, convenient and affordable by a larger class of penitents. This contrasted with, for example, pilgrimages to the Holy Land, St Denis, Paris or St Peter's, Rome, or Santiago de Compostella across the Pyrenees in Spain, and the 'indulgences' and other religious benefits were as great. So successful was this procession that it led to the reconstruction of London Bridge, firstly in timber and then in stone, which included a chapel dedicated to Thomas on it. The pilgrims both began and ended their journey with devotions there. The new traffic generated economic development in Southwark, increasing its urban density and creating the long line of inns and hostelries along the High Street. Furthermore, due to the number of sick pilgrims hoping for a miraculous cure and arriving too unwell to continue, an infirmary was created by the Augustinians at St Mary's Priory (near the bridge-foot). It became dedicated to Becket, and was relocated from the precincts to a site now called St Thomas Street, a little to the south, not later than 1212. This is the origin of St Thomas' Hospital.[15]

As the scion of the leading mercantile dynasty of later centuries, Mercers, Becket was very much regarded as a Londoner by the citizens and was adopted as the City's co-patron saint with St Paul: both their images appeared on the Seals of the City and of the Lord Mayor. The Bridge House Estates seal used only the image of Becket, while the reverse featured the depiction of his martyrdom.

Local legends regarding Becket arose after his canonisation. Though they are typical hagiographical stories, they also display Becket’s particular gruffness. Becket's Well, in Otford, Kent, is said to have been created after Becket had become displeased with the taste of the local water. Two springs of clear water are said to have bubbled up after he struck the ground with his crozier. The absence of nightingales in Otford is also ascribed to Becket, who is said to have been so disturbed in his devotions by the song of a nightingale that he commanded that none should sing in the town ever again. In the town of Strood, also in Kent, Becket is said to have caused the inhabitants of the town and their descendants to be born with tails. The men of Strood had sided with the king in his struggles against the archbishop, and to demonstrate their support, had cut off the tail of Becket’s horse as he passed through the town.

The saint's fame quickly spread throughout the Norman world. The first holy image of Becket is thought to be a mosaic icon still visible in Monreale Cathedral, in Sicily, created shortly after his death. Becket's cousins obtained refuge at the Sicilian court during his exile, and King William II of Sicily wed a daughter of Henry II. The principal church of the Sicilian city of Marsala is dedicated to St Thomas Becket.

Cultural references

  • Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales is set in a company of pilgrims on their way from Southwark to the shrine of St. Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral.
  • The story of Becket's life became a popular theme for the medieval Nottingham Alabaster carvers. One set of Becket panels is displayed in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
  • Herman Melville made a reference to Thomas Becket's death in Moby Dick, comparing the flagstones where he bled to the deck of the Pequod.
  • Modern works based on the story of Thomas Becket include T. S. Eliot's play Murder in the Cathedral, Jean Anouilh's play Becket, which was made into a movie with the same title, and Paul Webb's play Four Nights in Knaresborough, a film version of which is in pre-production.
  • An opera by Ildebrando Pizzetti based on the murder of Thomas Becket, Assassinio nella cattedrale, was first produced at La Scala in Milan in 1958. There is a famous live recording of the opera from the Vienna State Opera on 9 March 1960 with Hans Hotter as Becket on Deutsche Grammophon conducted by Herbert von Karajan (457 671-2).
  • In The Black Adder, King Richard IV of England is telling the tale of the words spoken by Henry II, and a pair of knights act under his interpreted order to kill Prince Edmund, who was Archbishop of Canterbury at the time.
  • In the nineteenth century, Conrad Ferdinand Meyer wrote the novella Der Heilige (The Saint) about Thomas Becket.
  • Ken Follett's historical novel The Pillars of the Earth, which is mostly an account of the building of a Gothic architecture cathedral, also depicts the struggles between the Church, the gentry, and the monarchy, culminating in the assassination and martyrdom of Becket by Henry's men. This fictionalised account is considered largely historically accurate, but adds one of the book's fictional villains as the fifth attacker.
  • Masonic scholars, seeking to establish the origin of the third degree ritual of the death of Hiram Abif have suggested (among many other theories) that it was a re-telling of the murder of Becket.[16][17] This theory included reference to a company of masons in the City of London making a procession to St. Thomas's Chapel on his saint's day. The theory suggests that there may have been an emblematic performance concerning the death of Thomas on that day.
  • The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, interfaith, legal and educational institute dedicated to protecting the free expression of all religious traditions, took its inspiration and namesake from Thomas Becket.[18]
  • In 2006, in a "daft poll" carried out by the BBC, Becket was lined up alongside lesser-known historical figures such as Hugh Despenser, Eadric Streona and Thomas Arundel, and was then voted as the second "worst" Briton in history behind only Jack the Ripper.[19][20]

Notes and references

  1. Michael Walsh, ed. "Butler's Lives of the Saints." (HarperCollins Publishers: New York, 1991), p. 430.
  2. Barlow (1986: 11–12))
  3. 3.0 3.1 |Barlow, Frank (2004). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.
  4. Staunton (2006: 29)
  5. Hutton, William Holden (1910). Thomas Becket – Archbishop of Canterbury. London: Pitman and Sons Ltd. pp. 4. ISBN 1409788083. 
  6. Knowles, Elizabeth M. (1999). "Henry II". Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (5 ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 370. ISBN 9780198601739. 
  7. Schama, Simon (2002). A history of Britain: at the edge of the world? : 3000 BC-AD 1603. London: BBC Books. p. 142. ISBN 0563384972. 
  8. Edward Grim, Vita Sancti Thomae, quoted in Robertson, James Craigie (1876). Materials for the history of Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury. ii. London: Longman. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn (1855). Historical Memorials of Canterbury. London: John Murray. pp. 53 et sec. 
  10. This Sceptred Isle 55BC – 1901 (1997) p.73 Christopher Lee
  11. Grim, Benedict of Peterborough and William FitzStephen are quoted in Douglas, David C.; Greenway, George W. (1953). English Historical Documents 1042–1189. 2 (Second, 1981 ed.). London: Routledge. p. 821. 
  12. Their stay is the subject of the 1999 play 'Four Knights in Knaresborough by Paul Corcoran
  13. Barlow, Frank (1986). "From death unto life". Thomas Becket (2000 ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. pp. 257–258. ISBN 1842124277. 
  14. The Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket, Getty Museum
  15. Medieval Southwark Martha Carlin, Hambledon Press 1999
  16. Madhavan, Chakravarthy Sampath (2003-05-26). "The Hiramic Legend: Whence & Wherefore". Pietre-Stones Review Of Freemasonry. http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/MADHAVAN_HiramicLegend.html. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  17. Heywood, H. L. (1909). Supplement to Mackey's Encyclopedia of Freemasonry Vol Three. Chicago: The Masonic History Company. pp. 1262. 
  18. Becket Fund
  19. Weaver, Matthew (2006-01-31). "Asking silly questions". The Guardian (London). http://blogs.guardian.co.uk/news/archives/2006/01/31/asking_silly_questions.html. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  20. BBC NEWS | UK | Saint or sinner?
  • Sudeley, The Rt. Hon. The Lord, Becket's Murderer — William de Tracy, in Family History magazine, Canterbury, August 1983, vol.13, no. 97, pp. 3–36.
  • Michael Staunton, Thomas Becket and his Biographers (Woodbridge, The Boydell Press, 2006), id=ISBN 1-84383-271-2

Further reading

Lifes

  • Robertson, James C. (1875–85), Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, 7 vols., London: Longman.
  • Schmidt, Paul G. (1991), Thomas von Froidmont: Die Vita des heiligen Thomas Becket / Thomas de Fridigo Monte: Vita et passio Sancti Thomae, Stuttgart: Steiner.
  • Walberg, Emmanuel (1971), Guernes de Pont-Saint-Maxence: La vie de Saint Thomas Becket, Paris: Champion.

Biographies

  • Abbott, Edwin A. (1898), St. Thomas of Canterbury. His Death and Miracles, London: Adam & Charles Black.
  • Barlow, Frank (1986), Thomas Becket, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  • Duggan, Anne (2005), Thomas Becket, London: Hodder Arnold.
  • Haseldine, Julian (2001), Thomas Becket: Martyr, Saint – and Friend?, in: Gameson, R./Leyser, H. (eds.), Belief and Culture in the Middle Ages, Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 305–317.
  • Knowles, David (1951), The Episcopal Colleagues of Archbishop Thomas Becket, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Knowles, David (1970), Thomas Becket, London: Adam & Charles Black.
  • Winston, Richard (1970), Thomas Becket, New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Staunton, Michael (2001), The Lives of Thomas Becket, Manchester/New York: Manchester Univ. Press.

Historiography

  • Alexander, James W. (May 1970). "The Becket Controversy in Recent Historiography". Albion 9 (2): 1–26. 
  • Duggan, Anne (1980), Thomas Becket: A Textual History of his Letters, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Duggan, Anne (Hrsg.) (2000), The Correspondence of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury (1162–1170). 2 Bände, lat./engl., Oxford: Clarendon Press..
  • Foreville, Raymonde (1975), Thomas Becket. Actes du colloque international de Sedières, 19–24 août 1973, Paris: Beauchesne.
  • Foreville, Raymonde (1981), Thomas Becket dans la tradition historique et hagiographique, London: Variorum Reprints.
  • Staunton, Michael (2006), Thomas Becket and his Biographers, Woodbridge: Boydell.
  • Walberg, Emanuel (1975), La tradition hagiographique de Saint Thomas Becket, Genf: Slatkine Reprints.

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