|Third Council of Constantinople|
|Previous council||Second Council of Constantinople|
(Roman Catholic) Second Council of Nicaea|
(Orthodox) Council in Trullo
|Convoked by||Emperor Constantine IV|
|Presided by||Patriarch George I of Constantinople, Pope Agatho|
|Attendance||perhaps 300; signatories to the documents ranged from 43 (first session) to 174 (last session)|
|Topics of discussion||Monothelitism, the human and divine wills of Jesus|
|Documents and statements||condemnation of Monothelitism|
|Chronological list of Ecumenical councils|
The Third Council of Constantinople is believed to have been the Sixth Ecumenical Council by the Eastern Orthodox, the Roman Catholics, the Old Catholics, and a number of other Western Christian groups. It met on November 7, 680 for its first session; it ended its meetings, said to have been eighteen in number, on September 16 of 681. The number of bishops present was under three hundred and the minutes of the last session have only 174 signatures attached to them.
The conclusion of the council was that Jesus has two wills as well as two natures (divine and human), and that those two wills did not conflict with or strive against each other. It thus refuted the heresy of monothelitism, which held that Jesus Christ had only one (divine) will. Further, it posthumuously restored Pope Martin I and Maximus the Confessor to communion with the church.
When the Emperor Constantine IV first summoned the council he had no intention that it would be ecumenical. From the Sacras it appears that he had summoned all the Metropolitans and bishops of the jurisdiction of Constantinople, and had also informed the Patriarch of Antioch that he might send Metropolitans and bishops. A long time before, he had written to Pope Agatho on the subject.
When the synod assembled however, it assumed at its first session the title "Ecumenical." All five patriarchs were represented, Alexandria and Jerusalem having sent deputies although they were at the time in the hands of the Muslims.
In this particular Council, the Emperor presided in person surrounded by high court officials. On his right sat Patriarch George I of Constantinople and Macarius, Patriarch of Antioch and next to them the representative of the Patriarch of Alexandria. On the Emperor's left were seated the representatives of the Pope. In the midst were placed, as usual, the Holy Gospels. After the eleventh session, however, the Emperor was no longer able to be present, but returned and presided at the closing meeting.
The sessions of the council were held in the domed hall (or possibly chapel) in the imperial palace; which, the Acts tell us, was called Trullo (εν ώ σεκρετω του Θειου παλτιου τη ουτη λεγομενω Τρουλλω).
Of interest are the titles in the Sacras sent to the bishops of Rome and Constantinople, one to "The Most holy and Blessed Archbishop of Old Rome and Ecumenical Pope," and the other to "The Most holy and Blessed Archbishop of Constantinople and Ecumenical Patriarch." Some of the titles used by the signers of the "Prosphoneticus" are interesting:
- "George, an humble presbyter of the holy Roman Church, and holding the place of the most blessed Agatho, ecumenical Pope of the City of Rome ...,"
- "John, an humble deacon of the holy Roman Church and holding the place of the most blessed Agatho, and ecumenical Pope of the City of Rome,"
- "George, by the mercy of God bishop of Constantinople which is New Rome,"
- "Peter a presbyter and holding the place of the Apostolic See of the great city Alexandria,"
- "George, an humble presbyter of the Holy Resurrection of Christ our God, and holding the place of Theodore the presbyter, beloved of God, who holds the place of the Apostolic See of Jerusalem ...,"
- "John, by the mercy of God bishop of the City of Thessalonica, and legate of the Apostolic See of Rome,"
- "John, the unworthy bishop of Portus, legate of the whole Council of the holy Apostolic See of Rome,"
- "Stephen, by the mercy of God, bishop of Corinth, and legate of the Apostolic See of Old Rome."
- Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813505992
- Original text taken from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library at http://www.ccel.org, which is in the public domain
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Third Council of Constantinople
- Third Council of Constantinople