The Farewell Sermon (Arabic: خطبة الوداع, Khuṭbatu l-Wadā'), also known as the Prophet's Final Sermon or The Last Sermon, was delivered by Muhammad about 72 days before his death, on the ninth day of Dhu al-Hijjah, 10 A.H. (632 CE), at the end of his final pilgrimage.
The Farewell Sermon is mentioned in almost all books of Hadith. Sahih Al-Bukhari refers to the sermon and quotes part of it. Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal has given the longest and perhaps the most complete version of this sermon in his Musnad. Ahmad al-Tabarsi and Sayyid ibn Tawus mention the Shia versions of the sermon, which are narrated through Muhammad al-Baqir.
After praising, and thanking Allah he said:
"O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and TAKE THESE WORDS TO THOSE WHO COULD NOT BE PRESENT HERE TODAY.
O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your LORD, and that HE will indeed reckon your deeds. ALLAH has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn 'Abd'al Muttalib (Prophet's uncle) shall henceforth be waived...
Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.
O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.
O People, listen to me in earnest, worship ALLAH, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.
All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.
Remember, one day you will appear before ALLAH and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, NO PROPHET OR APOSTLE WILL COME AFTER ME AND NO NEW FAITH WILL BE BORN. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the QURAN and my example, the SUNNAH and if you follow these you will never go astray.
All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O ALLAH, that I have conveyed your message to your people".—Muhammad , Ninth Day of Dhul Hijjah 10 A.H. (632 CE)
- First Shia version of the sermon: (No Reference For Below)
|“|| The Sermon
Praise belongs to Allah Sublime is His authority, and great are the pillars of His names. His knowledge encompasses everything while He is lofty in status. He subdues all the creation through His power and evidence. He has always been praiseworthy and shall always be praised. [He is the glorified Whose glory has no end. He begins and repeats the creation and to Him all affairs are returned.] He is the maker of what has been elevated (the heavens), the expander of what has been spread out (the Earth), and the dominator of the planets and the heavens. He is holy and exalted above all purifications, the Lord of the angels and the spirit. He grants to all that He created. He prolongs His grace to all that He originated. He sees all eyes, and eyes do not see Him. He is generous, forbearing, and patient. He made His mercy encompass everything, and He favored them by His grace. He does not hasten His revenge, nor does He take the initiative on what He knows they deserve of His punishment. He comprehends the secrets, and knows what the hearts conceal. Hidden things are not concealed from Him, nor do they make Him doubtful. He encompasses in knowledge and dominates everything, and has strength and power over everything. Nothing is like Him, and He is the establisher of “the thing” when it was nothing. He is everlasting [and free of need], who acts justly; there is no god but He, the mighty, the wise. He is exalted beyond being grasped by visions, while He grasps all visions, and He is subtle, well aware of all things. None can reach His description by seeing Him, nor can anyone find out how He is, secretly or openly, and He is not known except by what Allah, the mighty and the majestic, has made as the signs of Himself.
I testify that He is Allah, Whose holiness overspreads all ages, Whose light overwhelms perpetuity, Who enforces His command without consulting an advisor. There is no partner with Him in His planning, nor is there any discrepancy in His management. He shaped whatever He originated without a preexisting model, and created whatever He created without getting assistance from anyone, burdening Himself, or having any need to find out a solution. He originated it in His will, thus it came into being, and He formed it in His intention, thus it became distinct. So, He is Allah, the One that there is no god but He, Who is proficient in skill, and beautiful in action. He is the just Who never oppresses, and the most generous to Whom all affairs are referred. I further testify that He is [Allah] that before His magnificence everything is lowly, before His might everything is humble, before His power everything surrenders, and before His awe everything yields. He is the king of all domains, the turner of the heavenly bodies in their orbits, the dominator of the sun and the moon, each of which pursues its course to an appointed time. He makes night overtake day, and day overtake night, each one seeking the other rapidly. He is the destroyer of every stubborn tyrant, and the annihilator of every rebellious Satan. Neither has there been any opposing power beside Him, nor any peer. He is Unique and impenetrable. He never begets nor is He begotten, and none can ever be a match for Him. He is the only God, the glorious Lord, Who wills, and thus carries out, Who intends, and thus decrees, Who knows, and thus takes into account. He causes death and gives life. He impoverishes and enriches. He makes men laugh and makes them weep. [He brings near and drives away.] He denies and grants. For Him is sovereignty, so is praise. In His hand is all goodness, and He is powerful to do everything. He lets night enter the day, and day enter night; there is no god but He, the mighty, the oft-forgiving. He is the responder to supplication, open-handed in granting, the enumerator of breaths, and the Lord of the Jinn and the humans. Neither does anything bring difficulty for Him, nor does the cry of those who appeal for help annoy Him, nor does the insistence of those who insist exhaust Him or force Him to assent. He is Who protected the righteous, and gave success to the prosperous. He is the guardian of the faithful, and the Lord of the worlds, Who deserves that all His creations thank Him and praise Him [in any situation. I therefore praise Him and thank Him] in joy and sorrow, and in hardship and comfort. I believe in Him, His angels, His books, and His messengers. I listen to His command, obey Him, proceed towards whatever pleases Him, and submit to what He decreed, longing for His obedience and fearing His punishment, for He is Allah against Whose schemes no one should feel secure, nor should anyone be in fear of injustice from Him.
I confess before Him that submissiveness befits my soul, and I bear witness that Lordship befits Him. I convey what He revealed to me, lest should I not do it, He may make lawful that a calamity befalls me; that which no one can turn away from me even if he has great schemes [and sincere friendship], for there is no god but He. He has informed me that if I do not convey what He has revealed to me [about Ali’s right], it is as if I have not conveyed His message at all. Certainly, He, the most holy, the most high, has guaranteed for me protection [from the (evil of) people], and He is Allah, Who is sufficient and bountiful. Thus, He revealed to me this verse: “In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful.. those whom Allah described in His book as: “They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts,” taking it lightly, while it is a grave matter in the sight of Allah, and due to their annoying me on many occasions, so much so that they called me (all) “ear”, claiming I am so because of Ali’s frequent attendance in my presence and my attention to him, until Allah, the mighty and the majestic, sent down the following verse in this regard: “And of them are some who annoy the Prophet and say: He is an ear (for accepting what he hears, particularly from Ali). Say: One whom you call ‘ear’ is best for you; He believes in Allah, safeguards the believers, and is a mercy for those of you who believe. And for those who harm the messenger of Allah, there shall be a painful torment.” Had I wished to name those who have called me so, to point out towards them, or to lead to them by their signs, I would have done so. Yet, by Allah, I have indeed dealt with their affairs magnanimously. Nevertheless, Allah is not satisfied with me until I convey what He has sent down to me [regarding the right of Ali.]” Then, the Prophet (s) recited again the following verse: “O Messenger! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord—with regard to Ali— and if you do not, you will not have conveyed His message at all, and Allah shall protect you from (evil) people.”
Oh people! Know that Allah has assigned him (Ali) as a guardian and a leader for you, whose obedience is obligatory for the immigrants, the helpers, and those who follow them in goodness, and for everyone, whether nomad or city resident, Arab or non-Arab, free or slave, young or old, white or black, and for every monotheist. His (Ali’s) decree is to be carried out, his saying is sanctioned as law, and his command is effective. Cursed is whoever opposes him, blessed with mercy is whoever follows him, faithful is whoever acknowledges his (virtues and rights). Indeed, Allah has covered him and those who listen to him and obey him with mercy and forgiveness. Oh people! This is the last stand I make in this gathering; Thus, listen, obey, and submit to the command of your Lord, for Allah, the mighty and the majestic, is your master (Mawla), then [His Messenger], Muhammad, who is now addressing you, is your master. Then, after me, Ali is your master (Wali) and your leader (Imam) by the command of Allah, your Lord. Then, leadership shall be in my progeny, within his offspring, until the Day you meet Allah and His Messenger. Nothing is lawful except what Allah declared so (in His book), [as well as His Messenger, and them (the Imams)], and nothing is unlawful except Allah declared so in His book, [as well as His Messenger, and them], (for) Allah, the mighty and the majestic, has informed me of the permissible and the forbidden things, and I have made known to him (Ali) what my Lord has taught me of His Book, the permissible, and the forbidden things. Oh people! There is no knowledge except that Allah has kept its account in the heart of me, and I have recorded the details of all the knowledge that I was taught, in (the heart of) the leader of the pious, (Ali). Certainly, there is no knowledge except that I have taught it to Ali, and he is the evident Imam [whom Allah mentions in the Chapter of Yasin: “... And We have kept the detailed account of everything in an evident Imam.”] Oh people! Do not stray from him, nor should you flee from him, nor should you refuse his guardianship and his authority, for he is the one who guides to truth and acts upon it, and crushes falsehood and proscribes it, accepting no blame, in the path of Allah, from any blamer. He is the first to believe in Allah and in His Messenger; and he is the one who offered his life as a sacrifice for the Messenger of Allah. [ I commanded him, on behalf of Allah, to sleep in my bed, and he did it to sacrifice himself for me.] He was with the Messenger of Allah when no one among men worshipped Allah in the company of His Messenger other than him. Oh people! Prefer him over all others, for Allah has indeed preferred him, and turn to him, for Allah has indeed appointed him as your guide. Oh people! He is an Imam authorized by Allah, and Allah shall never turn to anyone in mercy who denies his authority, nor shall He ever forgive him; this is a decisive decree by Allah that He shall do so to anyone who opposes His command about him, and shall torment him with the most painful torment, which lasts forever and ever. Hence, beware lest you oppose him, and thus, arrive at a fire whose fuel is people and stones, prepared for the disbelievers. Oh people! By Allah, all early prophets and messengers have given the glad tiding of my advent. I am the seal of the prophets and the messengers, and the proof of Allah over all the creatures, of the inhabitants of the heavens and the earths. He who doubts this, is indeed a disbeliever, with the disbelief of the early era of ignorance (Jahiliyya). And he who doubts anything of what I have said this day, has doubted all that has been revealed to me. [And anyone who doubts any of the Imams, has doubted them all], and anyone who doubts us, shall be in the Fire. Oh people! Allah, the mighty and the majestic, has bestowed this virtue upon me out of His kindness and His grace. And there is no god but He. My praise is for Him forever and ever, and in all circumstances. Oh people! Prefer Ali over all others, for he is the best of the people, men or women, after me so long as Allah sends down His sustenance and so long as the creation exists. Under curse and again under curse, under wrath and again under wrath, is he who rejects this saying of mine and does not does not agree with it. Certainly, Gabriel has informed me of this from Allah, the most high, Who also said: “Anyone who bears enmity against Ali and refuses his authority, for him shall be My curse and My wrath.” Thus, every soul should look to what he has sent forth for the morrow. Be watchful of your duty towards Allah lest you should oppose Him and your foot should slip after its stability. Verily, Allah is well-acquainted with all that you do. Oh people! He (Ali) is “the side of Allah” that is mentioned in Allah’s Book. He, the exalted, says, “Lest a soul should (then) say: ‘Ah! Woe onto me that I abused and neglected (my duties towards) the side of Allah.’” Oh people! Reflect on the Quran and comprehend its verses. Look into its clear verses and do not follow its ambiguous parts, for by Allah, none shall be able to explain to you its warnings and its mysteries, nor shall anyone clarify its interpretation, other than the one that I have grasped his hand, brought up beside myself, [and lifted his arm,] the one about whom I inform you that whomever I am his master (Mawla), this Ali is his master (Mawla); and he is Ali Ibn Abi Talib, my brother, the executor of my will (Wasiyyi), whose appointment as your guardian and leader has been sent down to me from Allah, the mighty and the majestic. Oh people! [Indeed, I am leaving amongst you two weighty and precious things that if you adhere to both, you will never go astray.] Verily, Ali and the pure ones among my offspring are the lesser weight, and the Quran is the greater weight. Each one [of the two] informs about the other and agrees with it. They shall never part until they return to me at the Pool (of al-Kawthar on the Day of Judgement). Behold! They (the Ahl al-Bayt) are the trustees of Allah amongst His creation, and His people of wisdom on His earth.
Thereafter, Allah’s Messenger (s) took the upper arm of Ali by his hand, raised it, and said: [“Oh people! Who has more priority over you than yourself?” People said: “Allah and His messenger.” Then, he (s) said: “Behold! Whosoever I am his master (Mawla), this Ali is his master (Mawla). O Allah! Stay firm in supporting those who stay firm in following him, be hostile to those who are hostile to him, help those who help him, and forsake those who forsake him.] Oh people! This Ali is my brother, the executor of my (affairs) (Wasiyyi), the container of my knowledge, my successor (Khalifati) over my nation, and over the interpretation the Book of Allah, the mighty and the majestic, and the true inviter to its implications. He is the one who acts according to what pleases Him, fights His enemies, causes to adhere to His obedience, and advises against His disobedience. Surely, He is the successor of the Messenger of Allah, the commander of the believers, the guiding Imam, and the killer of the oath breakers, the transgressors, and the apostates. I speak by the authority of Allah. The word with me shall not be changed. I say with the command of Allah: O Allah! Be the guardian of him who adheres to him. Be the enemy of him who bears enmity against him. Curse him who rejects him. Be wrathful towards him who denies his right. Indeed, I have now fulfilled my duty. Indeed, I have now conveyed the Message. Indeed, I have now made you hear it. Indeed, I have now clarified it. Indeed, Allah, the mighty and the majestic, so said, and so did I on His behalf. Indeed, there is no commander for the faithful save this brother of mine, and it is not permissible to call anyone other than him with the title of “the Commander of the Believers” (Amirul Mu'minin) after my departure.
O Allah! (I testify that) You did send down [this verse regarding Ali, Your authorized representative, at the time of the explanation of his authority and appointment today:] “This day, I perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and was satisfied that Islam be your religion.” You also said, “If anyone desires a religion other than Islam, never shall it be accepted from him, and in the Hereafter, he shall be one of the losers.” O Allah! I implore You to witness that I have conveyed Your message. Oh people! Allah, the mighty and the majestic, has indeed perfected your religion through his (Ali’s) leadership. Thus, whoever does not follow his example, and the example of those of my children from his loins, who will take his position until the Day of Judgement— when deeds are presented before Allah, the mighty and the majestic— they are the ones whose deeds become vain and fruitless, and they shall be in Hellfire forever. “Their torment shall not be lightened, nor shall it be postponed.” Oh people! This is Ali, who has been my greatest aid, the most worthy of you before me, the closest in relation with me, and the dearest to me amongst you all. Both Allah, the mighty and the majestic, and I are pleased with him. No verse [in the Quran] has been sent down expressing (Allah’s) pleasure except that in its absolute sense it is about him, nor has Allah addressed with honor “those who believe” but that He meant him first, nor has any verse of praise been revealed in the Quran but that it is in his honor, nor did Allah testify Paradise in the chapter starting with “Has not passed over man a long period of time” but for him, nor did He reveal it for other than him, nor did He mean to praise by it save him. Oh people! He is the patron of the religion of Allah, and the one who argues on behalf of the Messenger of Allah. He is the pious, the pure, the guide, and the rightly guided. Your prophet is the best prophet, the executor of my will (Wasiyyi) over you is the best executor and deputy, and his sons are the best deputies. Oh people! The progeny of every prophet was from his own loins whereas my progeny is from the loins of Ali. Oh people! Surely, Iblis (the greater Satan) caused Adam to be dismissed from the garden through envy. Thus, do not envy him or your deeds shall be nullified and your feet shall slip, Verily, Adam was sent down to earth only because of one mistake, while he was the elite of Allah, the mighty and the majestic. How, then, will be your condition, and you are what you really are, and among you are the enemies of Allah? Indeed, none hates Ali but a wretched person, none keeps himself attached to Ali but a pious person, and none has faith in his virtues but a sincere believer. And in the honor of Ali, by Allah, was the Chapter of al-Asr revealed: “In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful. By the Time ! Most surely man is in loss, except those who believe, do righteous deeds, and enjoin on each other the truth, and enjoin on each other patience and constancy.”  Oh people! I have sought Allah to be my witness and have conveyed my communication to you, “and the messenger is only obligated to convey clearly.” Oh people! “Be cautious of (your duties towards) Allah, the caution that He deserves, and do not die except in the state of submission.” 
Oh people! Believe in Allah and His Messenger and the light that was sent down with him, “before We alter faces then turn them on their backs or curse them as We cursed the Sabbath breakers.” [By Allah! No one is intended by this latter verse except a certain group of my companions whom I know by their names and their lineage, yet, I have been ordered to ignore them.] Oh people! The light created by Allah, the mighty and the majestic, has been placed in me, then in Ali, and then in his select descendants up to al-Qa’im al-Mahdi (The Mahdi), who shall re-establish the right of Allah as well as all our rights, because Allah, the mighty and the majestic, has made us His exhaustive argument against the neglectful, the stubborn, the dissenters, the treacherous, the sinful, the unjust, and the usurpers from all worlds. Oh people! I warn you that I am the Messenger of Allah. There have been messengers before me who came and passed away. Then, should I die or be killed, will you turn back on your heels? And whoever turns back on his heels shall not harm Allah in the least, and Allah shall soon reward the grateful [who observe patience.] Behold! Ali is surely the one described with patience and gratitude, so are after him my offspring from his loins. Oh people! Do not think that you are doing a favor to Allah by accepting Islam lest His wrath should descend upon you, and lest He should afflict you with His punishment; surely He is everwatching. Oh people! There shall soon be leaders after me who shall invite people to the Fire, and on the Day of Judgement they shall not be helped. Oh people! Indeed, Allah and I are both clear of them. Oh people! They, their supporters, their followers, and their adherents shall be in the lowest depths of the Fire; and evil, indeed, is the abode of the arrogant. Know that these are, indeed, the People of the Sheet (As'haabus Sahifa); so, let each one of you look into his own sheet of deeds! Oh people! I leave the authority after me as leadership (Imamat) inherited in my offspring until the Day of Judgement. Certainly, I just conveyed what I have been ordered to convey as an argument against everyone, be him present or absent, a direct witness or not, and already born or not yet born. Hence, everyone who is present should convey (this sermon) to those who are absent, every parent should convey it to his/her children, and they should continue to do so until the Day of Judgement. But, (I have been informed that) some people shall replace this leadership with kingdom through usurpation. May Allah curse the usurpers and dispossessors, And then, “We will soon settle your affairs, Oh the two weights.”  And also, “on you Oh the two (greatest enemies) shall be launched a flame of fire and a (flash of) molten brass, thus you shall never prevail.”  Oh people! Without doubt, Allah, the mighty and the majestic, does not leave you in the state you are now, until He separates the evil from the good ones. Nor does He make you acquainted with the knowledge of the unseen. Oh people! There shall be no wrongful community but that Allah shall perish it due to the rejection of truth by its people. Such is what Allah, the exalted, mentioned in His book as to how He destroys the wrongful societies. This is your leader (Imam) and your guardian (Wali), and these are Allah’s promises. Verily, Allah fulfills His promise. Oh people! Most of the early generations before you have strayed, and surely, Allah destroyed them. He shall be the One who destroys the later generations too. Allah, the exalted, states: “Did We not destroy the former generations? So shall We follow the same for later (generations). Such is how We treat the guilty. Woe on that Day to the rejecters (of truth)!” Oh people! Allah gave me the commandments and the prohibitions, and I gave them to Ali by the order of Allah. Hence, the knowledge of all commandments and prohibitions are with him. Thus, listen to his orders so that you remain safe, obey him so that you are guided, and leave what he prohibits so that you become mature. Conform to what he wants, and do not let different paths separate you from his path.
Oh people! I am the Straight Path of Allah whom He commanded you to follow, and such after me also is Ali, and then my offspring from his loins, the Imams who guide with truth and turn (people) to it. Then, the Prophet (s) recited the entire Quranic chapter of the opening (al-Fatihah) and said: This chapter was revealed in my honor and in theirs (the Imams) generally and specifically. They are the authorized friends of Allah, for whom there shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. Behold! Truly, it is the party of Allah that shall prevail. Lo! It is their enemies who are the dissenters, the transgressors, and the brethren of Satans, who inspire one another with embellished vain discourses by way of deception. Lo! It is their close adherents who are the true believers, whom Allah, the mighty and the majestic, mentions in His Book saying: “You will not find any group of people who (truly) believe in Allah and in the Last Day, yet they love those who opposed Allah and His messenger, even though they were their own fathers, sons, brothers, or kinsfolk; Those are the ones in whose hearts He has written faith ...” Lo! Their close adherents are those whom Allah, the mighty and the majestic, describes as the following: “Those who believe and do not cover their faith with injustice, are the ones for whom is the security (from Hellfire), and they are the rightly guided.” [Indeed, their close adherents are those who believed and then have not entertained doubt (in their faith).] Lo! Their close adherents shall enter Paradise in peace and security, and the angels shall receive them with greetings saying, “Well have you done! Hence, enter into it to dwell therein forever!” Indeed, their close adherents are those about whom Allah, the mighty and the majestic, said, they shall enter Paradise (where they shall receive sustenance) without having to account for anything. Lo! Their enemies are ones who shall arrive at Hell. Indeed, their enemies are the ones who shall hear the (terrible) drawing in of its breath as it blazes forth, and therein shall be the heaving of sighs and sobs. Behold! Their enemies are those about whom Allah states: “Whenever a nation enters it, it shall curse its peer.”  Lo! Their enemies are those whom Allah, the mighty and the majestic, describes as: “Every time a group is cast therein, its keepers shall ask them, ‘Did no warner come to you?’ They shall say, ‘Yes indeed. A warner came to us, but we rejected (him) and said, Allah has not revealed anything; you are but in a great error.’ They shall also say, ‘Had we listened or used our wisdom, we would not have been among the inmates of the blazing fire.’ They shall then confess their sins; but far from mercy shall be the inmates of the burning fire.” In contrast, their close adherents are, indeed, ones who fear their Lord in secret; for them is forgiveness and a great reward. Oh people! What a great difference it is between the burning fire and the great reward! Oh people! Our enemy is whom Allah censures and curses, whereas our adherent friend is the one whom Allah praises and loves. Oh people! Behold! I am a warner and Ali is a guide. Oh people! I am a prophet and Ali is the executor of my will (Wasiyyi).
Know that the seal of the leaders from among us shall be the Qa’im, the Mahdi. He shall, most certainly, prevail over (all) religious (methods of life). He shall definitely be the avenger against the oppressors. He shall surely be the conqueror of the strongholds and their demolisher. He shall be, indeed, the destroyer of every polytheistic group. He shall be the attainer of vengeance for the blood of all representatives of Allah, the mighty and the majestic. He shall be the supporter of the religion of Allah. He shall bring out (people’s share) from (his) deep ocean (of knowledge and divine resources). He shall mark each man of distinction by his distinction and every man of ignorance by his ignorance. Behold! He is the elite of Allah, and Allah is his chooser. He shall be the heir of every knowledge, and the one who shall encompass [every perception]. He shall advise and inform on behalf of his Lord, the mighty and the majestic, and shall remind about the matters pertaining to His faith. He shall be the right-minded and unerring, to whom authority shall be vested. Behold! All former (prophets) have given the glad tidings of him. Know that he shall be the remaining proof (of Allah), after whom there shall be no (new) proof. There shall be no truth except with him, nor shall there be any light (of guidance) except at his disposal. None, indeed, shall overcome him, and none shall be supported against him. He shall be the authorized representative of Allah on His earth, His judge over His creation, and His trustee in His secrets and in what He made evident.
Oh people! I have, indeed, explained for you and made you comprehend (Allah’s commandments), and it is this Ali that shall make you comprehend (every issue) after me. Notice that at the end of my sermon, I shall call upon you to shake hands with me as the oath of allegiance to him and the recognition of his authority, and to shake hands with him afterwards. I have, indeed, sworn allegiance to Allah, and Ali has sworn allegiance to me, and, on behalf of Allah, the mighty and the majestic, I require you to swear the oath of allegiance to him, (for Allah says): “Verily those who pledge allegiance to you, they indeed pledge allegiance to Allah; the hand of Allah is over their hands. Thus, anyone who violates his oath has indeed violated his (own) soul, and anyone who fulfills the covenant he has made with Allah, He shall soon grant him a great reward.”
Oh people! The greater and the lesser pilgrimages, and (the mounts of) al-Safaa and al-Marwa are among the emblems of Allah; Thus, whoever goes to visit the House in the season or at other times, he is not wrong if he repeatedly walks between the two (mounts of al-Safa and al-Marwa). Oh people! Do make pilgrimage to the House, for no members of a family went there except that they became free of need [and received glad tidings!] None failed to go there except that they were impoverished. Oh people! No believer stands at the standing place (of the Arafat desert) except that Allah forgives all his past sins until then. Thus, once his pilgrimage is over, (recording) his actions is resumed. Oh people! The pilgrims shall be assisted, and their expenses shall be reimbursed, and Allah shall not waste the reward of those who do well. Oh people! Perform pilgrimage to the House having perfected faith and deep understanding (of religion), and do not leave the sacred visiting places except after repenting and desisting (from all sins). Oh people! Establish the prayers and pay the charity as Allah, the mighty and the majestic, commanded you. But, if time lapses and you fall short or forget, then Ali shall direct you and shall explain for you. He is the one whom Allah, the mighty and the majestic, appointed for you after me [as the trustee of His creation. He is from me and I am from him.] He and those who will succeed him from my progeny shall inform you of anything you ask about, and shall clarify what you do not know. Certainly, the lawful and unlawful things are more than that I could enumerate, specify their limits, and urge to or advise against them each in this place. Therefore, I was commanded to take an oath of allegiance and a covenant from you in accepting what I brought you from Allah, the mighty and the majestic, regarding Ali, the Commander of the Believers, and the executors (of my affairs) after him who are from me and from him, Oh people! (By this appointment) I have directed you to every lawful deed and prohibited you from every unlawful deed. And I shall never take (my word) back, nor shall I replace it. Hence, remember and safeguard it, advise each other to it, and never substitute nor alter it. I repeat the saying: Establish the prayers, pay the charity, enjoin the good deeds, and forbid the evil deeds. Behold! The greatest case of enjoining righteous deeds is comprehending my saying, conveying it to whoever is not present, urging him to accept it, and advising him against violating it, for it is an order from Allah, the mighty and the majestic, and from me. There is no (value or effect for) enjoining (other) recognized deeds and forbidding the detested deeds except with (the recognition of) an infallible leader (Imamim-Ma'soom). Oh people! The Quran informs you that the Imams after him (Ali) are his descendants, and I have already informed you that they are of me and of him, for Allah, the mighty and the majestic, says in His Book, “And He made that a Word enduring in his posterity,” and I said: “You will never go astray so long as you adhere to both (the Quran and my family).” Oh people! (Observe) piety! (Observe) piety! And be wary of the Hour as Allah, the mighty and the majestic, says, “Surely the convulsion of the Hour shall be a tremendous thing.” Remember death, [resurrection], reckoning, the scales (of justice), and the call to account within the hands of the Lord of the worlds, and the reward and punishment. Thus, whoever comes (to the Day of Judgement) with a righteous deed, shall be rewarded for it, and whoever comes with an (unforgiven) sin, shall not have any share in the gardens.
Oh people! There are too many of you to shake my hand at the same time, and Allah, the mighty and the majestic, commanded me to take verbal recognition from you regarding what I finalized (on behalf of Allah) “We heard, obeyed, are satisfied, and are submitted to what you have conveyed to us from our Lord and your Lord with regard to the authority of Ali, the Commander of the Believers, and the authority of the Imams from his loins. We pledge allegiance to you in this regard with our hearts, our souls, our tongues, and our hands. According to this, shall we live, shall we die, and shall we be resurrected. We shall not alter, nor shall we substitute, nor shall we entertain doubt, [nor shall we deny], nor shall we distrust, nor shall we withdraw from the covenant, nor shall we breach the pact. You advised us on behalf of Allah regarding Ali, the Commander of the Believers, and the Imams after him that you mentioned to be of your offspring from his descendants (who are): al-Hasan, al-Husayn, and whomever Allah shall appoint after them. The covenant and the pledge are taken from us, from our hearts, our souls, our tongues, our minds, and our hands. Anyone (of us) who can reach him shall shake his hand, otherwise he shall affirm the covenant by his tongue. We shall not seek any substitute for it, nor shall Allah see in our souls any diversion from it. We shall convey the same on your behalf to anyone, near or far, among our offspring and our people, We take Allah as witness to this, and surely Allah suffices as witness. You are also witness over us; so are anyone who obeyed, visible or covered, Allah’s Angels, His forces, and His servants. And Allah is greater than every witness.”
Oh people! What do you say? Verily, Allah is well-aware of every voice and the secrecy of every soul; “He who accepts guidance, it is to the benefit of his own soul, and he who goes astray, does so to his own loss.” Those who pledge fealty, they indeed pledge fealty to Allah; the hand of Allah is over their hands. Oh people! Be mindful of Allah, give your oath of allegiance to Ali, the Commander of the Believers, may Allah’s blessings be upon him, to al-Hasan and al-Husayn, and to the Imams [from them], a goodly Word, that is enduring. Allah shall cause whoever acts treacherously to perish and shall have mercy on whoever remains loyal. “Thus, anyone who violates his oath has indeed violated his (own) soul, and anyone who fulfills the covenant he has made with Allah, He shall soon grant him a great reward.” Oh people! Say what I told you, and greet Ali with the title of “The Commander of the Believers” (Amirul Mu'minin). And also say: “We listened, and obeyed, Your forgiveness (do we seek), Our Lord, and towards Your (reward or punishment) is the eventual turn.” And say: “Praise be to Allah who has guided us to this. Never could we be guided had Allah not guided us.” Oh people! Without doubt, the merits of Ali Ibn Abi Talib in the sight of Allah, the mighty and the majestic, which are indeed revealed in the Quran, are more numerous than I could recount in one speech; thus, whenever someone relates them to you and acquaints (you) with them, believe him. Oh people! Whoever obeys Allah, His Messenger, Ali, and the Imams that I mentioned, has indeed achieved a great prosperity. Oh people! The foremost from among you in paying homage to him, (truly) accepting his guardianship, and greeting him as “the Commander of the Believers” are the winners of the gardens of bliss. Oh people! Say what makes Allah be pleased with you, and (know that) if you and all the people on earth disbelieve, it shall not harm Allah in the least. Oh Allah! Forgive the believers [through what I have conveyed and commanded,] and let Your Wrath descend upon those [who deny] and disbelieve, and praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of the worlds.""
- The Second version of the sermon reads:
|“||O Men, listen well to my words, for I do not know whether I shall meet you again on such an occasion in the future. O Men, your lives and your property shall be inviolate until you meet your Lord. The safety of your lives and of your property shall be as inviolate as this holy day and holy month. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Thus do I warn you. Whoever of you is keeping a trust of someone else shall return that trust to its rightful owner. All interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. God has judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to `Abbas ibn `Abd al Muttalib shall henceforth be waived. Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days is henceforth waived. And the first such right that I waive is that arising from the murder of Rabi'ah ibn al Harith ibn `Abd al Muttalib. O Men, the devil has lost all hope of ever being worshipped in this land of yours. Nevertheless, he still is anxious to determine the lesser of your deeds. Beware of him, therefore, for the safety of your religion. O Men, intercalation or tampering with the calendar is evidence of great unbelief and confirms the unbelievers in their misguidance. They indulge in it one year and forbid it the next in order to make permissible that which God forbade, and to forbid that which God has made permissible. The pattern according to which the time is reckoned is always the same. With God, the months are twelve in number. Four of them are holy. Three of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumada and Sha'ban. O Men, to you a right belongs with respect to your women and to your women a right with respect to you. It is your right that they not fraternize with any one of whom you do not approve, But if they abide by your right, then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them, for they are your partners and committed helpers. Remember that you have taken them as your wives and enjoyed their flesh only under God's trust and with His permission. Reason well, therefore, O Men, and ponder my words which I now convey to you. I am leaving you with the Book of God and the Sunnah of His Prophet. If you follow them, you will never go astray. O Men, harken well to my words. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to your own selves. O God, have I conveyed Your message?"||”|
Both versions of the sermon can be found at wikisource.
Hadiths report at least three different versions of the same sermon. The most notable difference is near the end of the sermon, where Muhammad states that he leaves behind two things. One version, for instance, has the statement: "I leave with you Qur'an and Sunnah." The other version has the statement: "I leave with you Qur'an and Ahl al-bayt" (the family of Muhammad). The third version has the statement: "I leave for you the Qur'an, you shall uphold it."
These differences have theological significance for Sunni and Shi'a Muslims. Sunnis hold themselves as the followers of the sunnah or practice of Muhammad as related by his companions, the Sahaba. Sunnis also maintain that the Islamic community, or ummah, as a whole will always be guided.
The Shi'ites hold the second version of the sermon as the correct one. According to Shi'a belief, the only legitimate leadership rested in the lineage of Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib. The Shi'ites believe that the rest of the Muslim community committed a grave error by electing Abu Bakr and his two successors as leaders.
Those who reject the entire hadith as guidance and advocate the Qur'an alone point out the inconsistencies in Hadith by referring to these differences.
- Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith 1623, 1626, 6361
- Sahih of Imam Muslim also refers to this sermon in Hadith number 98.
- Hadith nos. 1628, 2046, 2085 - Imam al-Tirmidhi.
- Hadith no. 19774, Musnad of Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal.
- Farewell Sermon Prophet Muhammad
- An analysis of The Farewell Sermon
- The Farewell Pilgrimage - Prophet Muhammad's Sermon - Charter for Social Justice
- The last sermon of the Prophet Muhammad
|This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original article was at The Farewell Sermon. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.|