The Second Temple refers to the temple rebuilt by Zerubabbel, which was subsequently taken down and rebuilt on a grand scale by Herod.
The Third Temple refers to the structure which may be built on the Temple Mount in anticipation of the Second Coming of Jesus. Several historians use the term in reference to the temple built by Roman Emperor Hadrian on the Temple Mount in honor of the Roman god Capitoline Jupiter; he renamed the city Aelia Capitolina in this god's honor. Many Jews believe the Temple will be rebuilt only with the coming of Moshiach.
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