|Origin and development|
|Qur'an and Sunnah|
|Views on the Qur'an|
Tajwīd (تجويد) is an Arabic word for elocution, meaning proper pronunciation during recitation, as well as recitation at a moderate speed. It is a set of rules which govern how the Qur'an should be read. It is derived from the triliteral root j-w-d, meaning to make well, make better, or improve. It is required by fard. There are seven schools of tajwid, the most popular school being the school of Hafs.
Rules of Tajwid
Manners of the heart
- One should understand that the Qur'an is not the word of man.
- The reader should throw away all other thoughts.
- One should understand the meaning.
- One should be humble with fear and hope in heart.
- One should feel that every message in the Qur’an is meant personally for himself or herself.
- One should understand the proper pronunciation of Arabic alphabet.
- One should be vigilant of the purity of body, clothes, and place.
- One is encouraged to face the Qiblah.
- One should stop at a verse of warning and seeking protection with Allah.
- One should stop at a verse of mercy and asking Allah for mercy.
- One should use pure classical Arabic pronunciation, without foreign or dialectic influence.
Emission points of the letters
The emission points of the letters, or Makharijul Huruf, is the study of where the sounds of the different letters are emitted from. There are 17 places, in various regions of the throat, tongue, lips, nose, as well as the mouth as a whole for the prolonged (Mudd) letters.
Characteristics of the letters
The characteristics of the letters, or Siffat al Huruf, refer to the different attributes of the letters. Some of the characteristics have opposites, while some are individual. An example of a characteristic would be the whistling (Safeer), which is an attribute sound of air escaping from a tube.
Rules of the letter NUN and tanween
The NUN sakinah and tanween (vowels that produces a "nnn" sound immediately after it) can be pronounced in four different ways: Clear (Idhar))(ء،ه،ع ،ح،غ،خ), Merged with the next letter (Idgham), Hidden (Ikhfa), and changed from a "nnn" sound to a "mmm" sound (Iqlaab).
Rules of the letter MIM
The MIM sakinah can be pronounced in three different ways, clear (Idhar), prolonged nasalization (Ghunnah), and uncloselipped (ikhfaa shafawee).
Rules of prolongation [muddud]
These rules refer to the number of beats that are pronounced when voweled letter is followed by a MUDD letter. The MUDD letters are Alif, Yaah, and Waw. The number of beats can range from 2 counts to 6 counts.
Rules of the letter LAM
The Arabic word for "the" is al- (the letters alif and lam). The lam in al- is pronounced if the letter after is "qamariyya" (lunar), but silent if the letter after is "shamsiyya" (solar).
Thickness and Thinness of the letters
Some of the arabic letters are always pronounced thick with a heavy accent (Tafkhim). Some letters are pronounced thin with a light accent (Tarqeeq). The first category of letters are called "mufakham", the latter "muraqqaq". Some letters depend on the scenario, and are sometimes pronounced thick, and sometimes thin.
Articles on Tajwid in English:
- Chapter in "The Art of Reciting the Qur'an" by Kristina Nelson, American University in Cairo Press (Cairo, NY) 2001. This book is widely read and respected among Islamic communities, and can be found on Amazon.
- “Theory and Practice of Tajwid,” Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, IV, Leiden, Brill, 2007 (or still in press)
- youtube.com-Articulation of the Arabic Alphabet in Order of Articulation based upon the rules of Tajwid
- Recitation in Tajwid
- Tajweed in English - A Tajweed podcast in iTunes in English for English and French speakers.[ New videos on makharij [(points of articulations)] ]
- Tajweed Podcast - A Tajweed podcast in iTunes in English for English speakers
- Tajweed videos
- www.AlQuranAcademy.com - Online 1-to-1 Tajwid classes.
- Pronunciation diagram - in Arabic
- AboutTajweed.com - Rules of Tajweed
|This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original article was at Tajwid. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.|