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Stations of the Exodus

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The Stations list is the list of the locations visited by the Israelites following their exodus from Egypt. [1] As the map illustrates, the list places its first six stations in Egypt. Starting near Thebes the capital of Egypt in the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt they head down the wadi Ham ma m3at from Etham toward Thebes Red Sea port at Elim where Hatshepsut kept her trading fleet. The fleet was used to bring mortuary materials from across the Red Sea at Elat to the temple of Karnak at Thebes. The list, or lists as there are variations in other books of the bible, contain several brief narrative fragments. For example "...And they came to Elim, where there were twelve wells of water, and seventy date-palms...". Viewed in the context of the conflict between Egypt and its rivals as mentioned in the Amarna Letters and in the context of the campaign reports of the 18th dynasty and the 19th dynasty The Exodus taken with Joshua and Judges places the participants in the midst of the conflict during one of the first major wars between empires.
Hitt Egypt Perseus

The Egyptian and Hittite spheres of influence around the time of the 18th dynasty.


The Stations of the Exodus in EgyptEdit

EXODUS FROM EGYPT
Station Biblical Reference Description Modern Location
1. Ramesses Ex. 12:37; Nu. 33:3,5 the Rameses district was of the highest quality land in Egypt (Ge. 47:11) Thebes, Egypt
2. Sukkoth Ex. 12:37, 13:20; Nu. 33:5-6 The tombs of Karnak from which the bones of Joseph are retrieved across the Nile from Thebes
3. Etham Ex. 13:20; Nu. 33:6-8 "on the edge of the wilderness" The wadi Ham M3at leading from Thebes to the Red Sea
4. Pi-Hahiroth Ex. 14:2-3; Nu. 33:7-8 "between Migdol and the sea, opposite Ba'al-Zephon" (the god of the west wind) In Egyptian the place of "facing the fear of coming forth abroad as a fugitive"
5. Marah Ex. 15:23; Nu. 33:8-9 lit. 'bitterness' The outskirts of Thebes port of Elim
6. Elim Ex. 15:27, 16:1; Nu. 33:9-10 Had 12 wells and 70 palm trees Modern Thebes Port of Quasire

The 7th Station of the Exodus Edit

The 7th Station of the Exodus lies between Elim and Elat in the Red Sea which is an anglified version of the Greek name, the Erythrian Sea.

Station Biblical Reference Description Modern Location
7. By the Red Sea Nu. 33:10-11 By the Erythrian Sea Thebes Port of Quasire

The Passage of the Red Sea is described in the [2]. (Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. According to the story it is in the first month, the time of inundation that they leave from Thebes, but in the second month that they arrive off Sinai. The Gulf of Aqaba separates the kingdoms of the Arabah or Arabia Petra from Egypt, just as Egypts province of Canaan separates Egypts vassals from the Hittites and their allies the Naharaim.

The Stations of the Exodus after reaching Sinai Edit

The 8th station reaches Sinai. None of the Stations except numbers 8 and 12 are actually in the Sinai

Station Biblical Reference Description Modern Location
8. Sin Wilderness Ex. 16:1, 17:1; Nu. 33:11-12 God supplies quail and manna, "Between Elim and Elat" Gulf of Aqaba

The Stations of the Exodus in and around Elat Edit

EXODUS IN CANAAN

The 9th-13th stations are in and around Elat The Stations list now refers to the stations or stopping point of the Sons of Israel in their Exodus after they have [3] left Egypt and crossed the Red Sea.

The list of the locations the Israelites stopped at after the Exodus from Egypt are taken from the locations mentioned in the Book of Exodus and the rest of the Pentateuch. [4] discuses reports of habiru from the Amarna letters which agree and are colaborated by Egyptian campaign reports and those places on the stations list which are also on the Kings Highway

Station 12 refers to a dozen campsites in and around Timna in Modern Israel near Elat.

What follows is a list of the various stops of the Israelites on the Stations Lists, which are also links to the respective underlying articles.

The biblical reference is given in the next column. The modern equivalents of these locations, such as are known, are given in the column at right. Click on the first station to begin the tour:

Station Biblical Reference Description Modern Location
9. Dophkah Nu. 33:12-13 "Dophkah" from the semitic root for Adonis, a Phoenician emporia at Elat Egyptiam suburb of modern Elat
10. Alush Nu. 33:13-14 the summit of Horeb where the water flowed from the rock Mt Horab at modern Elat
11. Rephidim Ex. 17:1, 19:2; Nu. 33:14-15 near Mt. Horab at Elat Place of rhe First Contact with the Amalek and Rephidim of the Negev, Edom, and Canaan
12. Sinai Wilderness Ex. 19:1-2; Nu. 10:12, 33:15-16 The campsites near Elat A dozen sites with Egyptian artifacts have been found at Timnah near Elat
13. Kibroth-Hattaavah Taberah Nu. 11:1, Nu. 11:35, 33:16-17 lit. Graves of Longing or Graves of Lust The burials of those who fought the Amalek at Horab

The stations that follow the border of Edom Edit

Stations 14-21 follow the border of Edom heading North adjacent to the desert of Sn and then turn east back to Moab and Medeba which is a plateaus of cattle ranges in Jordan.

The 14th-18th lead North up to Gaza following the western bound of Edom
The 19th-21st lead East back to Moab following the northern bound of Edom
Station Biblical Reference Description Modern Location
14. Hazeroth Nu. 11:35, 12:16, 33:17-18 Between Elat and Kadesh Barnea - -
15. Rithmah Nu. 33:18-19 Near Kadesh Barnea - -
16. Rimmon-Perez Nu. 33:19-20 Kadesh Barnea the Brook of Egypt - -
17. Libnah Nu. 33:20-21 The White land in the West, Libyan Frankincense emporia
18. Rissah Nu. 33:21-22 a fortified well on the Kings highway
19. Kehelathah Nu. 33:22-23 The place of gathering antimony on the Kings highway
20. Mount Shapher Nu. 33:23-24 from Arabic safarya, journey, from safar, departure
21. Haradah Nu. 33:24-25 the place of departure a place of fear between Mount Shapher and Makhelot near Moab

The Exodus reaches Moab and heads south toward Petra Edit

The 22nd-25th lead south to Petra following the eastern bound of Edom
The 26th through 28th are in and around Petra.
The 29th-32nd lead south from the cleft in the mountain at Petra back to Ezion Geber or Elat.
Station 33 goes back North to Kadesh
Station 34 goes back East to Mt Hor at Petra.
The 35th -37th lead north along the kings highway and the border of Moab to Mt Nebo.
Station 38 is Mount Nebo and 39 is Dibon the capital of Moab.
Stations 40-42 are in Moab near Mt Nebo.
Station Biblical Reference Description Modern Location
22. Makheloth Nu. 33:25-26 A place dedicated to Moloch Near Moab
23. Tahath Nu. 33:26-27 Egyptian for the land of gardens On the borders of Moab and Edom
24. Tarah Nu. 33:27-28 Ta Ra The land of the Egyptians On the borders of Moab and Edom
25. Mithcah Nu. 33:28-29 associated with Petra on the borders of Moab and Edom near Petra.
26. Hashmonah Nu. 33:29-30 Ha Shmona Kiryat Shmona South
27. Moseroth Nu. 33:30-31 The place where Aaron died at the foor of Mt Hor (Petra)
28. Bene-Jaakan Nu. 33:31-32 the wells of Jaakan Near Mt Hor (Petra)
29. Petra Nu. 33:32-33 Siq The cleft in the cleft of the mountain the entrance to Petra
30. Jotbathah Nu. 33:33-34 Between Petra and Elat - -
31. Abronah Nu. 33:34-35 Near Elat - -
32. Ezion-Geber Nu. 33:35-36 Elat Near northern tip of Gulf of Aqaba
33. Kadesh Nu. 20:1,22, 33:36-37 Located in the Wilderness of Zin; Miriam's burial place Kadesh Barnea, the southern Border of Israel at the Brook of Egypt
34. Mount Hor (Petra) Nu. 20:22, 21:4, 33:37-41 On the MoabEdomite border; Aaron's burial place
35. Zalmonah Nu. 33:41-42 where the manna was delivered textual artifact al mon = manna
36. Punon Nu. 33:42-43 A place without mannah where the sons of Israel complained of hunger and were attacked by snakes
37. Oboth Nu. 21:10-11, 33:43-44 adjacent to Mt Nebo Moab, Ammon, Edom, Zobah, and the Philistines
38. Abarim Ruins Nu. 21:11, 33:44-45 Israelites encamped beneath Mount Nebo at the ruins
39. Dibon Gad Nu. 33:45-46 Dhiban was the capital of Moab in Jordan east of the Dead Sea south of Amman
40. Almon Diblathaim Nu. 33:46-47 where the manna was delivered by the west wind Phillistine Athaim, a town in Moab
41. Abarim Mountains Nu. 33:13-14 Israelites encamped beneath Mount Nebo - -
42. Moab Plains Nu. 22:1, 33:48-50 Israelites encamped on the Jordan River from Beith Hayishimoth to Aveil Hashittim Occupied most of the Trans-Jordan region

Alternative unreferenced version Edit

The Stations list is the list of the locations visited by the Israelites following their exodus from Egypt.

Under the documentary hypothesis, the list is believed to have originally been a distinct and separate source text. In the hypothesis, it is believed that the redactor, who combined the sources, used parts of the Stations list to fill out awkward joins between the main sources. The list lists the locations visited by the Israelites, during their journey through the wilderness, after having left Egypt. Consequently, the parts which were inserted to join up the sources appear in suitable locations in the Book of Exodus and the Book of Numbers.

However, a slightly variant version of the list appears in full at Numbers 33, and several parts of the journey described in the full list, most noticeably the journey from Sinai to Zin, do not appear in the fragmented version. It is tempting to suggest that the journey from Sinai to Zin was cut out of the fragmented version due to a copying error caused by the similarity in sound of "Sinai" and "Zin". However, as there are 42 locations in the full list, and the Israelites were said to have been in the desert for 40 years, it is possible that several locations in the full list were added to the list of destinations as a literary device. It may even be the case that both of these are true, the full list being the original on which the fragmented version was based.

Both versions of the list contain several brief narrative fragments. For example "...And they came to Elim, where there were twelve wells of water, and seventy date-palms...". It is the matter of some debate as to how much of the narrative is part of the original text of the list, and how much is extra detail added into it by the redactor.

The situation also occurs in reverse, where some brief texts, within parts of the list, and ascribed to the redactor, are usually regarded as not being part of the list of stations, albeit without much conviction. This is particularly true for Numbers 21:14-15, which references unknown events in the lost Book of the wars of the lord, and Numbers 21:16b-18a, describing the digging of the well at Beer.

What follows is a list of the various stops of the Israelites on the Stations Lists, which are also links to the respective underlying articles. The biblical reference is given in the next column. The modern equivalents of these locations, such as are known, are given in the column at right. You can also just click on Rameses to begin with the first location of the tour:

ReferencesEdit

Archaeological ReferencesEdit

  • 1. Renfrew, Colin and Bahn, Paul Archaeology. 2004. ISBN 0500 284415.  Page 515 discusses conflicts between archaeology and Judaism

Near Eastern ReferencesEdit

  • 2. Nelson Glueck Rivers in the Desert. 1959. ISBN. Discusses The evidence for the Exodus in the Negev pp,15,41,63,95,102,106,118,119,122,123,138,143,150-151,162,167,170,171,172,186,187,194,243,246,250,258,276
  • 3. William H McNeil and Jean W Sedlar, The Ancient Near East. 1962. ISBN.  Discusses the evidence for Habiru and hapitu in Canaan
  • 4. Andrew George, The Epic of Gillgamesh. 2000. ISBN No14-044721-0.  Includes toponyms for Canaan
  • 5. James B. Pritchard, The Ancient Near East. 1968. ISBN.  Jerusalim, siege and fall
  • 6. Shaika Haya Ali Al Khalifa and Michael Rice, Bahrain through the Ages. 1986. ISBN 071030112-x. 
  • 7. Dr. Muhammed Abdul Nayeem, Prehistory and Protohistory of the Arabian Peninsula. 1990. ISBN. 
  • 8. Michael Roaf Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East. 1990. ISBN 0-8160-2218-6. 
  • 9. Nicholas Awde and Putros Samano The Arabic Alphabet. 1986. ISBN 0863560350. 
  • 10. Gerard Herm The Phoenicians. 1975. ISBN 0-688-02908-6. Jerusalim pp 33,84-106 passim, 123,125,126,145,149,150,154

Marine Archaeology RederencesEdit

  • 11. Lionel Casson The Ancient Mariners. 1991. ISBN 06910147879. 
  • 12. George Bass A History of Seafaring. 2004. ISBN 08027-0-3909. 

Egyptological ReferencesEdit

Linguistic ReferencesEdit

Classical ReferencesEdit

  • 23. Vitruvius The Ten Books on Architecture. 1960. 
  • 24. Claudias Ptolemy The Geography. 1991. ISBN 048626896. 
  • 25. Herodotus The History. 1952.  War with Judah, Sennacherib, siege of 701 BC

Historical ReferencesEdit

  • 26. Michael Grant The Rise of the Greeks. 1987. 

Mathematical ReferencesEdit

  • 27. Lucas N. H. Bunt, Phillip S.Jones, Jack D. Bedient The Historical Roots of Elementary Mathematics. 1976. ISBN 0486255638.  Includes references to a Days Journey and a Days Sail

Mensurational ReferencesEdit

  • 28. H Arthur Klein The World of Measurements. 1976. Includes references to a Days Journey and a Days Sail
  • 29 Francis H. Moffitt Surveying. 1987. ISBN 0060445548. 

Architectural ReferencesEdit

  • 30. R. A. Cordingley Norman's Parallel of the Orders of Architecture. 1951. 

Medieval ReferencesEdit

  • 31. H Johnathan Riley Smith The Atlas of the Crusades place names in Canaan during the crusades. 1990. ISBN 0723003610. 
  • 32. H.W. Koch Medieval Warfare. 1978. ISBN 0135736005. 

MiscEdit

  • 2. Nelson Glueck Rivers in the Desert. 1959. ISBN. Discusses The evidence for the Exodus in the Negev
  • 3. William H McNeil and Jean W Sedlar, The Ancient Near East. 1962. ISBN.  Discusses the evidence for Habiru and hapitu in Canaan
  • 4. Andrew George, The Epic of Gillgamesh. 2000. ISBN No14-044721-0.  Includes toponyms for Canaan
  • 5. James B. Pritchard, The Ancient Near East. 1968. ISBN.  discuses reports of habiru from the Amarna letters which agree and are colaborated by Egyptian campaign reports and thos places on the stations list which are also on the Kings Highway
  • 6. Shaika Haya Ali Al Khalifa and Michael Rice, Bahrain through the Ages. 1986. ISBN 071030112-x.  Discussion of rock art near Timna
  • 7. Dr. Muhammed Abdul Nayeem, Prehistory and Protohistory of the Arabian Peninsula. 1990. ISBN.  Discussion of the sites in and around Timna
  • 8. Michael Roaf Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East. 1990. ISBN 0-8160-2218-6.  Discusses reports of Hittites and Mitanni settlements in Cannan and interactions with the habiru
  • 9. Nicholas Awde and Putros Samano The Arabic Alphabet. 1986. ISBN 0863560350. 
  • 10. Gerard Herm The Phoenicians. William Morrow^ Co. Inc.. 1975. ISBN 0-688-02908-6. Trade with Ezion Geber



  1. (Nelson Glueck "Rivers in the Desert followed the list of stations from the Exodus and located many of the sites in the Negev)
  2. (Dr. Muhammed Abdul Nayeem, "Prehistory and Protohistory of the Arabian Peninsula")
  3. (The Book of Exodus in the Pentateuch, chapters 13 : 16)
  4. (James B. Pritchard, "The ANE" )

The Bible, Numbers 33, Edit

The stages of the Exodus from Thebes Egypt to the Red Sea

33:5 And the children of Israel removed from Rameses, and pitched in Succoth.
P33:6 And they departed from Succoth, and pitched in Etham, which is in the edge of the wilderness.
33:7 And they removed from Etham, and turned again unto Pihahiroth, which is before Baalzephon: and they pitched before Migdol.
P33:8 And they departed from before Pihahiroth, and passed through the midst of the sea into the wilderness, and went three days' journey in the wilderness of Etham, and pitched in Marah.
33:9 And they removed from Marah, and came unto Elim: and in Elim were twelve fountains of water, and threescore and ten palm trees; and they pitched there.
33:10 And they removed from Elim, and encamped by the Red sea.
The crossing of the Red Sea
33:11 And they removed from the Red sea, and encamped in the wilderness of Sin.
The encampments in and around Mt Horab and Elat
33:12 And they took their journey out of the wilderness of Sin, and encamped in Dophkah.
33:13 And they departed from Dophkah, and encamped in Alush.
33:14 And they removed from Alush, and encamped at Rephidim, where was no water for the people to drink.
33:15 And they departed from Rephidim, and pitched in the wilderness of Sinai.
33:16 And they removed from the desert of Sinai, and pitched at Kibrothhattaavah.
33:17 And they departed from Kibrothhattaavah, and encamped at Hazeroth.
The encampments bordering Edom
33:18 And they departed from Hazeroth, and pitched in Rithmah.
33:19 And they departed from Rithmah, and pitched at Rimmonparez.
33:20 And they departed from Rimmonparez, and pitched in Libnah.
33:21 And they removed from Libnah, and pitched at Rissah.
33:22 And they journeyed from Rissah, and pitched in Kehelathah.
33:23 And they went from Kehelathah, and pitched in mount Shapher.
33:24 And they removed from mount Shapher, and encamped in Haradah.
The encampments in and around Moab
33:25 And they removed from Haradah, and pitched in Makheloth.
33:26 And they removed from Makheloth, and encamped at Tahath.
33:27 And they departed from Tahath, and pitched at Tarah.
33:28 And they removed from Tarah, and pitched in Mithcah.
33:29 And they went from Mithcah, and pitched in Hashmonah.
33:30 And they departed from Hashmonah, and encamped at Moseroth.
The encampements in and around Pella
33:31 And they departed from Moseroth, and pitched in Benejaakan.
33:32 And they removed from Benejaakan, and encamped at Horhagidgad.
33:33 And they went from Horhagidgad, and pitched in Jotbathah.
33:34 And they removed from Jotbathah, and encamped at Ebronah.
The return to Elat and Kadesh Barnea
33:35 And they departed from Ebronah, and encamped at Eziongaber.
33:36 And they removed from Eziongaber, and pitched in the wilderness of Zin, which is Kadesh.
33:37 And they removed from Kadesh, and pitched in mount Hor, in the edge of the land of Edom.
The return to Pella
33:41 And they departed from mount Hor, and pitched in Zalmonah.
33:42 And they departed from Zalmonah, and pitched in Punon.
The return to Moab
33:43 And they departed from Punon, and pitched in Oboth.
33:44 And they departed from Oboth, and pitched in Ijeabarim, in the border of Moab.
33:45 And they departed from Iim, and pitched in Dibongad.
33:46 And they removed from Dibongad, and encamped in Almondiblathaim.
33:47 And they removed from Almondiblathaim, and pitched in the mountains of Abarim, before Nebo.
33:48 And they departed from the mountains of Abarim, and pitched in the plains of Moab by Jordan near Jericho.
33:49 And they pitched by Jordan', from Bethjesimoth even unto Abelshittim in the plains of Moab.


Some or all of this article is forked from Wikipedia. The original article was at Stations of the Exodus. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.

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