One town was in the Hebron hill district, in the double tel called Khirbet Shuwaikah Fauka and Tahta (Upper and Lower Shuwaikah), 6 km southwest of Eshtamoa (Joshua 15:48). The other is in the lower hill country (the Shephelah), in the Ela Valley between Adullam and Azekah (Joshua 15:35).
The Bible also mentions a Sokho in the Hefer region in the Sharon (1 Kings 4:10).
The Philistines camped between the Ela Valley Sokho and Azekah before the encounter of David and Goliath (1 Samuel 17:1). Rehoboam fortified the place (2 Chronicles 11:7). It was one of the cities occupied temporarily by the Philistines in the time of Ahaz (2 Chronicles 28:18). In that period it served as an administrative or storage center, being one of the four cities named on the la-melekh stamps of the Judean monarchy.
The Mishnaic Rabbi Antigonus of Sokho, mentioned in Ethics of the Fathers (Pirkei Avot 1:3), likely came from the Hebron-region town. Rabbi Levi Sukia, of the first generation of Amoraim, also came from Sokho (Jerusalem Talmud, Eruvim).
In Byzantine times, Eusebius described Sokho (Σοκχωθ) as a double village at the ninth milestone between Eleutheropolis (Bet Guvrin) and Jerusalem (Eusebius, Onom. 156:18 ff.), which would correspond to the Elah Valley location. The Madaba Map also depicts Sokho (Σωκω).
Today, the Elah-Valey Tel Sokho is known as Givat HaTurmusim, or Lupine Hill. In late March, the entire hill is covered with wild blue lupines and becomes a popular outing destination for Israeli families.