The sixteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XVI)[1] was a dynasty of pharaohs that ruled in Upper Egypt[2] for fifty years[3] during the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1650-1550 BCE), a period that saw the division of Upper and Lower Egypt between the pharaohs at Thebes and the Hyksos kings at Avaris.


Of the two chief versions of Manetho's Aegyptiaca, Dynasty XVI is described by the more reliable[4] Sextus Julius Africanus (supported by George Syncellus)[5] as "shepherd [hyksos] kings", but by Eusebius of Caesarea as Theban.[4]

Kim Ryholt (1997), followed by Bourriau (2003), in reconstructing the Turin King List, interpreted a list of Thebes-based kings to constitute Manetho's Dynasty XVI, although this is one Ryholt's "most debatable and far-reaching" conclusions.[4]


The continuing war against Dynasty XV dominated the short-lived Dynasty XVI. The armies of Dynasty XV, winning town after town from their southern enemies, continually encroached on Dynasty XVI, eventually threatening and then conquering Thebes itself. Ryholt (1997) has suggested that Dedumose I sued for a truce in the latter years of the dynasty,[3] but one of his predecessors, Nebiriau I, may have been more successful and seems to have enjoyed a period of peace in his reign.[3]

Famine, which had plagued Upper Egypt during late Dynasty XIII and Dynasty XIV, also blighted Dynasty XVI, most evidently in the reign of Neferhotep III.[3]


From Ryholt's reconstruction of the Turin canon, fifteen kings of Dynasty XVI can now be named, five of whom appear in contemporary sources.[2] While most likely ruled from Thebes itself, some may have been local rulers from other important Upper Egyptian towns, including Abydos, El Kab and Edfu.[2] By the reign of Nebiriau I, the Dynasty XVI realm extended at least as far north as Hu.[3]

Not listed in the Turin canon (after Ryholt) is Wepwawetemsaf, who left a stele at Abydos and was likely a more local king.[2]

Ryholt gives the list of Dynasty XVI kings as follows:[6]

Dynasty XVI
Name Comments
-Name lost
Sobekhotep VIII
Neferhotep III
Mentuhotep VI
Nebiriau I
Nebiriau II
Seuserenre Bebiankh
Sekhemre Shedwast


  1. Kuhrt 1995: 118
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Bourriau 2003: 191
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Ryholt 1997: 305
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Bourriau 2003: 179
  5. Cory 1876
  6. Kings of the Second Intermediate Period 16th dynasty (after Ryholt 1997)


This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original article was at Sixteenth dynasty of Egypt. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.

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