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Simeon the Righteous

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St. Simeon the Righteous
Yegorov-Simeon the Righteous.jpg
Simeon the Righteous by Alexey Yegorov. 1830-40s
God-Receiver
Venerated in Eastern Orthodox Church
Roman Catholic Church
Anglican Communion
Lutheran Churches
Major shrine Church of St. Simon in Zadar
Feast February 2
February 3
February 15
Attributes Depicted as an elderly man, sometimes vested as a Jewish priest, often shown holding the infant Jesus

Simeon the Righteous (also Simeon the Elder, Simeon Senex, Simeon the God-Receiver, or Holy Simeon) is the "just and devout" man of Jerusalem who, according to Luke 2:25-35, met the Virgin Mary, Joseph, and Jesus as they entered the Temple to fulfill the requirements of the Law of Moses on the fortieth day from Jesus' birth. On taking Jesus into his arms he uttered the prayer Nunc dimittis which is still used liturgically in many Christian churches, and gave a prophecy alluding to the crucifixion. This meeting is commemorated on February 2 as Candlemas or more formally, the Presentation of the Lord, the Meeting of the Lord, or the Purification of the Virgin. His prophecy is used in the context of Our Lady of Sorrows.

According to a tradition in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Simeon had been one of the seventy-two translators of the Septuagint (LXX). As he hesitated over the translation of Isaiah 7:14 "Behold, a virgin shall conceive...", and wondered how this was possible, or even that it might be a copyist's error,[1] an angel appeared to him and told him that the prophecy was correct as it was written, and that he would not die until he had seen its fulfillment with the Christ born of a Virgin. This would make him well over two hundred years old at the time of the meeting described in Luke, and therefore miraculously longeval.

He is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Roman Catholic traditions. His feast day is February 3.

Festal observances

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn 145

Simeon in the Temple, by Rembrandt van Rijn, 1631.

The events in the life of Saint Simeon the Righteous are observed on both 2 February and 3 February. The observances of the first day center around memorializing the act of Mary undergoing an act of ritual purification, and presenting Jesus, her child, to the Temple, a feast day known as the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple. Since this day focuses more on Jesus and Mary, the observation on February 3 is specific to St. Simeon, who was allowed to die after seeing the Christ (or Messiah) born of a virgin. In Christian tradition, the day of a saint's death is often celebrated as his feast day.

Under Mosaic law, a mother who had given birth to a man-child was considered unclean for seven days; moreover she was to remain for three and thirty days "in the blood of her purification", which makes a total of 40 days. The Christian Feast of the Purification therefore corresponds to the day on which Mary, according to Jewish law (see Leviticus 12:2–8), should have attended a ceremony of ritual purification. The Gospel of Luke 2:22–39 relates that Mary was purified according to the religious law, followed by Jesus's presentation in the Jerusalem temple, and this explains the formal names given to the festival.

In the liturgy of Evening prayer in the Anglican communion, tens of millions of Anglicans recite the Nunc dimittis - or sing it in Evensong in the canticle known as the Song of Simeon - almost every single evening. It is also used in the Roman Catholic Compline and Orthodox Vespers. The Nunc dimittis has been set to music by many notable composers, such as Rachmaninoff (All-Night Vigil).

The feast on 2 February is often referred to as Candlemas, as in honor of the ritual purification of the Virgin Mary, candles (of beeswax) which will be used for the entire year are brought into a church and blessed. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Presentation is the fourth Joyful Mystery of the Rosary. In the Church of England, the Presentation of Christ in the Temple is a Principal Feast. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, it is one of the twelve Great Feasts.

February 2

Simeon Schrein (Zadar)

"Chest of St. Simon from year 1380" (Zadar)

This feast day has a number of different names:

February 3

Sretenie

The Meeting of Our Lord (Russian icon, XV c.)

Simeon the Righteous is commemorated in his own right on 3 February. In the Anglican Communion, Simeon is not venerated with a festal observance, and 3 February is set aside to recognize Anskar (801–865), a missionary, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen and first Bishop in Sweden, 864.

In the Eastern Orthodox tradition, Simeon is commemorated with Anna the Prophetess on February 3 on the Feast of the Holy and Righteous Simeon the God-Receiver and Anna the Prophetess.

February 15

As mentioned above, the Orthodox Church celebrates St. Simeon on the day after the Feast of the Presentation, that is to say, February 3. However, for those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar, February 3 falls on February 15 of the modern Gregorian Calendar.

While both the Orthodox Church in the East and Western Christianity agree on the setting of the date of Candlemas on the 40th day after Christmas (in accordance with the Mosaic Law), the difference in the dates for Christmas—25 December in the West and 7 January in the East—results over a theological dispute related to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar over the older Julian Calendar. The Gregorian calendar was developed after the Great Schism between the Eastern and Western Christian churches in 1054. As a result, many Orthodox Christians celebrate St. Simeon's feast day on 15 February.

The Armenian Apostolic Church celebrates the Nativity of Christ on 6 January, and so their celebration of the Presentation, which they call The Coming of the Son of God into the Temple is on February 14.

See also

References

  1. Many modern scholars, following the tradition of the Masoretes, read "young woman" instead of "virgin" in the Hebrew (see Almah)

External links

ka:სვიმეონ ღვთისმიმრქმელი

hu:Simeonnn:Simeonru:Симеон Богоприимец sl:Simeon sr:Симеон Богопримац fi:Simeon sv:Symeon uk:Симеон Богоприємець

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