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Shi'a view of the Sahaba

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Principles Edit

Ahl al-Bayt Edit

While Sunni accept the testimony of all Sahaba as an authenticated part of the chain of narrators in a hadith, Shia do that only for the Ahl al-Bayt. This is due to that Shia believes them to be thoroughly cleansed from all sin, as described in hadith of the Cloak. Others are scrutinized for reliability.

Sahaba Edit

Regarding the other parts of chain of narration, all people are up to be scrutinized. There is no distinction made between a Sahaba and a taba'een or anyone else regarding trustworthiness, everyone have the same demand to prove or disprove their trustworthiness. Therefore, Shia look at each Sahaba as an individual, preferring some above others.

Shia do not have a ranking system dependent on when the Sahabi embraced Islam.

Rather, they have an individual view of each one, according to what they did during their life. In fact, a Sahaba who engaged in open warfare against the Ahl al-Bayt have their trustworthiness reduced to near nothing in the Shia view. Furthermore, Shia assume as self-evident that a sahabi that commits fasiq is going to hell. In fact, under the doctrine of Tabarra, it is obligatory for a Shi'a to disassociate from such a person.

Shias consider that any hadith where Muhammad is claimed to have, in one way or another, absolved all Sahaba from sin or elevated their trustworthiness is false. Shias claim that, in most cases, such hadiths have been reported by those who opposed the Ahl al-Bayt.

On the other hand, the Sahaba that are agreed to have sacrificed life and property for the sake of Muhammad are held in a very positive view, and under the doctrine of Tawalla, it is obligatory for a Shi'a to love such a person.

Merit for seeing Muhammad Edit

Shias have different views on each Sahabi, depending on what he or she accomplished. In the Shia view, some Sahaba lived lives contrary to Islamic teaching. Shias support their arguments using verses from the Qur'an, in particular, in relation to Muhammad's wives:

[66.10] Gsets forth an example to those who disbelieve: the wife of Nuh and the wife of Lut: they were both under two of Our righteous servants, but they acted treacherously towards them so they availed them naught against Allah, and it was said: Enter both the fire with those who enter.

Shias also support their view by citing the following verses addressing Muhammad's wives:

[33.30] O wives of the prophet! whoever of you commits an open indecency, the punishment shall be increased to her doubly; and this is easy to Allah.

[33.31] And whoever of you is obedient to Allah and His Apostle and does good, We will give to her her reward doubly, and We have prepared for her an honorable sustenance.

In other words, Shias view a wife of the prophet who "commits an open indecency" as being twice as blameworthy, because she was in the presence of God's best creation, Muhammad, and thus should have been inspired to act justly. Also, a wife who "is obedient to God and His Messenger and does good" is considered twice as admirable, because she received Muhammad's direct guidance and aided him and his Ahl al-Bayt.

[9.101] And from among those who are round about you of the dwellers of the desert there are hypocrites, and from among the people of Medina (also); they are stubborn in hypocrisy; you do not know them; We know them; We will chastise them twice then shall they be turned back to a grievous chastisement.

Detailed list Edit

There is no standardized guideline of status according to the Shia school of thought; a Shia consensus can not established regarding a detailed list based on rank.

However there is a general consensus on an approximate view of each Sahaba, in the same way that most people would think very badly of Adolf Hitler and Ted Bundy and very well of Mahatma Gandhi and Jesus.

It would be impossible to establish a list showing the approximate view of each Sahaba for all the people in the world, since most people have very different frames of preference. However, it is much easier to do so if the targeted group have a similar frame of preference.

Most Shias have the same frame of preference regarding the relevant issues, since most disagreements between the Shi'as sects start after Husayn ibn Ali's era. This, and all sects being minority to the twelvers, explains why almost all Shi'a have a very similar frame of preference regarding the Sahaba, making this list relevant and accurate in the field of Social sciences rather than Hard science.

Shi'as can in general be expected to have a certain view on each Sahaba after having understood what relevant actions the specific Sahaba have accomplished during his or her life.

This is in contrast to Sunnis. Egyptian and Saudi Arabian have in general different views on, for example, Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan, one more favorable and the other more dim, however, both are within the Sunni doctrines that claim the uprightness of all Sahaba and go to heaven.

The list of the Shia view of the SahabaEdit

The list of Sahaba includes events that are relevant for establishing a view, ranked accordingly to their general perceived status.

The Ahl ul-Bayt are not included in this list, since the list revolves around them.

BelieversEdit

Shi'a regarded these people as partisians of Ali and defenders of the Ahl al-Bayt, people that fully embraced the deepest concepts of Islam.[1]

Ja'far ibn Abu Talib Ali's brother.

Abdullah ibn Ja'far Zainab bint Ali's husband.

Harith ibn Abd al-Muttalib An uncle of Muhammad

Obaidah ibn al-Harith was the first Muslim to be killed in battle. He was a cousin of Muhammad and Ali, and he was the first Martyr of the Battle of Badr.

Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib is in contrast to Sunnis considered Muslim by Shias, arguing that Ali inherited him which would be forbidden if he where an unbeliever.

Aminah bint Wahab was the mother of Muhammad and an aunt of Ali, she died before Muhammad's call to Islam

Fatima bint Asad Aunt of Muhammad and the mother of Ali

Fatima bint Hizam married Ali and gave him four sons that were martyred at the Battle of Karbala, not to be confused with Ali's first wife Fatima bint Muhammad

Salman the Persian gave Muhammad the idea to dig the trench. He, like the other, did not supposedly give allegiance to Abu Bakr

Bilal ibn Ribah Abu Dharr Ghifari is called by Muhammed as "the most truthful man between heaven and earth".

Abdullah ibn Abbas was a staunch follower of Ali. Did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr, until Ali supposedly did so. Accompanied Ali when he demanded his inheritance from Umar and sought very badly of Umar and Abu Bakr. Convinced 20'000 of the 24'000 Khawarij to return to Ali.[1].

Malik ibn Ashter was Ali's general when he came close to killing Muawiya, then became his governor, has long and beautiful letter addressed to him in Nahj ul-Balagha in which Ali gives guidance in how to uphold a government. That letter was referred to in the United Nations as an advice to Arabs.

Ammar ibn Yasir was killed by Muawiyas army in the Battle of Siffin when he was 90 years old, as predicted by Muhammad.

Hamza ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib an uncle of Muhammad an Ali, had his body desecrated in the battle of Uhud by Hind binte Utbah

Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr was Abu Bakr's son and a great companion of Ali. He was chosen to govern Egypt.

Umm Kulthum bint Ali daughter of Ali and Fatima, was taken to Yazids palace after the Battle of Karbala.

Zaynab bint Ali eldest daughter of Ali and Fatima was taken to Yazids palace after the Battle of Karbala.

Khabbab ibn al-Aratt was a great role model in life.

Akib ibn Usaid was the first governor of Makkah.

Aqeel ibn Abi Talib a brother of Ali and cousin of Muhammad

Talib ibn Abi Talib a brother of Ali and cousin of Muhammad

Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib an uncle of Muhammad and Ali

Asma bint Umais a widow of Abu Bakr, who later married Ali

Miqdad ibn al-Aswad al-Kindi

Zaid ibn Arqam Sa'ad ibn Mu'adh

'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr

Zaid mawla Muhammad was the freed slave of Muhammad and the father of Usama ibn Zaid.

Usama ibn Zaid

Ubaidullah bin Abdullah retold the event of the pen and paper as he heard from Ibn Abbas.

Lubaynah accepted Islam

Fazl ibn Abbas A cousin of Muhammad and Ali, he did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr, until Ali supposedly did so.

Khalid ibn Sa'id ibn al-As He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr, until Ali supposedly did so.

Buraida Aslami He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr, until Ali supposedly did so.

Ubai ibn Ka'b He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr, until Ali supposedly did so.

Khuzaima ibn Thabit Dhu'sh-Shahadatain He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr, until Ali supposedly did so.

Abu'l-Hathama Bin Tihan He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr, until Ali supposedly did so.

Sahl ibn Hunaif He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr, until Ali supposedly did so.

Uthman ibn Hunaif Dhu'sh-Shahadatain He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr, until Ali supposedly did so.

Abu Ayub Ansari He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr, until Ali supposedly did so.

Jabir Ibn Abdullah Ansari He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr, until Ali supposedly did so.

Hudhaifa ibn Yaman He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr, until Ali supposedly did so.

Sa'd ibn Ubaida He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr, until Ali supposedly did so.

Qais ibn Sa'd He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr, until Ali supposedly did so.

Malik ibn Nuwayra

Arwa bint Abd al-Muttalib was one of the meritorious women.

Not sincereEdit

Shi'a regarded this group as people who where not truly sincere in following Islam[1]

Talha Fought against Ali in the Battle of Jamal.

Zubayr ibn al-Awwam Fought against Ali in Battle of Jamal alongside Talha and Aishah bint Abu Bakr.

Abdullah ibn Zubayr argued with ibn Abbas for the legitimacy of the ban against temporary marriage, fought Yazid for the Caliphat.

Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqas

Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf demanded that Ali was to follow the Quran, the way of Muhammad and also the way of Umar and Abu Bakr in order to be the third Caliph.

Um Ruman was Abu Bakr's wife

Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah

Said ibn Zayd

HypocritesEdit

Shi'a regarded this group as people who either apostated from Islam or people who did not accepted the doctrines of Islam in the first place, but managed to infiltrate the Muslim ranks through outwardly stating Islam.[1]

Anas ibn Malik was famous for his disillusionment towards Ali

Abdullah ibn Umar contradicted his father regarding temporary marriage and also other of his misunderstandings, did not give oath of allegiance to Ali,

Abu Huraira Abu Sufyan ibn Harb for he was Muhammads arch enemy and Muawiya's father.

Abd-Allah ibn Aamir Hadhrami was assigned as governor by Uthman.

Ziyad ibn Abu Sufyan father of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, the man that killed Muslim ibn Aqeel

Amr ibn al-As aided Muawiya during the Battle of Siffin and on his order poisoned Malik ibn Ashter.

Hind bint Utbah was Abu Sufiyan ibn Harb wife and Muawiyas mother. She desecrated the body of Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib in the battle of Uhud.

Abu Bakr ibn abu Qahafa with Umars help supposedly he usurped Ali's caliphate and He made Khalid ibn Walid his general.

Umar ibn al-Khattab Regarded as an unholy and ignorant usurper and illegitimate leader, and according to shia he killed Fatima bintu Muhammad; see his main Wikipedia entry for partial further details of the Shia view (and the sharply contrasting Sunni view).

Uthman ibn Affan is a from the family of Ummayad. He allowed Muawiyah to expand his power in Syria.

Khalid ibn al-Walid he is believed to have forced Imam Ali (as) to give bayah to Abu Bakr.

Muaviya ibn Abu Sufyan cursed Imam Ali, deceived the shia during the arbitration after Siffin, caused further division among the Muslims, had non Muslim advisers, and is responsible for poisoning Imam Hassan.

Marwan ibn al-Hakam cursed and oppressed the Ahlul Bayt, prevented the 2nd imam from being buried beside his grandfather, and usurped leadership after Muawiyah bin Yazid killed his commander Talha.

uncategorisedEdit

This Sahaba have not been ranked according to the Shia view. You can help Wikipedia by doing that.

The list is divided in parts to make it easier to overview

part 1 Edit

part 2 Edit

Ibn Mandah's book "Those of the Companions Who Lived 120 years.":

They are fourteen:

  • 1. Hakim ibn Hizam (d. 54, Madina)
  • 2. `Asim ibn `Adi al-Badri
  • 3. Huwaytib ibn `Abd al-`Uzza
  • 4. Sa`d ibn Iyas al-Shaybani
  • 5. Makhrama ibn Nawfal
  • 6. Sa`id ibn Yarbu`
  • 7. Sa`d ibn Junada al-`Awfi al-Ansari
  • 8. HASSAN IBN THABIT, the poet of the Prophet and the one supported by the Holy Spirit.
  • 9. Abu `Umara `Abd Khayr ibn Yazid
  • 10. Hamnan ibn `Awf
  • 11. al-Muntaji`al-Najdi
  • 12. Nafi` Abu Sulayman al-`Abdi
  • 13. al-Lajlaj
  • 14. Abu Shaddad al-`Umani

Part 3 Edit

Muhammad ibn Ja'far

part 4 Edit

part 5 Edit

Part 7Edit


ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 http://www.al-islam.org/encyclopedia/shia4.txt

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