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Seventh-day Adventist Church
Seventh Day Adventist Church logo
Classification Protestant
Orientation Adventist
Polity Modified presbyterian polity
Geographical area Worldwide
Founder Joseph Bates, James White, Ellen G. White, J. N. Andrews
Origin May 21, 1863
Battle Creek, Michigan
Branched from Millerites
Separations Seventh Day Adventist Reform Movement (separated 1925); Davidian Seventh-day Adventists (separated 1929)
Congregations 61,818 Churches, 61,361 Companies[1]
Members 16 million[2]
Ministers 15,813[1]
Hospitals 168[1]
Nursing homes 138[1]
Aid organization Adventist Development and Relief Agency
Primary schools 5,666[1]
Secondary schools 1,470[1]
Tertiary institutions 106[1]

The Seventh-day Adventist Church (commonly abbreviated "Adventist"[3]) is a Christian denomination which is distinguished by its observance of Saturday,[4] the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent second coming of Jesus Christ. It is the eighth largest international body of Christians.[5] The denomination grew out of the Millerite movement in the United States during the middle part of the 19th century and was formally established in 1863.[6][7] Among its founders was Ellen G. White, whose extensive writings are still held in high regard by Seventh-day Adventists today.

Much of the theology of the Seventh-day Adventist Church corresponds to evangelical teachings such as the Trinity and the infallibility of Scripture. Distinctive teachings include the unconscious state of the dead and the doctrine of an investigative judgment. The church is also known for its emphasis on diet and health, its holistic understanding of the person, its promotion of religious liberty, and its conservative principles and lifestyle.

The world church is governed by a General Conference, with smaller regions administered by divisions, union conferences and local conferences. It currently has a worldwide membership of over 16 million people, has a missionary presence in over 200 countries and territories and is ethnically and culturally diverse.[1][2] The church operates numerous schools, hospitals and publishing houses worldwide, as well as a prominent humanitarian aid organization known as the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA).

History Edit

The Seventh-day Adventist Church is the largest of several "Adventist" groups which arose from the Millerite movement of the 1840s. The Millerites (after William Miller) were part of the wave of revivalism in the United States known as the Second Great Awakening. Miller predicted on the basis of Daniel 8:14-16 and the "day-year principle" that Jesus Christ would return to Earth on October 22, 1844. When this did not happen, most of his followers disbanded and returned to their original churches.

A small number of Millerites came to believe that Miller's calculations were correct, but that his interpretation of Daniel 8:14 was flawed. Beginning with a vision reported by Hiram Edson on October 23, these Adventists (as this group of Millerite believers came to be known) arrived at the conviction that Daniel 8:14 foretold Christ's entrance into the "Most Holy Place" of the heavenly sanctuary rather than his second coming. Over the next decade this understanding developed into the doctrine of the investigative judgment: an eschatological process commencing in 1844 in which Christians will be judged to verify their eligibility for salvation and God's justice will be confirmed before the universe. The Adventists continued to believe that Christ's second coming would be imminent, although they refrained from setting further dates for the event.

Adventists often view themselves as heirs of earlier groups such as the Waldenses, Protestant Reformers including the Anabaptists, English and Scottish Puritans, evangelicals of the 18th century including Methodists, Seventh Day Baptists, and others who rejected established church traditions.[8]

Development of Sabbatarianism Edit

As the early Adventist movement consolidated, the question of the biblical day of rest and worship was raised. The foremost proponent of Sabbath-keeping among early Adventists was retired sea captain Joseph Bates. Bates was introduced to the Sabbath doctrine by a tract written by Millerite preacher Thomas M. Preble, who in turn had been influenced by Rachel Oakes Preston, a young Seventh Day Baptist.

This message was gradually accepted and formed the topic of the first edition of the church publication The Present Truth (now the Adventist Review), which appeared in July 1849.

Organization and recognition Edit

For about 20 years, the Adventist movement consisted of a loosely knit group of people who came from many churches whose primary means of connection and interaction was through James White's periodical, The Advent Review and Sabbath Herald. These individuals embraced the doctrines of the Sabbath, the "heavenly sanctuary" interpretation of Daniel 8:14, conditional immortality and the expectation of Christ's premillennial return. Among its most prominent figures were Joseph Bates, James White, and Ellen G. White. Ellen White came to occupy a particularly central role; her many visions and spiritual leadership convinced her fellow Adventists that she possessed the gift of prophecy.

The church was formally established in Battle Creek, Michigan, on May 21, 1863, with a membership of 3,500.[6] Through the evangelistic efforts of its ministers and laity, the church quickly grew and established a presence beyond North America during the late 1800s. The denominational headquarters were later moved from Battle Creek to Takoma Park, Maryland, where they remained until 1989. The General Conference headquarters then moved to its current location in Silver Spring, Maryland.

For much of the 1800s, a majority of the Adventist leaders supported the doctrine of Arianism (although Ellen G. White was not one of them).[9] This, along with the movement's other theological views, led most Christian denominations to regard it as a cult. However, the Adventist Church adopted the Trinity early in the 20th century and began to dialogue with other Protestant groups toward the middle of the century, eventually gaining wide recognition as a Christian church.

Beliefs Edit

The official teachings of the Seventh-day Adventist denomination are expressed in its 28 Fundamental Beliefs. This statement of beliefs was originally adopted by the General Conference in 1980, with an additional belief (number 11) being added in 2005. Acceptance of either of the church's two baptismal vows is a prerequisite for membership. The following statement of beliefs is not meant to be read or received as a "creed" that is set in theological concrete. Adventists have but one creed: “The Bible, and the Bible alone.”

Adventist doctrine resembles trinitarian Protestant theology, with premillennial and Arminian emphases. Adventists uphold teachings such as the infallibility of Scripture, the substitutionary atonement, the resurrection of the dead and justification by faith alone, and are therefore often considered evangelical.[10] In common with certain other Christian churches, they believe in baptism by immersion and creation in six literal days. (The modern Creationist movement started with Adventist George McCready Price, who was inspired by a vision of Ellen White.[11])

In addition, there is a generally recognized set of "distinctive" doctrines which distinguish Adventism from the rest of the Christian world, although not all of these teachings are wholly unique to Adventism:

  • Law (fundamental belief 19)—the Law of God is "embodied in the Ten Commandments", which continue to be binding upon Christians.
  • Sabbath (fundamental belief 20)—the Sabbath should be observed on the seventh day of the week, specifically, from Friday sunset to Saturday sunset.
  • Second Coming and End times (fundamental beliefs 25-28)—Jesus Christ will return visibly to earth after a "time of trouble", during which the Sabbath will become a worldwide test. The second coming will be followed by a millennial reign of the saints in heaven. Adventist eschatology is based on the historicist method of prophetic interpretation.
  • Wholistic human nature (fundamental beliefs 7, 26)—Humans are an indivisible unity of body, mind and spirit. They do not possess an immortal soul, and death is an unconscious sleep (commonly known as "soul sleep").
  • Conditional immortality (fundamental belief 27)—The wicked will not suffer eternal torment in hell, but instead will be permanently destroyed. (See: Conditional immortality, Annihilationism)
  • Great Controversy (fundamental belief 8)—Humanity is involved in a "great controversy" between Jesus Christ and Satan. This is an elaboration on the common Christian theory that evil began in heaven when an angelic being (Lucifer) rebelled against the Law of God.
  • Heavenly sanctuary (fundamental belief 24)—At his ascension, Jesus Christ commenced an atoning ministry in the heavenly sanctuary. In 1844, he began to cleanse the heavenly sanctuary in fulfillment of the Day of Atonement.
  • Investigative Judgment (fundamental belief 24)—A judgment of professed Christians began in 1844, in which the books of record are examined for all the universe to see. The investigative judgment will affirm who will receive salvation, and vindicate God as just in his dealings with mankind.
  • Remnant (fundamental belief 13)—There will be an end-time remnant who keep the commandments of God and have "the testimony of Jesus" (Revelation 12:17). This remnant proclaims the "three angels' messages" of Revelation 14:6-12 to the world.
  • Spirit of Prophecy (fundamental belief 18)—The ministry of Ellen G. White is commonly referred to as the "Spirit of Prophecy" and her writings are considered "a continuing and authoritative source of truth",[12] though ultimately and in absolute terms subject to the Bible; the highest authority of faith for the church.

Theological spectrum Edit

As with any religious movement, a theological spectrum exists within Adventism comparable to the fundamentalist-conservative-moderate-liberal spectrum in the wider Christian church and in other religions. A variety of groups, movements or subcultures within the church present differing views on beliefs and lifestyle.

The conservative end of the theological spectrum is represented by "historic Adventists", who are characterized by their opposition to theological trends within the denomination, beginning in the 1950s. They tend to view modern Adventist theology as a compromise with evangelicalism, and seek to defend older teachings such as the fallen nature of Jesus Christ, an incomplete atonement, and character perfectionism.[13] Historic Adventism is represented mainly at the "grassroots" level of the church and is often promoted through independent ministries, but has weak support (if any) among Adventist scholars.

The most "liberal" elements in the church are typically known as "progressive Adventists" (it should be noted that progressive Adventists generally do not identify with liberal Christianity). They tend to hold a "modernized" perspective on such controversial issues as the inspiration of Ellen White, the doctrine of the "remnant" and the investigative judgment.[13][14] The progressive movement is strongest amongst scholars of the denomination,[15] where it finds expression in bodies such as the Association of Adventist Forums and in journals such as Spectrum and Adventist Today.

Theological organizations Edit

The Biblical Research Institute is the official theological research center of the church. The church has two professional organizations for Adventist theologians who are affiliated with the denomination. The Adventist Society for Religious Studies (ASRS) was formed to foster a community among Adventist theologians who attend the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL) and the American Academy of Religion. In 2006 ASRS voted to continue their meetings in the future in conjunction with SBL. During the 1980s the Adventist Theological Society was formed to provide a forum for more conservative theologians to meet and is held in conjunction with the Evangelical Theological Society.

Culture and practices Edit

The General Conference has posted an intraspective view on Adventists worldwide. This was done as an answer to frequently asked questions Adventist members and the church receives. The article is entitled "Your Adventist Neighbor".[16]

Sabbath activities Edit

Bundaberg Seventh-day Adventist Church

Bundaberg, Queensland Seventh-day Adventist Church

To keep the weekly Sabbath holy, Adventists abstain from secular work on Saturday. They will also usually refrain from purely secular forms of recreation, such as competitive sport and watching non-religious programs on television. However, nature walks, family-oriented activities, charitable work and other activities that are compassionate in nature are encouraged.

Much of Friday might be spent in preparation for the Sabbath; for example, preparing meals and tidying homes. Some Adventists gather for Friday evening worship to welcome in the Sabbath, a practice often known as Vespers.

Saturday afternoon activities vary widely depending on the cultural, ethnic and social background. In some churches, members and visitors will participate in a fellowship (or "potluck") lunch.

Worship service Edit

The major weekly worship service occurs on Saturday, typically commencing with Sabbath School which is a structured time of small-group study at church. Most Adventists make use of an officially produced "Sabbath School Lesson", which deals with a particular biblical text or doctrine every quarter. Special meetings are provided for children and youth in different age groups during this time (analogous to Sunday school in other churches).

After a brief break, the community joins together again for a church service that follows a typical evangelical format, with a sermon as a central feature. Corporate singing, Scripture readings, prayers and an offering, including tithing (or money collection), are other standard features. The instruments and forms of worship music vary greatly throughout the worldwide church.[17] Many youth-focused churches in North America have a contemporary Christian music style, whereas other churches enjoy more traditional hymns including those found in the Adventist Hymnal. Worship is known to be generally restrained.

Holy Communion Edit

Adventists usually practice communion four times a year. The communion is an open service that is available to members and Christian non-members. It commences with a foot washing ceremony, known as the "Ordinance of Humility", based on the Gospel account of John 13. The Ordinance of Humility is meant to symbolize Christ's washing of his disciples' feet at the Last Supper and remind participants of the need to humbly serve one another. Participants segregate by gender to separate rooms to conduct this ritual, although some congregations allow married couples to perform the ordinance on each other and families are often encouraged to participate together. After its completion, participants return to the main sanctuary for consumption of the Lord's Supper, which consists of unleavened bread and unfermented grape juice.

Health and diet Edit

Since the 1860s when the church began, wholeness and health have been an emphasis of the Adventist church.[18] Adventists are known for presenting a "health message" that recommends vegetarianism and expects adherence to the kosher laws in Leviticus 11. Obedience to these laws means abstinence from pork, shellfish, and other foods proscribed as "unclean". The church discourages its members from the use of alcohol, tobacco or illegal drugs (compare Christianity and alcohol). In addition, some Adventists avoid coffee, tea, Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Mountain Dew and other beverages containing caffeine.

San health food

Sanitarium Health Food Company products on sale.

The pioneers of the Adventist Church had much to do with the common acceptance of breakfast cereals into the Western diet, and the "modern commercial concept of cereal food" originated among Adventists.[19] John Harvey Kellogg was one of the early founders of Adventist health work. His development of breakfast cereals as a health food led to the founding of Kellogg's by his brother William. In both Australia and New Zealand, the church-owned Sanitarium Health Food Company is one of those countries' leading manufacturers of health and vegetarian-related products.

Research funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health has shown that the average Adventist in California lives 4 to 10 years longer than the average Californian. The research, as cited by the cover story of the November 2005 issue of National Geographic, asserts that Adventists live longer because they do not smoke or drink alcohol, have a day of rest every week, and maintain a healthy, low-fat vegetarian diet that is rich in nuts and beans.[20][21] The cohesiveness of Adventists' social networks has also been put forward as an explanation of their extended lifespan.[22] Since Dan Buettner's 2005 National Geographic story about Adventist longevity, his book, The Blue Zones: Lessons for Living Longer From the People Who've Lived the Longest, named Loma Linda, California a "blue zone" because of the large concentration of Seventh-day Adventists. He cites the Adventist emphasis on health, diet, and Sabbath-keeping as primary factors for Adventist longevity.[23][24]

An estimated 35% of Adventists practice vegetarianism, according to a 2002 worldwide survey of local church leaders.[25][26]

Ethics and sexuality Edit

The official Adventist position on abortion is that "abortions for reasons of birth control, gender selection, or convenience are not condoned by the Church." At times, however, women may face exceptional circumstances that present serious moral or medical dilemmas, such as significant threats to the pregnant woman's life or health, severe congenital defects in the fetus, and pregnancy resulting from rape or incest; in these cases individuals are counseled to make their own decisions.[27]

According to official statements from the General Conference, heterosexual marriages are the only biblically ordained grounds for sexual intimacy. Adventists do not perform same-sex marriages and homosexual men cannot be ordained.[28][29] An extramarital affair is one of the sanctioned grounds for a divorce, although reconciliation is encouraged whenever possible. Adventists believe in and encourage abstinence for both men and women before marriage.

The Adventist church has released official statements in relation to other ethical issues such as euthanasia (against active euthanasia but permissive of passive withdrawal of medical support to allow death to occur),[30] birth control (in favor of it for married couples if used correctly, but against abortion as birth control and premarital sex in any case)[31] and human cloning (against it while the technology is unsafe and would result in defective births or abortions).[32]

Dress and entertainment Edit

Adventists have traditionally held socially conservative attitudes regarding dress and entertainment. These attitudes are reflected in one of the church's fundamental beliefs:

"For the Spirit to recreate in us the character of our Lord we involve ourselves only in those things which will produce Christlike purity, health, and joy in our lives. This means that our amusement and entertainment should meet the highest standards of Christian taste and beauty. While recognizing cultural differences, our dress is to be simple, modest, and neat, befitting those whose true beauty does not consist of outward adornment but in the imperishable ornament of a gentle and quiet spirit."[12]

Accordingly, many Adventists are opposed to practices such as body piercing and tattoos. More traditionally conservative Adventists refrain from the wearing of jewelry altogether, including such items as earrings and bracelets. Some also oppose the displaying of wedding bands, although banning wedding bands is not the position of the General Conference.[33] Traditionally Adventists dress semi-formally when attending church.

Conservative Adventists also avoid certain recreational activities which are considered to be a negative spiritual influence, including dancing, rock music and secular theatre.[34][35] Traditional Adventists cite the writings of Ellen White, especially her books, Counsels on Diet and Foods, Counsels to Parents, Teachers and Students, and Education as inspired sources for Christian deportment. The Adventist church officially opposes the practice of gambling.[36] However, major studies conducted from 1989 onwards found the majority of church youth reject many of these standards.[35]

Though it seems unbelievable to some, I’m thankful that when I grew up in the church [in the 1950s and 1960s] I was taught not to go to the movie theater, dance, listen to popular music, read novels, wear jewelry, play cards, bowl, play pool, or even be fascinated by professional sports.

James R. Nix, "Growing Up Adventist: No Apologies Needed"[37]

Pathfinders Edit

The Youth Department of the Adventist church runs an organization for 10- to 16-year-old boys and girls called Pathfinders, which is similar to the Scouting movement. After a person becomes 17 or older he or she is no longer considered a Pathfinder but considered staff.[38] Pathfinders exposes young people to such activities as camping, community service, personal mentorship, and skills-based education, and trains them for leadership in the church. Yearly "Camporees" are held in individual Conferences, where Pathfinders from the region gather and participate in events similar to Boy Scouts' Jamborees.

"Adventurer" (ages 6–9), "Eager Beaver", and "Little Lambs" clubs are programs for younger children that feed into the Pathfinder program. Those above 15 are eligible to become "Master Guides" (similar to Scout Master) and will begin to take on leadership roles within the club.

Youth campsEdit

The Seventh-day Adventist Church operates youth camps all over North America and many other parts of the world. Each camp varies in the activities they manage but most have archery, swimming, horses, arts and crafts, nature, high ropes challenge course, and many other common activities. In addition to regular camps some have specialty camps, or RAD camps, which vary from either a week of surfing, waterskiing/wakeboarding, rock climbing, golf, skateboarding, whitewater rafting, mountain biking, cycling, basketball, and many others.

Organization Edit

Structure and polity Edit

Ottawa French Seventh-day Adventist Church

The French-speaking Ottawa Seventh-day Adventist Church, a former synagogue.

The Seventh-day Adventist church is governed by a form of democratic representation which resembles the presbyterian system of church organization. Four levels of organization exist within the world church.[39][40]

  1. The local church is the foundation level of organizational structure and is the public face of the denomination. Every baptized Adventist is a member of a local church and has voting powers within that church.
  2. Directly above the local church is the "local conference" or "local mission". The local conference/mission is an organization of churches within a state, province or territory (or part thereof) which appoints ministers, owns church land and organizes the distribution of tithes and payments to ministers.
  3. Above the local conference is the "union conference" or "union mission" which embodies a number of local conferences/missions within a larger territory.
  4. The highest level of governance within the church structure is the General Conference which consists of 13 "Divisions", each assigned to various geographic locations. The General Conference is the church authority and has the final say in matters of conjecture and administrative issues. The General Conference is headed by the office of President, which as of March 2009 is held by Dr. Jan Paulsen. The General Conference head office is in Silver Spring, Maryland.

Each organization is governed by a general "session" which occurs at certain intervals. This is usually when administrative decisions are made. The president of the General Conference, for instance, is elected at the General Conference Session every five years. Delegates to a session are appointed by organizations at a lower level. For example, each local church appoints delegates to a conference session.

Tithes collected from church members are not used directly by the local churches, but are passed upwards to the local conferences/missions which then distribute the finances toward various ministry needs. Within a geographic region, ministers receive roughly equal pay irrespective of the size of their church.

The Church Manual[39] gives provisions for each level of government to create educational, healthcare, publishing, and other institutions that are seen within the call of the Great Commission.

DSCN2842 campionchurch e 600

Campion Academy Adventist Church in Loveland, Colorado.

Church officers and clergy Edit

The ordained clergy of the Adventist church are known as ministers or pastors. Ministers are neither elected nor employed by the local churches, but instead are appointed by the local Conferences, which assign them responsibility over a single church or group of churches. Ordination is a formal recognition bestowed upon male pastors after usually a number of years of service. Women may not be given the title "ordained", although some are employed in ministry, and may be "commissioned".[41]

A number of lay offices exist within the local church, including the ordained positions of elder and deacon.[39] Elders and deacons are appointed by the vote of a local church business meeting or elected committees. Elders serve a mainly administrative and pastoral role, but must also be capable of providing religious leadership (particularly in the absence of an ordained minister). The role of deacons is to assist in the smooth functioning of a local church and to maintain church property.

Membership Edit

SDA Membership

Graph of church membership over time

The primary prerequisite for membership in the Adventist church is baptism by immersion. This, according to the church manual, should only occur after the candidate has undergone proper instruction on what the church believes.[39]

As of October 2009, the church has 16,049,101 baptized members.[42] More than one million people joined the Adventist church in the 12-month period ending June 30, 2009 (inclusive), through baptisms and professions of faith. The church is one of the world's fastest-growing organizations, primarily due to increases in membership in the developing nations. Today, less than 7% of the world membership reside in the United States, with large numbers in Africa as well as Central and South America. Depending on how the data was measured, it is reported that church membership reached 1 million between 1955 and 1961, and grew to five million in 1986. At the turn of the 21st century the church had over 10 million members which grew to over 14 million in 2005, and 16 million in 2009.[1] It is believed that over 25 million worship weekly in Seventh-day Adventist churches.[43] The church operates in 202 out of 230 countries and areas recognized by the United Nations,[1] making it "probably the most widespread Protestant denomination".[44]

Church institutions Edit

The Biblical Research Institute is the theological research center of the church.

The Ellen G. White Estate was established in 1915 at the death of Ellen White, as specified in her legal will. Its purpose is to act as custodian of her writings, and as of 2006 it has 15 board members. The Ellen G. White Estate also hosts the official Ellen White website. [45]

The Geoscience Research Institute, based at Loma Linda University, was founded in 1958 to investigate the scientific evidence concerning origins.

Adventist mission Edit

Mozambique baptism1

A pastor baptizes a young man in Mozambique

Started in the late 1800s, Adventist mission work today reaches people in over 200 countries and territories.[1] Adventist mission workers preach the gospel, promote health through hospitals and clinics, run development projects to improve living standards, and provide relief in times of calamity.[46]

Missionary outreach of the Seventh-day Adventist Church is aimed at both non-Christians and Christians from other denominations. Adventists believe that Christ has called his followers in the Great Commission to reach the whole world. Adventists are cautious, however, to ensure that evangelism does not impede or intrude on the basic rights of the individual. Religious liberty is a stance that the Adventist Church supports and promotes.[47]

Andrews University

Aerial photograph of Andrews University, the flagship higher education center of the Adventist church.

Education Edit

The Adventist Church operates 7,200 schools, colleges and universities, with a total enrollment of more than 1,400,000 students and approximately 75,000 teachers.[48] It claims to operate "one of the largest church-supported educational systems in the world".[49] In the United States it operates the largest Protestant educational system, and is second only to that of the Roman Catholic Church.[50] The Adventist educational program is comprehensive, encompassing "mental, physical, social and above all, spiritual health" with "intellectual growth and service to humanity" as its goal.

Health Edit

Adventists run a large number of hospitals and health-related institutions. Their predominant school of medicine and hospital in North America is Loma Linda University and its attached Medical Center. Throughout the world, the church runs a wide network of hospitals, clinics, and sanitariums. These play a role in the church's health message and worldwide missions outreach.[51]

LLU Medical Center

Loma Linda University Medical Center

Adventist Health System is the largest not-for-profit, faith-based, multi-institutional healthcare system in the United States. The health system is sponsored by the Seventh-Day Adventist Church and cares for over 4 million patients yearly.

Humanitarian aid and the environment Edit

For over 50 years the church has been active in humanitarian aid through the work of the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA). ADRA works as a non-sectarian relief agency in 125 countries and areas of the world. ADRA has been granted General Consultative Status by the United Nations Economic and Social Council. Worldwide ADRA employs over 4,000 people to help both provide relief in crises and development in situations of poverty.

The church is committed to the protection and care of the environment[52] as well as taking action to avoid the dangers of climate change:[53]:

"Seventh-day Adventism advocates a simple, wholesome lifestyle, where people do not step on the treadmill of unbridled over-consumption, accumulation of goods, and production of waste. A reformation of lifestyle is called for, based on respect for nature, restraint in the use of the world's resources, reevaluation of one's needs, and reaffirmation of the dignity of created life."[54]

Religious liberty Edit

The Adventist church has been active for over 100 years advocating freedom of religion for all people, regardless of faith. In 1893 its leaders founded the International Religious Liberty Association, which is universal and non-sectarian. The Seventh-day Adventist Church State Council serves to protect religious groups from legislation that may affect their religious practices. This is primarily achieved through advocacy. Recently the organization has been fighting to pass legislation that will protect Adventist employees who wish to keep their Sabbath.

Media Edit

Hope-logo

Hope Channel logo

Amazingfacts

Amazing Facts logo

Three Angles Broadcasting Logo

3ABN logo

Adventists have long been proponents of media-based ministries. Traditional Adventist evangelistic efforts consisted of street missions and the distribution of tracts such as The Present Truth, which was published by James White as early as 1849. Until J. N. Andrews was sent to Switzerland in 1874, Adventist global efforts consisted entirely of the posting of tracts such as White's writings to various locations.

In the last century, these media based efforts have also made use of emerging media such as radio and television. The first of these was H. M. S. Richards' radio show Voice of Prophecy, which was initially broadcast in Los Angeles in 1929. Since then Adventists have been on the forefront of media evangelism, and one program, It Is Written, founded by George Vandeman, was the first religious program to air on colour television and was the first major Christian ministry to utilize satellite uplink technology. Today the Hope Channel, the official television network of the church, operates 8 international channels broadcasting 24 hours a day on both cable and satellite networks.[55] Hope Channel also has three internet channels.

Recently, a number of satellite broadcasted live evangelistic events have been undertaken by evangelists such as Doug Batchelor, Mark Finley and Dwight Nelson, addressing audiences in up to 40 languages simultaneously.[56] John Carter is another leading Adventist evangelist.

Additionally, there exists a range of privately owned media entities representing Adventist beliefs. These include the 3ABN and SafeTV networks. Amazing Facts and The Quiet Hour are two other radio and television programs.

Publishing Edit

The Adventist Church owns and operates many publishing companies around the world. Two of the largest are the Pacific Press and Review and Herald publishing associations located in the United States. The Review and Herald is located in Hagerstown, Maryland.[57]

The official church magazine is the Adventist Review, which has a North American focus. It has a sister magazine (Adventist World) which has an international perspective. Another major magazine published by the church is the bimonthly Liberty magazine, which addresses issues pertaining to religious freedom.

Ecumenical activity Edit

The Adventist Church generally opposes the ecumenical movement, although it supports some of the goals of ecumenism. The General Conference has released an official statement concerning the Adventist position with respect to the ecumenical movement, which contains the following paragraph:

"Should Adventists cooperate ecumenically? Adventists should cooperate insofar as the authentic gospel is proclaimed and crying human needs are being met. The Seventh-day Adventist Church wants no entangling memberships and refuses any compromising relationships that might tend to water down her distinct witness. However, Adventists wish to be "conscientious cooperators." The ecumenical movement as an agency of cooperation has acceptable aspects; as an agency for the organic unity of churches, it is much more suspect."[58]

While not being a member of the World Council of Churches, the Adventist Church has participated in its assemblies in an observer capacity.[59]

Criticism Edit

The Adventist Church has received criticism along several lines, including its allegedly heterodox doctrines, in relation to Ellen G. White and her status within the church, and in relation to alleged exclusivist attitudes and behaviour.[60] Many high profile critics of the church are former Adventists, such as D. M. Canright, Walter Rea and Dale Ratzlaff.

In the mid 1970s, two distinct factions were manifest within mainstream Seventh day Adventism. Defending many pre-1950 Adventist positions was Historic Adventism, while Evangelical Adventism emphasized the Reformation understanding of justification by faith, and sought greater fellowship with Evangelical Christianity. This controversy soon led to what some see as a full-blown internal crisis and fragmentation. By the early 1980s, denominational discipline was enacted against certain evangelical Adventist leaders, and which left some Adventists disillusioned.[61]

Doctrines Edit

Several distinctive Adventist doctrines have been identified as heterodox by critics. Teachings which have come under repeated scrutiny are the annihilationist view of hell, the investigative judgment (and a related view of the atonement), and certain eschatological views. Adventists have often been accused of legalism, because of their emphasis on law-keeping and strict Sabbath-observance.[62][63]

While some religion experts such as Anthony Hoekema[64] have classified Adventism as a sectarian group on the basis of its atypical doctrines, it has been widely considered more mainstream by traditional-historical Christian churches since its meetings and discussion with conservative Protestants in the 1950s.[65] Notably, [Billy Graham]] invited Adventists to be part of his crusades after Eternity, a conservative Christian magazine edited by Donald Barnhouse, asserted that Adventists are Christians in 1956. Walter Martin, who is considered by many to be the father of the counter-cult apologetics movement within evangelicalism, authored The Truth about Seventh-day Adventists (1960) which marked a turning point in the way Adventism was viewed.[66][67]

"...it is perfectly possible to be a Seventh-day Adventist and be a true follower of Jesus Christ despite heterodox concepts..."

Walter Martin, Kingdom of the Cults[68]

However, shortly before his death, Martin expressed that he had some concerns about the theological state of affairs within Adventism. Martin was troubled about the firing of leading evangelical Adventists such as Desmond Ford, and wondered why the book Questions on Doctrine (QOD) - a key document in Martin's assessment of Adventism as a heterodox denomination - had been allowed to go out of print (later restored) if mainstream Adventism really stood behind it. Another concern was the degree of authority which Ellen G. White was given in interpreting the Bible. Martin planned to write a new book on Seventh-day Adventism, with the assistance of Kenneth R. Samples.[69] Samples subsequently authored "From Controversy to Crisis: An Updated Assessment of Seventh-day Adventism", which upholds Martin's view "for that segment of Adventism which holds to the position stated in QOD, and further expressed in the Evangelical Adventist movement of the last few decades." However, Samples also recognized that Historic Adventism, which he considered "theologically bankrupt," seemed to have "gained the support of many administrators and leaders (at least at Glacier View)," and appeared "to be moving further away from a number of positions taken in QOD."[70]

Ellen G. White and her status Edit

Ellen G. White’s status as a modern day prophet has often been criticized. It is argued that the authority attached to her writings by the church contradicts the Protestant sola scriptura principle. In response, Adventists have asserted that the concept of a contemporary prophet is not prohibited by Scripture, and that Scripture remains the ultimate authority to which White’s writings are also subject.

Critics such as Walter T. Rea have accused White of plagiarism.[71] After a 10-year study of White's book Desire of Ages, Adventist scholar Fred Veltman found that for the chapters he studied, there was content which derived from other sources without citation.[72] Ellen White's defenders argue the nature of the literary dependence must be taken in the context of what was accepted at the time. In her time writers would frequently borrow words from other writers to get their own ideas across. It has also been argued that the sources she borrowed from were known to her readers, eliminating the likelihood of an intention to deceive.[73][74] Others, such as Alice Elizabeth Gregg, contend that the problems are not those of copyright law, but "of questionable ETHICS (taking and camouflaging matter already published by other writers) and of a muddled meaning of INSPIRATION (presenting the White version of others' material as "precious rays of truth shining from the throne," usually interpreted to mean having come direct to her from God; i.e. verbal inspiration, which Ellen White did not teach.).[75] For a scholarly assessment as to the meaning of plagiarism and originality in nineteenth-century literature one might consult Robert Macfarlane's book "Original Copy: Plagiarism and Originality in Nineteenth-Century Literature."[76]

Exclusivism Edit

Finally, it is alleged that certain Adventist beliefs and practices are exclusivist in nature. Non-Adventist critics have raised concern about the Adventist claim to be the “remnant church”, and the traditional Protestant association of Roman Catholicism and other denominations with "Babylon".[77][78][79][80] These attitudes are said to legitimize the proselytising of Christians from other denominations.[81] In response to such criticisms, Adventist theologians have stated that the doctrine of the remnant does not preclude the existence of genuine Christians in other denominations, but is concerned with institutions.[82]

"We fully recognize the heartening fact that a host of true followers of Christ are scattered all through the various churches of Christendom, including the Roman Catholic communion. These God clearly recognizes as His own. Such do not form a part of the "Babylon" portrayed in the Apocalypse."

Questions on Doctrine, p. 197.

"God has children, many of them, in the Protestant churches, and a large number in the Catholic churches, who are more true to obey the light and to do [to] the very best of their knowledge than a large number among Sabbathkeeping Adventists who do not walk in the light. {3SM 386.2}"

Ellen White, Selected Messages, book 3, p.386.

Independent ministries, offshoots, and schisms Edit

Independent ministries Edit

In addition to the ministries and institutions which are formally administered by the denomination, numerous para-church organizations and independent ministries exist. These include various health centers and hospitals, publishing and media ministries, and aid organizations.

A number of independent ministries have been established by groups within the Adventist church who hold a theologically distinct position or wish to promote a specific message. These include such organizations as Hope International and Good News Unlimited. Certain of these ministries solicit funding from members and have a strained relationship with the official church, which has expressed concerns that such ministries may threaten Adventist unity.[83] The church has acknowledged that some Adventists "have manifested prejudice and even bigotry" against Catholics, while insisting that such behavior is not condoned.[84]

Offshoots and schisms Edit

Throughout the history of the denomination, there have been a number of groups who have left the church and formed their own movements. These are not affiliated with the Adventist church in any way. They operate under their own system of beliefs and are considered to be entirely separate from the church.

A well known but distant offshoot is the Branch Davidians, themselves a schism within the larger Davidian movement.[85] The Davidians formed in 1929, after Victor Houteff's book The Shepherd's Rod was rejected as being heretical. A succession dispute after Houteff's death in 1955 led to the formation of the Branches. Later, another ex-Adventist, David Koresh, led the Branch Davidians until he died in the 1993 siege at the group's headquarters near Waco, Texas.

Following World War I, a group known as the Seventh Day Adventist Reform Movement was formed as a result of the actions of L. R. Conradi and certain European church leaders during the war, who decided that it was acceptable for Adventists to take part in war. When attempts at reconciliation failed after the war, the group became organized as a separate church at a conference from July 14-20, 1925. The movement officially incorporated in 1949. In 2005, the mainstream church tried to make amends and apologized for its failures during World War II.[86]

Robert Brinsmead's group was the most "troublesome" in the history of the church up until its time.[87]

The largest schism within Adventism was the Glacier View controversy of 1980. This crisis centered around the 900-page research paper by Dr. Desmond Ford entitled Daniel 8:14, the Investigative Judgment, and the Kingdom of God. The paper questioned the church's position on the investigative judgment. The meetings at Glacier View Ranch, near Estes Park, Colorado, rejected Ford's proposals. The schism caused by this rejection resulted in Ford being removed from teaching and having his ministerial credentials revoked. Many Adventists also left the church as a result.[88] In the years since, Ford has worked through the independent ministry Good News Unlimited.

Since the 1970s, debate concerning the inspiration of Ellen White has been particularly heated. A number of Adventists such as former ministers Walter Rea and Dale Ratzlaff left the church and have become prominent critics of the church's teachings and particularly of Ellen White. In parallel with these events, many Adventist scholars have adopted more moderate views of her inspiration. The official position of the church related to the prophetic gift of Ellen G. White remains unchanged.

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals who are or have been practicing Adventists, have formed a social network that is not officially associated with the church called SDA Kinship International,[89] formed in 1976. The view of the Adventist church toward the Kinship organization can be understood from a 1987 lawsuit filed for trademark infringement against Kinship International—District Judge Mariana R. Pfaelzer ruled that Seventh-day Adventist Kinship International, Inc. did not infringe on the Adventist church's use of the name and therefore could continue to use the identifying name.[90][91]

References Edit

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