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The Seven Rays is a metaphysical concept that has appeared in several religions and esoteric philosophies since at least the sixth century BCE, in both Western culture and in India. In the west, it can be seen in early western mystery traditions such as Gnosticism and the Roman Mithraic Mysteries; and in texts and iconic art of the Catholic Church as early as the Byzantine era. In India, the concept has been part of Hindu religious philosophy and scripture since at least the Vishnu Purana, dating from the post-Vedic era.
Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the seven rays appeared in a modified and elaborated form in the teachings of Theosophy, first presented by H. P. Blavatsky The Theosophical concept of the Seven Rays was further developed in the late 1800s and early 1900s in the writings of C. W. Leadbeater, Alice Bailey, Manly P. Hall, and others; and in the philosophies of organizations such as Temple of the People, The "I AM" Activity, The Bridge to Freedom, The Summit Lighthouse, Share International, The Temple of The Presence (1995), and various other organizations promulgating what are called the Ascended Master Teachings.
As the New Age movement of the mid-to-late 20th century developed, the Seven Rays concept appeared as an element of metaphysical healing methods such as Reiki and other modalities, and in esoteric astrology.
In early mystery traditions of the west and near east
In ancient Greek mythology, Zeus takes the bull-form known as Taurus in order to win Europa. Taurus is also associated with Aphrodite and other goddesses, as well as with Pan and Dionysus. The face of Taurus "gleams with seven rays of fire."
In the Gnosticism of the Mediterranean and middle eastern regions, from 6th century BCE in Chaldea (a Hellenistic designation for a part of Babylonia), through the Mysteries of Mithras in Rome, to the second or third centuries CE, the Seven Rays are found in a variety of syncretistic elements of symbolism. The Chaldean Oracles have survived as fragmentary texts from the 2nd century AD, and may have been compilations from several sources, combining neo-Platonic elements with others that were Persian or Babylonian in origin. Later neo-Platonists, such as Proclus and Iamblichus, rated them highly.
Harvard historian S F Dunlap, wrote in 1894:
Moses was of the race of the Chaldeans. The Chaldean Mithra had his Seven Rays, and Moses his Seven Days. The other planets which circling around the sun lead the dance as round the King of heaven receive from him with the light also their powers; while as the light comes to them from the sun so from him they receive their powers that he pours out into the Seven Spheres of the Seven Planets of which the sun is the centre.
Dunlap wrote that the idea of spirit as the ultimate cause is present in all of the great religions of the East (which in the terminology of his time included the area now known as the Near East or Middle East), and that this idea can be found in "the Seven Rays of the Chaldaean Mithra and the Seven Days of Genesis. From the Sun came fire and spirit." According to Dunlap, "this was the astronomical religion of the Chaldeans, Jews, Persians, Syrians, Phoenicians and Egyptians."
Dunlap compared the nimbus of Apollo to the Seven Rays of Dionysus, presiding over the orbits of the seven planets. The Seven Rays are found also in the Chaldean mystery of the "the God of the Seven Rays, who held the Seven Stars in his hand, through whom (as Chaldaeans supposed) the souls were raised." Prior to the Christian era, this deity was known as Iao (the first birth) or Sabaoth (the Sun), and later described as "Christos of the Resurrection of Souls."
Later, in the fourth century CE, Emperor Julian Saturnalia composed a "Hymn to the Solemn Sun," and spoke of "unspeakable mysteries hidden from the crowd such as Julian the Chaldean prophesied concerning the god of the seven rays." In Greek gnostic magic of the same era, colored gemstones were often used as talismans for medicine or healing; they were often engraved with a symbol borrowed from the Egyptian deity Chnuphis: a hooded serpent or great snake. The snake was shown with a lion's head, from which emanated either twelve or seven rays. The twelve rays represented the zodiac, and the seven rays represented the planets, usually with the seven Greek vowels engraved at the tips of the seven rays. The reverse sides of the talismans were engraved with a snake twisting around a vertical rod. These were known as "Gnostic amulets," and were sometimes also engraved with the names "Iao Sabao".
In early Christian iconography, the dove of the Holy Ghost is often shown with an emanation of seven rays, as is the image of the Madonna, often in conjunction with a dove or doves. The Monastery of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai, circa 565 CE, shows the Transfiguration of Christ in the apse mosaic, with "seven rays of light shining from the luminous body of Christ over the apostles Peter, James and John." In the present day Byzantine-style St. Louis Cathedral in Missouri, the center of the sanctuary has an engraved circle with many symbols of the Holy Trinity. The inscription reads: "Radiating from this symbol are seven rays of light representing the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost."
During the 12th century, Saint Norbert of Xanten, founder of the Order of Canons Regular of Prémontré, discovered the spot where the relics of Saint Ursula and her companions of Saint Gereon and of other martyrs lay hidden while in a dream. In the dream that led him to this location, he was guided by "the seven rays of light... surrounding the head of the crucified Redeemer."
The Annunciation is an oil painting by Early Netherlandish master Jan van Eyck, from around 1434-1436. The picture depicts the Annunciation by the Archangel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she will bear the Son of God (Luke 1:26-38). In a prominent element of the complex iconographic work, the Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit descend to her on seven rays of light from the upper window to the left, with the dove symbolising the Holy Spirit following the same path. The seven rays on which the doves descend are unique elements in the painting in that they are of the heavenly realm rather than the earthly realm, with the difference shown by the artist through the use of gold leaf rather than ordinary oil paint. Only the seven rays are so treated, and while all of the other light sources in the painting cast shadows, the seven rays do not.
The Italian secret society of the late 1600s, Knights of the Apocalypse, was founded with the professed aim to defend the Catholic Church against the expected Antichrist, though it was accused of having political motives as well. They wore on their breasts a star with seven rays.
In Hindu scripture
Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity depicted in three forms: fire, lightning and the sun. In Hindu art, Agni is depicted with two or seven hands, two heads, and three legs. In each head, he has seven fiery tongues with which he licks sacrificial butter. He rides a ram or a chariot harnessed by fiery horses. His attributes are an axe, a torch, prayer beads and a flaming spear. Agni is represented as red and two-faced, suggesting both his destructive and his beneficent qualities, and with black eyes and hair. Seven rays of light emanate from his body.
In the Gayatri prayer from the Vedas, the seven rays are described as the emanations of the Sun, identified with the creator of life, "Because the being who shines with seven rays, assuming the forms of time and illumines all... naturally shines with seven rays is called light or the effulgent power; the light of the Generator or Sun - the light is the sun, the sun is the light, they are identical."
The Vishnu Purana, a post-vedic scripture, describes how Vishnu "enters into the seven solar rays which dilate into seven suns." These are the "seven principal solar rays," the source of heat even to the planet Jupiter, and the "seven suns into which the seven solar rays dilate at the consummation of all things..."
Twentieth century Hindu scholar, poet and mystic, Sri Aurobindo, described the Vedic seven rays of knowledge, or Agni, as "the seven forms of the Thought-principle" and wrote that the "the seven brilliant horses of the sun and their full union constitutes the seven-headed Thought of Ayasya by which the lost sun of Truth is recovered. That thought is again established in the seven rivers, the seven principles of being divine and human, the totality of which founds the perfect spiritual existence."
Egyptologist Gerald Massey wrote in 1881 of what he described as connections between Vedic scripture, ancient Egyptian mythology and the Gospel stories. He theorized that IAO, the "Seven-rayed Sun-God of the Gnostic-stones" was also the "Serpent Chnubis," and "the Second Beast in the Book of Revalation." In 1900, he elaborated further, describing the unity of "the seven souls of the Pharaoh," "the seven arms of the Hindu god Agni," "the seven stars in the hand of the Christ in Revelation," and "the seven rays of the Chaldean god Heptaktis, or Iao, on the Gnostic stones."
In the late 1940s, art historian and writer Ananda Coomaraswamy was curator in the department of Asiatic Art at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and built the first large collection of Indian art in the United States. His writings in the field of perennial philosophy and the Traditionalist School included complex essays collating symbols of ancient wisdom and metaphysics from widely diverse cultures including Indian, Islamic, Chinese, Hellenic, and Christian sources. He wrote that the seven rays of the sun appear in both Hindu and Christian symbolism, representing similar concepts, and in particular the symbolism of the seventh ray that "corresponds to the distinction of transcendent from immanent and of infinite from finite." He added that of "our Axis of the Universe (skambha, divo dharuna, etc.) and Islamic qutb ..... The seventh ray alone passes through the Sun to the suprasolar Brahma worlds, "where no sun shines" ('all that is under the Sun being in the power of Death, and all beyond immortal')."
Syncretism is one of the core principles of Theosophy, a religious philosophy originating with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky from the 1870s, and the seven rays appear repeatedly in the related writings. Theosophy holds that all religions are attempts by the "Spiritual Hierarchy" to help humanity in evolving to greater perfection, and that each religion therefore has a portion of the truth.
Blavatsky wrote in the first book of The Secret Doctrine of an " analogy between the Aryan or Brahmanical and the Egyptian esotericism" and that the "seven rays of the Chaldean Heptakis or Iao, on the Gnostic stones" represent the seven large stars of the Egyptian "Great Bear" constellation, the seven elemental powers, and the Hindu "seven Rishis." She stated that the seven rays of the Vedic sun deity Vishnu represent the same concept as the "astral fluid or 'Light' of the Kabalists," and that the seven emanations of the lower seven sephiroth are the "primeval seven rays," and "will be found and recognized in every religion."
In the second volume of the Secret Doctrine, Blavatsky discusses the "seven nervous plexuses of the body" and the seven rays they radiate, stating that this principle is found in the Rig Veda, in the mythology of Ahura Mazda, in the beliefs of the Incas, the Chinese Yao, and the Egyptian Osiris, who "when he enters the ark, or solar boat, takes seven Rays with him." She describes the "seven wise ones" of the Veda as "the seven Rays which fall free from the macrocosmic centre".
Blavatsky summarizes the syncretistic principle of her doctrine as it relates to the seven rays:
"...a key which reveals to us on indisputable grounds of comparative analogy... the Indian phœnix, the emblem of cyclic and periodical time, the "man-lion" Singha, of whose representations the so-called "gnostic gems" are so full. Over the seven rays of the lion's crown, and corresponding to their points, stand, in many cases, the seven vowels of the Greek alphabet AEHIOYW, testifying to the Seven Heavens. This is the Solar lion and the emblem of the Solar cycle, as Garuda is that of the great cycle, the "Maha-Kalpa" co-eternal with Vishnu, and also, of course, the emblem of the Sun, and Solar cycle. ... As well remarked by C. W. King: — "Whatever the primary meaning (of the gem with the solar lion and vowels) it was probably imported in its present shape from India, that true fountain head of gnostic iconography." (Gnostics, p. 218)
In the third volume of the Secret Doctrine, published posthumously, Blavatsky described the "Seven Primeval Rays" as a group of celestial beings also known as "Gods" or "Angels" or "Powers". She stated that this symbolism was "adopted later on by the Christian Religion as the 'Seven Angels of the Presence.'"
Metaphysics of the seven rays
In Theosophy, the Seven Rays are said to be seven major types of Light-Substance (spirit/matter) (waves/particles) that compose the created universes. These are also believed to convey "Divine Qualities".
According to Alice A. Bailey, each person has a soul ray that remains the same through all their incarnations, and a personality ray that is different for each incarnation. Each ray is also correspondent with certain Masters of Wisdom, and with particular planets, cycles, nations, etc.
Bailey stated that the Seven Rays locally originate within the "Solar Logos," i.e., the consciousness of the "Divine Being" of the Sun. According to Benjamin Creme, rays are focused through the Solar Logos from the "Galactic Logos," (the consciousness of the "Divine Beings" of the Milky Way Galaxy), and have their ultimate origin within the mind of God.
On the local planetary level, it is believed by adherents of the Theosophical tradition that the Seven Rays are transmitted from the Solar Logos through the God of our planet, Sanat Kumara, then through the spiritual hierarchy of our planet which includes the "Masters of Wisdom" (Some writings term them the Ascended Masters or the Great White Brotherhood).
Qualities of the seven rays
The Seven Rays are listed below:
Alice A. Bailey and the Church Universal and Triumphant assign different colors and in some cases different Masters to each of the seven rays. In Letters on Occult Meditation, Alice Bailey indicates that there is no simple correspondence between the rays and these colors. The colors, Masters, and Retreats indicated here are those indicated by both Alice Bailey and the Church Universal and Triumphant.
According to Alice A. Bailey and C.W. Leadbeater, the Masters live in immortal bodies at a residence on the physical plane at the indicated location (although a given Master may physically travel extensively incognito to various locations, become invisible, teleport to various locations, and walk through walls, as well as influence humans telepathically and travel on the inner planes, as required by the demands of his spiritual work).
According to the Church Universal and Triumphant, and other Ascended Master Activities, each Master is believed to serve at a Retreat on the physical or etheric plane at the geographical location shown after their name.
The "Gifts of the Holy Spirit" of the Church Universal and Triumphant for each ray are shown. For both Alice A. Bailey and the Church Universal and Triumphant, each ray has a jewel which is believed to focus the energy of that ray, which is indicated.
In a section below, the characteristic magic for each ray as listed by C.W. Leadbeater.
Alice A. Bailey
|Ray||Colour||Cosmic Master||Residence||Planet Rulers||Chakra/Gland||Jewel|
|1st ray||Will - Power||Blue||Morya||Darjeeling, India||Pluto/Vulcan|| |
Vishuddha (7th)</br> Throat/Thryoid
|2nd ray||Love-Wisdom||Indigo||Kuthumi||Shigatse, Tibet||Sun/Jupiter|| |
Sahasrara (4th)</br> Crown/Pineal
|3rd ray||Active Intelligence||Green||Venetian||"Chateau de Liberte, S. France & Temple of the Sun, NY"||Earth/Saturn|| |
Anahata (5th)</br> Heart/Thymus
|4th ray||Harmony through conflict||Yellow||Serapis||Luxor, Egypt||Moon/Mercury|| |
|5th ray||Concrete Science||Orange||Hilarion||Island of Crete, Greece||Venus|| |
|6th ray||Love-Devotion||Red||Master Jesus||Mount Lebanon, Lebanon||Mars/Neptune|| |
Manipura (3rd)</br>Solar Plexus/Pancreas
|7th ray||Ceremonial Order||Violet||St. Germain||Transylvania, Romania||Uranus|| |
Ascended Master Teachings
|Ray||Colour||Ascended Master||Retreat||Quality||Chakra||Day||Gift of the Holy Spirit||Jewel|
|1st ray||Will of God||Blue||El Morya||Darjeeling, India|| Power
|Throat (5th)||Tuesday|| Faith in God's will
Word of Wisdom
|2nd ray||Wisdom of God||Yellow||Lanto||Grand Teton, Wyoming, USA|| Wisdom
|Crown (7th)||Sunday|| Word of Wisdom
Word of Knowledge
| Yellow Diamond
|3rd ray||Love of God||Pink||Paul the Venetian|| Château de Liberté, S. France
Temple of the Sun, New York
|Heart (4th)||Monday||Discerning of spirits||Ruby|
|4th ray||Purity of God|| White
|Serapis Bey||Luxor, Egypt|| Purity
|Base of the Spine (1st)||Friday||Working of miracles||Diamond|
|5th ray||Science of God||Green||Hilarion||Crete, Greece|| Truth
|Third Eye (6th)||Wednesday||Healing||Emerald|
|6th ray||Peace of God|| Purple
|Lady Nada||Arabian Peninsula|| Peace
|Solar Plexus (3rd)||Thursday||Diverse kinds of tongues and interpretation||Ruby|
|7th ray||Freedom of God||Violet||Saint Germain||Transylvania, Romania|| Freedom
|Seat of the Soul (1st)||Saturday|| Prophecy
Working of Miracles
C.W. Leadbeater gave a list showing the characteristic type of magic for each ray. This list indicates what he regarded as the most compatible type of magic to be performed by persons on each ray (although anyone of any ray can do any of these various types of magic).
- 2. SECOND RAY: Magic of Raja Yoga (Development of Mind)
- 3. THIRD RAY: Magic of Astrology (Natural Magnetic Forces).
- 4. FOURTH RAY: Magic of Hatha Yoga (physical development).
- 5. FIFTH RAY: Magic of Alchemy (Manipulation of Material Substances).
In other contemporary philosophies
In the mid to late 20th century, as the New Age movement gained in popularity, the concept and imagery of the seven rays appeared in a variety of settings.
In esoteric astrology, the seven rays are considered to be split into three groups: the first two rays represent Will and Wisdom, respectively, and the remaining five rays together form the group that represents Activity. The energy healing system of Reiki requires the student to pass through a sequence of levels, by mastering the "key" to each level. The key for the second level is known as the key of "oneness" and is attained by passing through each of the seven rays.
According to psychic counselor Samantha Stevens, an individual can use affirmations, candles, color therapy, vibrational medicines and other methods to contact "Archangels," which she defines as the "Seven Rays," based on Buddhist and Christian theories: "The Rays or Divine Flames (as they are sometimes called) represent elements in the perfectly integrated human being - one whose heart is aligned with their will and inspired by the Divine Imagination."
Light therapist and Radionics Practitioner Primrose Cooper writes that in using light as a healing modality, she finds it helpful to use the seven rays as defined in Theosophy to assist her clients in finding "psychological insight into their soul's purpose."
Seven rays in popular culture
- The progressive rock band Utopia, led by prolific musician Todd Rundgren, wrote and performed a song entitled "The Seven Rays." The lyrics of the song center around the philosophies associated with the seven rays concepts popular with the new age movement, with much focus on the colors associated with each ray. The track originally appeared on the live album "Another Live" (the band at that point was known as "Todd Rundgren's Utopia").
- Another progressive rock band, Hawkwind, have a song about the seven rays titled Seven by Seven.
- Written by screenwriter and novelist Jessica Bendinger, The Sevens Rays is a paranormal coming-of-age story that delves into love, friendship, family and the supernatural.
- Abraham, Kurt. "Great Souls: The Seven Rays at the Soul Level" School for the Study of the Seven Rays, Lampus Press, 2002.
- Abraham, Kurt. "Techniques of Soul Alignment: The Rays, the Subtle Bodies, and the Use of Keywords." School for the Study of the Seven Rays, Lampus Press: 1997.
- Abraham, Kurt. "Balancing the Pairs of Opposites; The Seven Rays and Education, and Other Essays in Esoteric Psychology." School for the Study of the Seven Rays, Lampus Press, 1993.
- Abraham, Kurt. "The Seven Rays and Nations: France and the United States Compared." School for the Study of the Seven Rays, Lampus Press, 1987.
- Abraham, Kurt. "Introduction to the Seven Rays" School for the Study of the Seven Rays, Lampus Press: 1986.
- Abraham, Kurt. "Threefold Method for Understanding the Seven Rays." School for the Study of the Seven Rays, Lampus Press, 1984.
- Abraham, Kurt. "Psychological Types and the Seven Rays." School for the Study of the Seven Rays, Lampus Press: 1983.
- Bailey, Alice A. The Seven Rays of Life New York: 1995—Lucis Publishing Co. Compilation from all the Alice A. Bailey books of material about the Seven Rays.
- Baker, Douglas The Seven Rays: Key to the Mysteries Essendon, Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom:1977 Baker Publications
- Creme, Benjamin Maitreya's Mission Amsterdam: 1986 - Share International Foundation.
- Hodson, Geoffrey The Seven Human Temperaments Adyar, Madras, India: 1952—The Theosophical Publishing House.
- Hone, Mo. "The Seven Rays Today" A New Appreciation of the Ageless Wisdom and Esoteric Astrology. Pluto Network (UK) 2006
- Leadbetter, C.W. The Masters and the Path Adyar, Madras, India: 1925—The Theosophical Publishing House.
- Prophet, Mark Studies of the Human Aura Colorado Springs, Colorado: 1975 - Summit University Press (Claimed to have been dictated from "Kuthumi") Chart on pages 120-121 of the Seven Rays from the perspective of the The Summit Lighthouse.
- Wood, Ernest The Seven Rays Wheaton, Illinois, U.S.A.: 1925—Theosophical Publishing House
- Basic Ideas of Theosophy, including the Seven Rays:
- Seven Rays Education page at the Seven Rays Institute and University of the Seven Rays website:
- Detailed description of the seven rays and links to source works:
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Barbara G. Walker (1983). The Woman's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets. HarperCollins. p. 253. ISBN 006250925X.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Daniello Bartoli (1855). History of the Life and Institute of St. Ignatius de Loyola: Founder of the Society of Jesus (Original from the New York Public Library, 2006 ed.). E. Dunigan. p. 324. "God has sometimes announced beforehand the rise, works, and merits, whether of certain Orders whom He has sent to the assistance of His Church or of their founders. We find examples of this in the dream He made known... ... in the seven rays of light which appeared to St. Norbert, surrounding the head of the crucified Redeemer, and the pilgrims who came to him from the uttermost extremities of the earth..."
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 edited by Roy Joseph (1969). Essays on Catholic Education in the United States. Ayer Publishing. p. 392. ISBN 0836913477.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Silvia Schroer; Thomas Staubli (2001). Body Symbolism in the Bible. Liturgical Press. p. 92. ISBN 0814659543.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Colebrooke, Henry Thomas (1858). Essays on the Religion and Philosophy of the Hindus. Williams and Norgate. pp. 79, 83, 119. "Reprinted from 'Asiatic researches' and from the 'Transactions of the Royal Asiatic society.' Original from Harvard University."
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Garrett, John (1871). A Classical Dictionary of India: Illustrative of the Mythology, Philosophy, Literature, Antiquities, Arts, Manners, Customs, &c. of the Hindus. Higginbotham and Co.. pp. 41, 48, 99, 203, 216, 242, 314, 452, 621, 627, .... "Director of Public Instruction, Mysore, India; Original from Oxford University"
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Sri Aurobindo (1971). The Secret of the Veda. Sri Aurobindo Ashram Publication Dept. pp. 97, 182. ISBN 8170585813.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Robert Emmet Long (1994). Religious Cults in America. H.W. Wilson Publishing. pp. 79–80. ISBN 0974586617.
- ↑ The Teachings of the Temple (Halcyon, California: The Temple of the People, 1948) Volume I, Lesson 45, "The Seven Rays of Evolution."
- ↑ Saint Germain Foundation. The History of the "I AM" Activity and Saint Germain Foundation. Schaumburg, Illinois: Saint Germain Press 2003
- ↑ Lewis, James R. Church Universal and Triumphant in Scholarly Perspective Center For Academic Publication 1994.
- ↑ Creme, Benjamin. The Ageless Wisdom Teaching Share International Foundation 1996. This book presents an introduction to that great body of wisdom underlying the spiritual teachings of all groups throughout the ages.
- ↑ White Paper - Wesak World Congress 2002. Acropolis Sophia Books & Works 2003.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Carolyn E. Jackson (2004). The Spirit of Reiki. Innate Foundation Publishing. pp. 122–128. ISBN 0974586617.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Primrose Cooper (2001). The Healing Power of Light: A Comprehensive Guide to the Healing and Transformative Powers of Light. Weiser. pp. 115–116. ISBN 1578632315.
- ↑ Alan Leo (1989). Esoteric Astrology. Inner Traditions / Bear & Company. p. 21. ISBN 0892811811.
- ↑ (Ovid, Fasti, v.164.
- ↑ "The Chaldean Oracles Attributed to Zoroaster". The Chaldean Magi. The Complete Online Library of Ancient Sources. http://www.thedyinggod.com/chaldeanmagi/sources/chaldean.html.
- ↑ Samuel Fales Dunlap (1894). The Ghebers of Hebron: An Introduction to the Gheborim in the Lands of the Sethim, the Mithra mysteries &c. (Original from the University of California ed.). G Redway & JW Bouton. pp. reface, iii-vi.
- ↑ Samuel Fales Dunlap (1894). The Ghebers of Hebron: An Introduction to the Gheborim in the Lands of the Sethim, the Mithramsyteries &c. (Original from the University of California ed.). G. Redway & JW Bouton. pp. 275, 363, 369, 372, 649, 644, 675, 757, 856–7, 958.
- ↑ Lynn Thorndike (1958). A History of Magic and Experimental Science. Columbia University Press. pp. 317–318, 379. ISBN 0231087942.
- ↑ Marjorie O'Rourke Boyle (1997). Divine Domesticity: Augustine of Thagaste to Teresa of Avila. BRILL. p. 176. ISBN 9004106758.
- ↑ "Jan van Eyck, Netherlandish, c. 1390 - 1441, The Annunciation, c. 1434/1436". National Gallery of Art. http://www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/gg39/gg39-49.0.html. "The Holy Spirit descends to her on seven rays of light. This is the moment God's plan for salvation is set in motion. Through Christ's human incarnation the old era of the Law is transformed into a new era of Grace."
- ↑ Gifford, E. Melanie, The Art Bulletin, March 1999:Van Eyck's Washington 'Annunciation': technical evidence for iconographic development. Page references are to online version. online text
- ↑ Knights of the Apocalypse, 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica]
- ↑ The Book of Hindu Imagery: Gods, Manifestations and Their Meaning By Eva Rudy Jansen p. 64
- ↑ Gerald Massey Collection-Upper Norwood Joint Library
- ↑ Gerald Massey (1998). The Natural Genesis (from original published circa 1881 ed.). Black Classic Press. pp. 366, 369.
- ↑ Gerald Massey (1992). Gerald Massey's Lectures (from original published posthumously circa 1900 ed.). Kessinger Publishing. p. 200.
- ↑ Ananda K. Coomaraswamy (1877-1947) (1997). The Door in the Sky: Coomaraswamy on Myth and Meaning (from originals in the Bollingen Series 1940-1947 ed.). Princeton University Press. pp. 49,191,198. ISBN 0691017476. "'Coomaraswamy's essays [give] us a view of his scholarship and brilliant insight'.--Joseph Campbell; 'There are many who consider Coomaraswamy as one of the great seminal minds of this century.... This selection of his papers should go into every library'.--Kathleen Raine, The [London] Times"
- ↑ Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1893). The Secret Doctrine: The Synthesis of Science, Religion, and Philosophy (Original from Harvard University (2 volumes) ed.). Theosophical Publishing Society. vol 1, p 129–130, 523, 573–4.
- ↑ Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1893). The Secret Doctrine: The Synthesis of Science, Religion, and Philosophy (Original from Harvard University (2 volumes) ed.). Theosophical Publishing Society. vol 2, p 143, 191.
- ↑ Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1893). The Secret Doctrine: The Synthesis of Science, Religion, and Philosophy (Original from Harvard University (2 volumes) ed.). Theosophical Publishing Society. vol 2, p 564–5.
- ↑ Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (2004). Occultism Of The Secret Doctrine (originally published in 1897 ed.). Kessinger Publishing. p. art I, page 369. ISBN 1417911042.
- ↑ Carson, Reed. Blavatsky' Foreknowledge of The Wave/Particle Duality of Light 1997. "It would also be incorrect to claim light is fully explained as a particle. Rather it has a dual nature possessing the properties of both wave and particle. In general, electromagnetic radiation acts more like waves in the radio wave end of the spectrum, more like particles in the x-ray end of the spectrum, and usually (but not always) like a wave in the "middle" light area of the spectrum in our everyday experience. Her ambiguity, then, reflects a fact in nature, the wave/particle duality of nature."
- ↑ Leadbetter, C.W. The Masters and the Path Adyar, Madras, India: 1925--The Theosophical Publishing House. Chart on P. 229 lists Characteristic Magic of each Ray.
- ↑ Alan Leo (1989). Esoteric Astrology. Inner Traditions/Bear & Company. p. 21. ISBN 0892811811.
- ↑ Samantha Stevens (2003). The Seven Rays: A Universal Guide to the Archangels. Insomniac Press. p. 22 et al.. ISBN 1894663497.