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Second Council of Constantinople

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Second Council of Constantinople
Date 553
Accepted by Catholicism
Eastern Orthodoxy
Lutheranism
Previous council Council of Chalcedon
Next council Third Council of Constantinople
Convoked by Emperor Justinian I
Presided by Eutychius of Constantinople
Attendance 150 (some 18 from Italy and 6 from Africa)
Topics of discussion Nestorianism
Origenism
Documents and statements "Constitutum" of Pope Vigilius
Chronological list of Ecumenical councils



The Second Council of Constantinople is believed to have been the Fifth Ecumenical Council by the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Roman Catholics, and a number of other Western Christian groups. It was held from 5 May-2 June, 553, having been called by Emperor Justinian. Participants were overwhelmingly Eastern bishops; only six Western (Carthaginian) bishops were present. It was presided over by Eutychius, Patriarch of Constantinople.

For the events which led to this council see Pope Vigilius.

BackgroundEdit

The Council was the last phase of the long and tumultuous conflict which began with the edict of Justinian in 543 against Origenism[1]. Justinian had been convinced that Nestorianism continued to draw its strength from the writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d. 428), Theodoret of Cyrus (d. 457), and Ibas of Edessa (d. 457), with the writings of Theodore and Theodoret being highly regarded by many in the Church.

Due to his initial refusal to join in the condemnation of the Three Chapters (i.e the anathema upon Theodore, Theodoret and their writings against St. Cyril of Alexandria and the Council of Ephesus, and also upon the letter written by Ibas of Edessa to Maris, Bishop of Hardaschir in Persia) Pope Vigilius had been forcibly detained in Constantinople since January of 547AD.

While he had condemned the Three Chapters, Vigilius maintained the authority of the Council of Chalcedon (451) at which Theodoret and Ibas had been restored to their places after Nestorius had been condemned. Many in the West saw this weakening of the Church before the civil powers as well as injustice to men long dead; also the ecclesial leaders of the West had no accurate knowledge of the theological situation in the Eastern part of the Church. Vigilius persuaded Emperor Justinian to proclaim a truce on all sides until a general council could be called to decide on these matters. However, in 551 the emperor, with the backing of Eastern bishops, later published an edict renewing the condemnation of the Three Chapters.

Vigilius was virtually imprisoned by the civil authorities and eventually retired to Chalcedon, in the church of St. Euphemia where the great council had been held; from here Vigilius sought to inform the Church of his position. Soon the Eastern bishops sought reconciliation with Vigilius, persuaded him to return to the city, and withdrew their condemnation of Three Chapters. The new Patriarch of Constantinople, Eutychius, presented (6 January 553) his profession of faith to Vigilius and, in union with other Eastern bishops, urged the calling of a general council. Vigilius was willing to convoke such a council but suggested that it meet either on the Italian peninsula or Sicily, in order to secure the attendance of bishops from the West. However, Justinian would not agree and instead proposed a commission composed up of delegates from each of the patriarchates. Vigilius suggested that an equal number be chosen from the East and the West; but this was not acceptable to the emperor, who convoked the council by his own authority. Vigilius refused to attend the gathering. Eight sessions were held, the result of which was the final condemnation of the Three Chapters by the 165 bishops present at the last session (2 June 553).

Meanwhile, Vigilius had sent to the emperor (14 May) a document known as the first "Constitutum,"[2] signed by himself and sixteen, mostly Western, bishops, in which sixteen propositions of Theodore of Mopsuestia were condemned as being heretical. However, Theodore himself was not condemned, nor were the writings of Theodoret or Ibas.

AftermathEdit

The decisions of the Council were executed with severity, though the desired reconciliation of the Monophysites did not follow. Vigilius, together with other opponents of the emperor, seems to have been banished[3], either to Upper Egypt or to an island in the Propontis.

During the seventh session of the council Justinian had Vigilius' name removed from the diptychs, but without severing communion with the Church in the West. When Rome was freed from the Gothic yoke, the clergy and people requested the emperor to permit the return of Vigilius. Justinian agreed on condition that Vigilius would recognise the Second Council of Constantinople, and Vigilius accepted, publishing two documents[4] condemning the Three Chapters[5], on his own authority and without mention of the council.

In Northern Italy the ecclesiastical provinces of Milan and Aquileia broke communion with the Rome. Milan accepted the condemnation only toward the end of the sixth century, whereas Aquileia did not do so until about 700[6][7]

ActsEdit

The original acts of the council are lost[1], but an old Latin version exists, possibly made for Vigilius. The Baluze edition is reprinted in Mansi, "Coll. Conc.", IX, 163 sqq. In the next General Council of Constantinople (680) it was found that the original Acts of the Fifth Council had been tampered with (Hefele, op. cit., II, 855-58) in favour of Monothelitism; nor is it certain that in their present shape we have them in their original completeness (ibid., pp. 859-60). This has a bearing on the much disputed question concerning the condemnation of Origenism at the council.

NotesEdit

  1. P.G., LXXXVI, 945-90.
  2. J. D. Mansi IX, 61-106.
  3. Hefele, II, 905.
  4. : a letter to Eutychius of Constantinople, 8 Dec., 553, and a second "Constitutum" of 23 February, 554, probably addressed to the Western episcopate,
  5. Mansi, IX, 424-20, 457-88; cf. Hefele, II, 905-11.
  6. Hefele, op. cit., II, 911-27.
  7. See the judgment of Bois, in Dict. de théol. cath., II, 1238-39.

This article incorporates text from the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913, a publication now in the public domain.

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