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The Schwarzenau (German Baptist) Brethren, originated in Germany, the outcome of the Radical Pietist ferment of the late 17th and early 18th century. Hopeful of the imminent return of Christ, the founding Brethren abandoned the established Reformed and Lutheran churches, forming a new church in 1708 when their apocalyptic hopes were still unfulfilled. They thereby attempted to translate "the Philadelphian idea of love into concrete congregational ordinances obligatory for all the members." Unlike the Philadelphians, Brethren rejected Leade's embrace of direct revelation and emphasized early ("Apostolic" or "primitive") Christianity as the binding standard for congregational practices. The founding Brethren were also in conversation with Mennonites and influenced by Anabaptist writings.
In Germany the Brethren became known as Neue Täufer (New Baptists), in distinction from the older Anabaptist groups. In the United States they became popularly known as Dunkers, Dunkards or Tunkers, corruptions of the German verb tunken, to dip. Other religious groups related historically to the same Radical Pietist ferment as the Brethren are the Community of True Inspiration and the Moravians.
The Schwarzenau Brethren organized in 1708 under the leadership of Alexander Mack (1679-1735) of Schwarzenau, Germany. They believed that both the Lutheran and Reformed churches were taking liberties with the "true" Christianity revealed in the New Testament, so they rejected established liturgy, including infant baptism and existing Eucharistic practices. The founding Brethren were broadly influenced by Radical Pietist understandings of an invisible, (nondenominational) church of awakened Christians who would fellowship together in purity and love, awaiting Christ's return.
A notable influence was Ernest Christopher Hochmann von Hochenau, a traveling Pietist minister. While living in Schriesheim, Mack invited Hochmann to come and minister there. Like others who influenced the Brethren, Hochmann considered the pure church to be spiritual, and did not believe that an organized church was necessary. By 1708, the date of the first Brethren baptisms, Mack had rejected this position in favor of forming a separate church with visible rules and ordinances -- including threefold baptism by immersion, a Love Feast (that combined communion with feetwashing and an evening meal), anointing, and use of the "ban" against wayward members.
Religious persecution drove the Brethren to take refuge in Friesland, in the Netherlands. In 1719 Peter Becker brought a group to Pennsylvania. In 1720 forty Brethren families settled in Surhuisterveen in Friesland. They settled among the Mennonites and remained there until 1729, when all but a handful emigrated to America.
Peter Becker organized the first American congregation at Germantown, Pennsylvania, on December 25, 1723. In 1743 Christopher Sauer, an early pastor and a printer by trade, printed a Bible in German, the first published in a European language in North America.
In 1782 the Brethren forbade slaveholding by its members. In 1871 these Brethren adopted the title German Baptist Brethren at their Annual Meeting. The group continued to expand and from Pennsylvania, they migrated chiefly westward. By 1908 they were most numerous in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas and North Dakota.
Beliefs and practices
The beliefs of the Schwarzenau Brethren include triune baptism, which provides that the candidate kneel in water and be immersed, face first, three times in the name of God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit; the New Testament as the infallible guide in spiritual matters; communion service celebrated in the evening, accompanied by the love feast; the ceremony of the washing of feet; the salutation of the Holy kiss; prayer and Anointing with oil over the sick; and Nonresistance. See also #The Brethren Card below.
Many of the early Schwarzenau Brethren believed in universal restoration, a variant of universal salvation that foretold that after the judgment and harsh punishment described in the New Testament, God's love would one day restore all souls to God. Brethren typically kept this teaching to themselves, and it was largely abandoned by the late nineteenth century. They were among the first to take Christian universalism to America when they emigrated there.
The church leaders are ministers, teachers, and deacons, though the positions may vary slightly in the various branches. The official role of elder, while no longer recognized in most congregations, was the most respected position in the church. Ministers and deacons are elected by the members of the congregation in which they hold membership. Ministers preach the word, baptize, assist deacons in anointing, solemnize marriages, and officiate at communion. Deacons serve the church by arranging for visitation to members or their families during illness or crisis, and often function in the capacity of stewards.
The first schism from the general body of German Baptist Brethren occurred in 1728, but more followed after the American Revolution, as different groups sought their own ways. The first separatists became the Seventh Day Dunkers, whose distinctive principle was that they believed that Saturday was the true Sabbath. They were founded by Johann Conrad Beissel (1690–1768).
In 1732, Beissel-led establishment of a semi-monastic community with a convent and a monastery at Ephrata, in what is now Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. While celibate, the community also welcomed believing families; they lived nearby and participated in joint worship. The monastic feature and celibacy were gradually abandoned after the American Revolution.
In 1814 the Society was incorporated as the Seventh Day German Baptist Church. Several branches were established, some of which still exist. A group called the Church of God or "New Dunkers" withdrew in 1848. They disbanded in August 1962.
The "Old Order" Dunkers opposed 19th-century Brethren adoption of innovations such as Sunday Schools and foreign missionary work. Stressing the old customs of dress and worship, they formed the Old German Baptist Brethren (OGBB) in 1881.
In 1882 the Progressives, who stressed evangelism and objected to distinctive dress and to the supremacy of the annual conferences, formed The Brethren Church. The largest body continued as German Baptist Brethren until 1908, when they adopted the title Church of the Brethren.
In 1913 the Old Brethren withdrew from the Old German Baptist Brethren (OGBB) and formed the Old Order German Baptist Brethren. In 1921, the Old Order German Baptist Brethren broke completely with the OGGB.
Because of what some believed was a gradual drift away from apostolic standards, in 1926 a small group of conservatives withdrew from the Church of the Brethren and formed the Dunkard Brethren Church.
In 1939 the Brethren Church experienced another schism, with the departure of some who formed the National Fellowship of Brethren Churches, since renamed the Fellowship of Grace Brethren Churches (FGBC).
In 1992, due to doctrinal disagreements within the FGBC, the Conservative Grace Brethren Churches, International was formed. It has headquarters in Mansfield, Ohio. In total, in the 21st century United States, seven or eight evangelical Protestant groups survive that descended from the 18th century Schwarzenau Brethren of Germany.
The most recent division amongst the Brethren occurred in May 2007 with the founding of the Brethren Reformed Church, composed of members from the Fellowship of Grace Brethren Churches and Conservative Grace Brethren Churches, International.
Brethren World Assembly
As of 2003, six Brethren bodies meet together in the Brethren World Assembly: Church of the Brethren, Conservative Grace Brethren Churches, International, Dunkard Brethren, Fellowship of Grace Brethren Churches, Old German Baptist Brethren, and The Brethren Church. The first Assembly was held in Pennsylvania in 1992. They met at Elizabethtown College and celebrated the 250th anniversary of the first known Brethren Annual Meeting in 1742. That first meeting gathered near Conestoga in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The second Assembly met in 1998 at Bridgewater College in Bridgewater, Virginia. The third Assembly was held by Grace College in Winona Lake, Indiana, in 2003. The Assembly represents some 600,000 members around the world.
The Brethren Card
Brethren are noncreedal, but have summarized their beliefs in a variety of ways for the purpose of evangelical outreach. One such statement, developed during the late nineteenth century was the Brethren's Card, a version of which was endorsed for general distribution by the 1923 Church of the Brethren Annual Conference. Variations on the Card were used by both the Old German Baptist Brethren and the Church of the Brethren. This is an early version that was widely circulated:
Be it known unto all men,
- That there is a people who, as little children (Luke 18:17), accept the Word of the New Testament as a message from heaven (Heb. 1: 1–2), and teach it in full (2 Tim. 4: 1–2, Matt. 28:20).
- They baptize believers by trine immersion (Matt. 28:29), with a forward action (Rom. 6:5), and for the remission of sins (Acts 2:38), and lay hands on those baptized, asking upon them the gift of God's Spirit (Acts 19:5–6).
- They follow the command and example of washing one another's feet (John 13:4–17).
- They take the Lord's Supper at night (John 13:30), at one and the same time, tarrying one for another (1 Cor. 11:33–34).
- They greet one another with a holy kiss (Acts 20:37, Rom. 16:16).
- They take the communion at night, after supper, as did the Lord (Mark 14:17, 23).
- They teach all the doctrines of Christ, peace (Heb. 12:14), love (1 Cor. 13), unity (Eph. 4), both faith and works (James 2:17, 20).
- They labor for nonconformity to the world in its vain and wicked customs (Rom. 12:2).
- They advocate nonswearing (Matt. 5:34, 37), anti-secretism (2 Cor. 6:14, 17), opposition to war (John 18:36), doing good unto all men (Matt. 5:44, 46).
- They anoint and lay hands on the sick (James 5:14, 15).
- They give the Bread of Life, the message of the common salvation unto all men without money or price (Matt. 10:8).
- Dear reader, for the above we contend earnestly, and you, with all men, are entreated to hear, to examine and accept it as the word, which began to be spoken by the Lord, and the faith once delivered to the saints (Jude 3).
The 1923 version, influenced by both increasing formalism and the Fundamentalist Christianity of the 1910s differed in both tone and content:
- This body of Christians originated early in the eighteenth century: the church being a natural outgrowth of the Pietistic movement following the Reformation.
- Firmly accepts and teaches the fundamental evangelical doctrines of the inspiration of the Bible, the personality of the Holy Spirit, the virgin birth, the deity of Christ, the sin-pardoning value of his atonement, his resurrection from the tomb, ascension and personal and visible return; and the resurrection, both of the just and unjust (John 5: 28–29; 1 Thess. 4:13–18).
- Observes the following New Testament rites: Baptism of penitent believers by triune immersion for the remission of sins (Matt. 28:19, Acts 2:38); feet-washing (John 13:1–20, 1 Tim. 5:10); love feast (Luke 22:20, John 13:4, 1 Cor. 11:17–34, Jude 12); communion (Matt. 26:26–30); the Christian salutation (Rom. 16:16, Acts 20:37); proper appearance in worship (1 Cor. 11:2–16); the anointing for healing in the name of the Lord (James 5:13–18, Mark 6:13); laying on of hands (Acts 8:17, 19:6; 1 Tim. 4:14). These rites are representative of spiritual facts which obtain in the lives of true believers, and as such are essential factors in the development of the Christian life.
- Emphasizes: daily devotion for the individual, and family worship for the home (Eph. 6:18–20, Philpp. 4:8–9); stewardship of time, talents and money (Matt. 25:14–30); taking care of the fatherless, widows, poor, sick and aged (Acts 6:1–7).
- Opposes on Scriptural grounds: War and the taking of human life (the Antithesis of the Law; Rom. 12:19–21, Isa. 53:7–12); violence in personal and industrial controversy (Matt 7:12, Rom. 13:8–10); intemperance in all things (Titus 2:2, Gal. 5:19–26, Eph. 5:18); going to law, especially against our Christian brethren (1 Cor. 6:1–9); divorce and remarriage, except for the one Scriptural reason (Matt 19:9); every form of oath (Matt. 5:33–37, James 5:12); membership in secret oath-bound societies (2 Cor. 6:14–18); games of chance and sinful amusements (1 Thess. 5:22, 1 Pet. 2:11, Rom. 12:17); extravagant and immodest dress (1 Tim. 2:8–10, 1 Peter 3:1–6).
- Labors earnestly, in harmony with the Great Commission, for the evangelization of the world; for the conversion of men to Jesus Christ; and for the realization of the life of Jesus Christ in every believer (Matt. 28:18–20, Mark 16:15–16, 2 Cor. 3:18).
- Maintains the New Testament as its only creed, in harmony with which the above brief doctrinal statement is made.
This version was widely circulated by conservatives within the Church of the Brethren during the middle part of the twentieth century.
The teachings of some other groups are similar to this, but can differ widely in emphasis and scope. For example, the Grace Brethren are varied on the requirement of triune immersion, do not practice the Christian salutation, do not oppose war, and do not formally adhere to plain dress or modesty. Only the Conservative Grace Brethren Churches have retained a published use of the motto, "The Bible, the whole Bible, and nothing but the Bible".
In the larger Church of the Brethren, significant emphasis is placed on social issues. In the Brethren (Ashland) and Grace Brethren groups, significant emphasis is placed on exegesis of the Bible. Several of the groups maintain a larger "Doctrinal Statement" or treatise, but only for the purpose of clarifying their Biblical position.
Most Brethren groups maintain that the Bible is the sole authority and will revise their statement of faith if they perceive any difference between it and sound Biblical doctrine. Some of the Old Order groups incorporate church authority as a mechanism for unifying the interpretation and application of Biblical teachings.
There are several religious groups named Brethren that are not related to the Schwarzenau Brethren movement. The Plymouth Brethren arose in England and Ireland early in the 19th century. The United Brethren originated in 18th century Pennsylvania with William Otterbein and Martin Boehm. The River Brethren movement apparently adopted the view of triune immersion from the Schwarzenau Brethren. The Apostolic United Brethren is a sect within the Latter Day Saint movement and is not related to the Schwarzenau Brethren.
- ↑ Meier, Marcus (2008). The Origin of the Schwarzenau Brethren. Philadelphia: Brethren Encyclopedia, Inc. p. 144.
- ↑ Bowman, Carl (1995). Brethren Society: The Cultural Transformation of a Peculiar People. Johns Hopkins University Press.
- ↑ Richard Eddy. Universalism in America. Universalist Publishing House. 1884. p. 35.
- ↑ German Seventh-Day Baptists
- ↑ Brethren Encyclopedia, Volume IV (2005). Brethren's Card. p. 2152.
- ↑ Bowman, Carl (1995). Brethren Society: The Cultural Transformation of a Peculiar People. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 186-187.
- Brethren Society: The Cultural Transformation of a Peculiar People, Carl F. Bowman (1995) Johns Hopkins University Press
- Brethren Encyclopedia, Vol. I-III, Donald F. Durnbaugh, editor (1983) The Brethren Encyclopedia Inc.
- Brethren Encyclopedia, Vol. IV, Donald F. Durnbaugh and Dale V. Ulrich, editors, Carl Bowman, contributing editor (2006) The Brethren Encyclopedia Inc.
- Encyclopedia of American Religions, J. Gordon Melton, editor
- Fruit of the Vine, A History of the Brethren 1708-1995, Donald F. Durnbaugh (1997) Brethren Press
- Handbook of Denominations, by Frank S. Mead, Samuel S. Hill, and Craig D. Atwood
- History Of the German Baptist Brethren in Europe and America, by Martin Grove Brumbaugh
- Meet the Brethren, Donald F. Durnbaugh, editor
- Religious Congregations & Membership in the United States (2000), Glenmary Research Center
- The Believers' Church: The History and Character of Radical Protestantism, Donald F. Durnbaugh (1968) The Macmillan Company
- The Dunkers: A Sociological Interpretation, by John Lewis Gillin
- The Origin of the Schwarzenau Brethren, Marcus Meier (2008) , Brethren Encyclopedia, Inc.