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Samaritan alphabet

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Samaritan alphabet
Samaritan Leviticus
Type Abjad
Spoken languages Samaritan Hebrew, Samaritan Aramaic
Time period 600 BCE – present
Parent systems
Unicode range U+0800–U+083F
ISO 15924 Samr
Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.
This article contains special characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

The Samaritan alphabet is used by the Samaritans for religious writings, including the Samaritan Pentateuch, writings in Samaritan Hebrew, and for commentaries and translations in Samaritan Aramaic and occasionally Arabic.

Samaritan is a direct descendant of the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, which was a variety of the Phoenician alphabet in which large parts of the Hebrew Bible were originally penned. All these scripts are believed to be descendants of the Proto-Sinaitic script. That script was used by the ancient Israelites, both Jews and Samaritans. The better-known "square script" Hebrew alphabet traditionally used by Jews is a stylized version of the Aramaic alphabet which they adopted from the Persian Empire (which in turn adopted it from the Arameans). After the fall of the Persian Empire, Judaism used both scripts before settling on the Aramaic form. For a limited time thereafter, the use of paleo-Hebrew (proto-Samaritan) among Jews was retained only to write the Tetragrammaton, but soon that custom was also abandoned.

The Samaritan alphabet first became known to the Western world with the publication of a manuscript of the Samaritan Pentateuch in 1631 by Jean Morin.[2] In 1616 the traveler Pietro della Valle had purchased a copy of the text in Damascus, and this manuscript, now known as Codex B, was deposited in a Parisian library.[3]

Development

The table below shows the development of the Samaritan script. On the left are the corresponding Hebrew letters for comparison. Column I is the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet. Column X shows the modern form of the letters.

Samaritan script table

The development of the Samaritan script

Template:Clear left

Letters

Samaritan inscription

Ancient inscription in Samaritan Hebrew. From a photo c.1900 by the Palestine Exploration Fund.

Consonants

ā'lāf
bīt
gā'mān
dā'lāt
īy
zēn
īt
ţīt
yūt
kâf
lā'bāt
mīm
nūn
sin'gât
īn
şâ'dīy
qūf
rīš
šān
tāf

Vowels

ā'lāf
occlusion
dagesh
epenthetic yūt
epenthetic yût
ē
e
â
ā
a
æ̂
ǣ
æ
ă
ă
ū
u
î
ī
i
o
sukun

Punctuation

Unicode

Samaritan script was added to the Unicode Standard in October 2009 with the release of version 5.2.

The Unicode block for Samaritan is U+0800–U+083F:

Template:Unicode chart Samaritan

Notes

  1. Himelfarb, Elizabeth J. "First Alphabet Found in Egypt", Archaeology 53, Issue 1 (Jan./Feb. 2000): 21.
  2. Exercitationes ecclesiasticae in utrumque Samaritanorum Pentateuchum, 1631
  3. Flôrenṭîn 2005, p. 1.

Bibliography

External links

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