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Saint George of Lydda
Saint George - Carlo Crivelli.jpg
1472 depiction of Saint George by Carlo Crivelli.
Martyr
Born between ca. AD 275 and 285, Nicomedia, Bithynia, Roman Empire
Died April 23, 303,
Lydda, Iudaea, Roman Empire
Venerated in Anglicanism
Eastern Orthodoxy
Lutheranism
Eastern Orthodox Church
Roman Catholic Church
Major shrine Church of Saint George, Lod
Feast April 23
Attributes Clothed as a soldier in a suit of armour or chain mail, often bearing a lance tipped by a cross, riding a white horse, often slaying a dragon. In the West he is shown with St George's Cross emblazoned on his armour, or shield or banner.

Saint George (ca. 275/281 – 23 April 303) was, according to tradition, a Roman priest in the Guard of Diocletian, who is venerated as a Christian martyr. In hagiography Saint George is one of the most venerated saints in the Roman Catholic Church, Anglican Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, and the Eastern Catholic Churches. He is immortalized in the tale of Saint George and the Dragon and is one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. His memorial is celebrated on 23 April, and he is regarded as one of the most prominent military saints.

Saint George is the patron saint of Aragon, Catalonia, England, Ethiopia, Georgia, Greece, Lithuania, Palestine, Portugal, and Russia, as well as the cities of Amersfoort, Beirut, Bteghrine, Cáceres, Ferrara, Freiburg, Genoa, Ljubljana, Gozo, Milan, Pomorie, Qormi, Lod, Barcelona and Moscow, as well as a wide range of professions, organizations, and disease sufferers.

Life and legendEdit

Historians have debated the exact details of the birth of Saint George for over a century, although the approximate date of his death is subject to little debate.[1][2] The Catholic Encyclopedia takes the position that there seems to be no ground for doubting the historical existence of Saint George, but that little faith can be placed in some of the fanciful stories about him.[3]

The work of the Bollandists Danile Paperbroch, Jean Bolland and Henschen in the 17th century was one of the first pieces of scholarly research to establish the historicity of the saint's existence via their publications in Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca and paved the way for other scholars to dismiss the medieval legends.[4][5] Pope Gelasius stated that George was among those saints whose names are justly reverenced among men, but whose actions are known only to God.[6]

The traditional legends have offered a historicised narration of George's encounter with a dragon: see "St. George and the Dragon" below. The modern legend that follows below is synthesized from early and late hagiographical sources, omitting the more fantastical episodes, to narrate a purely human military career in closer harmony with modern expectations of reality. Chief among the legendary sources about the saint is the Golden Legend, which remains the most familiar version in English owing to William Caxton's 15th-century translation.[7]

It is likely that Saint George was born to a Christian noble family in Lydda Palestine during the late third century between about 275 AD and 285 AD, and he died in Nicomedia.[8][9] His father, Gerontius, was a Roman army official from Cappadocia and his mother was from Palestine. They were both Christians and from noble families of Anici, so by this the child was raised with Christian beliefs. They decided to call him George, meaning "worker of the land". At the age of 14, George lost his father; a few years later, George's mother, Polychronia, died.[10][11][12][13] Eastern accounts give the names of his parents as Anastasius and Theobaste.

Then George decided to go to Nicomedia, the imperial city of that time, and present himself to Emperor Diocletian to apply for a career as a soldier. Diocletian welcomed him with open arms, as he had known his father, Gerontius — one of his finest soldiers. By his late 20s, George was promoted to the rank of Tribunus and stationed as an imperial guard of the Emperor at Nicomedia.[14]

In the year AD 302, Diocletian (influenced by Galerius) issued an edict that every Christian soldier in the army should be arrested and every other soldier should offer a sacrifice to the Pagan gods. But George objected and with the courage of his faith approached the Emperor and ruler. Diocletian was upset, not wanting to lose his best Tribune and the son of his best official, Gerontius. George loudly renounced the Emperor's edict, and in front of his fellow soldiers and Tribunes he claimed himself to be a Christian and declared his worship of Jesus Christ. Diocletian attempted to convert George, even offering gifts of land, money and slaves if he made a sacrifice to the Pagan gods. The Emperor made many offers, but George never accepted.[15]

Recognizing the futility of his efforts, Diocletian was left with no choice but to have him executed for his refusal. Before the execution George gave his wealth to the poor and prepared himself. After various torture sessions, including laceration on a wheel of swords in which he was resuscitated three times, George was executed by decapitation before Nicomedia's city wall, on April 23, 303. A witness of his suffering convinced Empress Alexandra and Athanasius, a pagan priest, to become Christians as well, and so they joined George in martyrdom. His body was returned to Lydda for burial, where Christians soon came to honour him as a martyr.[16][17]

Although the above distillation of the legend of George connects him to the conversion of Athanasius, Edward Gibbon[18] argued that George, or at least the legend from which the above is distilled, is based on George of Cappadocia,[19][20] a notorious Arian bishop who was Athanasius' most bitter rival. According to Professor Bury, Gibbon's latest editor, "this theory of Gibbon's has nothing to be said for it". He adds that: "the connection of St. George with a dragon-slaying legend does not relegate him to the region of the myth".[21] And according to the 4th century historian Rufinus, Athanasius was actually brought up by Christian ecclesiastical authorities from a very early age, beginning while he was merely a young boy.[22] George of Cappodocia did have a military connection, but as a black market supplier,[19][23] and he was strangled to death by an enraged mob,[23] on account of his pillaging and other deprivations,[19] rather than being executed or tortured for his faith.

Saint George and the dragonEdit

SaintGeorgeDragonRubens

Saint George and the Dragon, early 17th century oil painting by Peter Paul Rubens.

Sign for the George and Dragon, Erlestoke - geograph.org.uk - 700377

Sign for the George and Dragon pub in Erlestoke, Wiltshire, England.

The episode of St George and the Dragon was a legend[24] brought back with the Crusaders and retold with the courtly appurtenances belonging to the genre of Romance. The earliest known depiction of the legend is from early eleventh-century Cappadocia, (in the iconography of the Eastern Orthodox Church, George had been depicted as a soldier since at least the seventh century); the earliest known surviving narrative text is an eleventh-century Georgian text.

In the fully-developed Western version, which developed as part of the Golden Legend, a dragon makes its nest at the spring that provides water for the city of "Silene" (perhaps modern Cyrene) in Libya or the city of Lydda, depending on the source. Consequently, the citizens have to dislodge the dragon from its nest for a time, to collect water. To do so, each day they offer the dragon at first a sheep, and if no sheep can be found, then a maiden must go instead of the sheep. The victim is chosen by drawing lots. One day, this happens to be the princess. The monarch begs for her life to be spared, but to no avail. She is offered to the dragon, but there appears Saint George on his travels. He faces the dragon, protects himself with the sign of the cross,[25] slays the dragon, and rescues the princess. The grateful citizens abandon their ancestral paganism and convert to Christianity.

The dragon motif was first combined with the standardized Passio Georgii in Vincent of Beauvais' encyclopedic Speculum historale and then in Jacobus de Voragine, Golden Legend, which guaranteed its popularity in the later Middle Ages as a literary and pictorial subject.

The parallels with Perseus and Andromeda are inescapable. In the allegorical reading, the dragon embodies a suppressed pagan cult.[26] The story has other roots that predate Christianity. Examples such as Sabazios, the sky father, who was usually depicted riding on horseback, and Zeus's defeat of Typhon the Titan in Greek mythology, along with examples from Germanic and Vedic traditions, have led a number of historians, such as Loomis, to suggest that George is a Christianized version of older deities in Indo-European culture.

In the medieval romances, the lance with which St George slew the dragon was called Ascalon, named after the city of Ashkelon in Israel.

Veneration as a martyrEdit

Paolo Veronese 023

The Martyrdom of Saint George, 1564 oil painting by Paolo Veronese.

A church built in Lydda during the reign of Constantine I (reigned 306–337), was consecrated to "a man of the highest distinction", according to the church history of Eusebius of Caesarea; the name of the patron[27] was not disclosed, but later he was asserted to have been George.

By the time of the Muslim conquest in the seventh century, a basilica dedicated to the saint in Lydda existed.[28] The church was destroyed in 1010 but was later rebuilt and dedicated to Saint George by the Crusaders. In 1191 and during the conflict known as the Third Crusade (1189–1192), the church was again destroyed by the forces of Saladin, Sultan of the Ayyubid dynasty (reigned 1171–1193). A new church was erected in 1872 and is still standing.

During the fourth century the veneration of George spread from Palestine through Lebanon to the rest of the Eastern Roman Empire -though the martyr is not mentioned in the Syriac Breviarium[29]- and Georgia. In Georgia the feast day on November 23 is credited to St Nino of Cappadocia, who in Georgian hagiography is a relative of St George, credited with bringing Christianity to the Georgians in the fourth century. By the fifth century the cult of Saint George had reached the Western Roman Empire as well: in 494, George was canonized as a saint by Pope Gelasius I, among those "whose names are justly reverenced among men, but whose acts are known only to [God]."

In England the earliest dedication to George, who was mentioned among the martyrs by Bede, is a church at Fordington, Dorset, that is mentioned in the will of Alfred the Great. "Saint George and his feast day began to gain more widespread fame among all Europeans, however, from the time of the Crusades."[30] The St. George's flag, a red cross on a white field, was adopted by England and the City of London in 1190 for their ships entering the Mediterranean to benefit from the protection of the Geonoese fleet during the Crusades and the English Monarch paid an annual tribute to the Doge of Genoa for this privilege.

An apparition of George heartened the Franks at the siege of Antioch, 1098, and made a similar appearance the following year at Jerusalem. Chivalric military Order of St. George were established in Aragon (1201), Genoa, Hungary, and by Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor,[31] and Edward III put his Order of the Garter under the banner of St. George. In England the Synod of Oxford, 1222 declared St. George's Day a feast day in the kingdom of England. The chronicler Froissart observed the English invoking St. George as a battle cry on several occasions during the Hundred Years' War. In his rise as a national saint George was aided by the very fact that the saint had no legendary connection with England, and no specifically localized shrine, as of Thomas Becket at Canterbury: "Consequently, numerous shrines were established during the late fifteenth century," Muriel C. McClendon has written,[32] "and his did not become closely identified with a particular occupation or with the cure of a specific malady."

The establishment of George as a popular saint and protective giant[33] in the West that had captured the medieval imagination was codified by the official elevation of his feast to a festum duplex[34] at a church council in 1415, on the date that had become associated with his martyrdom, 23 April. There was wide latitude from community to community in celebration of the day across late medieval and early modern England,[35] and no uniform "national" celebration elsewhere, a token of the popular and vernacular nature of George's cultus and its local horizons, supported by a local guild or confraternity under George's protection, or the dedication of a local church. When the Reformation in England severely curtailed the saints' days in the calendar, St George's Day was among the holidays that continued to be observed.

SourcesEdit

According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the earliest text preserving fragments of George's narrative is in an Acta Sanctorum identified by Hippolyte Delehaye of the scholarly Bollandists to be a palimpsest of the fifth century. However, this Acta Sancti Georgii was soon banned as heresy by Pope Gelasius I (in 496).

The compiler of this Acta, according to Hippolyte Delehaye "confused the martyr with his namesake, the celebrated George of Cappadocia, the Arian intruder into the see of Alexandria and enemy of St. Athanasius". A critical edition of a Syriac Acta of Saint George, accompanied by an annotated English translation was published by E.W. Brooks (1863–1955) in 1925. The hagiography was originally written in Greek.

In Sweden, the princess rescued by Saint George is held to represent the kingdom of Sweden, while the dragon represents an invading army. Several sculptures of Saint George battling the dragon can be found in Stockholm, the earliest inside Storkyrkan ("The Great Church") in the Old Town.

The façade of architect Antoni Gaudi's famous Casa Batlló in Barcelona, Spain depicts this allegory.

IconographyEdit

Icon8

14th century Byzantine icon of Saint George.

St. George is most commonly depicted in early icons, mosaics and frescos wearing armour contemporary with the depiction, executed in gilding and silver colour, intended to identify him as a Roman soldier. After the Fall of Constantinople and the association of St George with the crusades, he is more often portrayed mounted upon a white horse. At the same time St George began to be associated with St. Demetrius, another early soldier saint. When the two saints are portrayed together mounted upon horses, they may be likened to earthly manifestations of the archangels Michael and Gabriel. St George is always depicted in Eastern traditions upon a white horse and St. Demetrius on a red horse[36] St George can also be identified in the act of spearing a dragon, unlike St Demetrius, who is sometimes shown spearing a human figure, understood to represent Maximian.

A 2003 Vatican stamp issued on the anniversary of the Saint's death depicts an armored Saint George atop a white horse, killing the dragon.[37]

Later depictions and occurrencesEdit

During the early second millennium, George came to be seen as the model of chivalry, and during this time was depicted in works of literature, such as the medieval romances.

Jacobus de Voragine, Archbishop of Genoa, compiled the Legenda Sanctorum, (Readings of the Saints) also known as Legenda Aurea (the Golden Legend) for its worth among readers. Its 177 chapters (182 in other editions) contain the story of Saint George.

Modern Russians interpret the icon not as a killing but as a struggle, against ourselves and the evil among us. The dragon never dies but the saint persists with his horse (will and support of the people) and his spear (technical means). In Eastern Orthodox Christianity it is possible to find Icons of St.Georgie riding on Black horse, as well, there are various examples in Russian iconography, like the icon in British Museum Collection.

Colours and flagEdit

Flag of England

St. George's Cross.

The "Colours of Saint George", or St George's Cross are a white flag with a red cross, frequently borne by entities over which he is patron (e.g. the Republic of Genoa and then Liguria, England, Georgia, Catalonia etc).

The origin of the St George's Cross came from the earlier plain white tunics worn by the early crusaders.

The same colour scheme was used by Viktor Vasnetsov for the facade of the Tretyakov Gallery, in which some of the most famous St. George icons are exhibited and which displays St. George as the coat of arms of Moscow over its entrance.

Feast daysEdit

In the General Calendar of the Roman Rite the feast of Saint George is on April 23. In the Tridentine Calendar it was given the rank of "Semidouble". In Pope Pius XII's 1955 calendar this rank is reduced to "Simple". In Pope John XXIII's 1960 calendar the celebration to just a "Commemoration". In Pope Paul VI's 1969 calendar it is raised to the level of an optional "Memorial". In some countries, such as England, the rank is higher.

St George is very much honored by the Eastern Orthodox Church, wherein he is referred to as a "Great Martyr", and in Oriental Orthodoxy overall. His major feast day is on April 23 (Julian Calendar April 23 currently corresponds to Gregorian Calendar May 6). The Russian Orthodox Church also celebrates two additional feasts in honour of St. George: one on November 3 commemorating the consecration of a cathedral dedicated to him in Lydda during the reign Constantine the Great (305–337). When the church was consecrated, the relics of the St. George were transferred there. The other feast on November 26 for a church dedicated to him in Kiev, ca. 1054.

In Egypt the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria refers to St George as the "Prince of Martyrs" and celebrates his martyrdom on the 23rd of Paremhat of the Coptic Calendar equivalent to May 1. The Copts also celebrate the consecration of the first church dedicated to him on June 10th.

PatronagesEdit

As a highly celebrated saint in both the Western and Eastern Christian churches, a large number of Patronages of Saint George exist throughout the world.[38]

The country of Georgia, where devotions to the saint date back to the fourth century, is named after him, as well as a large number of towns and cities around the world. Geographer Vakhushti Bagrationi wrote that there are 365 Orthodox churches in Georgia named after Saint George according to the number of days in a year.[39][40][41]

Britain Needs You at Once - WWI recruitment poster - Parliamentary Recruiting Committee Poster No. 108

British World War I recruitment poster which features Saint George and the Dragon.

In England, where traces of the cult of Saint George predate the Norman Conquest in the eleventh century, by the fourteenth century the saint had been declared both the patron saint and the protector of the royal family.[42]

Devotions to Saint George in Portugal date back to the twelfth century, and Saint Constable attributed the victory of the Portuguese in the battle of Aljubarrota in the fourteenth century to Saint George. During the reign of King John I (1357–1433) Saint George became the patron saint of Portugal and the King ordered that the saint's image on the horse be carried in the Corpus Christi procession.[43]

Saint George is also one of the patron saints of the Mediterranean islands of Malta and Gozo. In a battle between the Maltese and the Moors, Saint George was alleged to have been seen with Saint Paul and Saint Agata, protecting the Maltese. Saint George is the patron of the Maltese town of Victoria where St. George's Basilica is dedicated to him.[44]

Interfaith shrine Edit

StGeorgeDragged

Saint George being dragged through the streets, 15th century depiction by Bernardo Martorell.

There is a tradition in the Holy Land of Christians and Muslims going to an Eastern Orthodox shrine for St. George at Beith Jala, Jews also attending the site in the belief that the prophet Elijah was buried there. This is testified to by Elizabeth Finn in 1866, where she wrote, "St. George killed the dragon in this country Palestine; and the place is shown close to Beirut. Many churches and convents are named after him. The church at Lydda is dedicated to St. George: so is a convent near Bethlehem, and another small one just opposite the Jaffa gate; and others beside. The Arabs believe that St. George can restore mad people to their senses; and to say a person has been sent to St. George's, is equivalent to saying he has been sent to a madhouse. It is singular that the Moslem Arabs share this veneration for St. George, and send their mad people to be cured by him, as well as the Christians. But they commonly call him El Khudder —The Green—according to their favorite manner of using epithets instead of names. Why he should be called green, however, I cannot tell—unless it is from the colour of his horse. Gray horses are called green in Arabic." [45] A possible explanation for this colour reference is Al Khidr, the erstwhile tutor of Moses, gained his name from having sat in a barren desert, turning it into a lush green paradise.

William Dalrymple reviewing the literature in 1999 tells us that J.E. Hanauer in his 1907 book Folklore of the Holy Land: Muslim, Christian and Jewish "mentioned a shrine in the village of Beit Jala, beside Bethlehem, which at the time was frequented by all three of Palestine's religious communities. Christians regarded it as the birthplace of St. George, Jews as the burial place of the Prophet Elias, Muslims as the home of the legendary saint of fertility known simply as Khidr, Arabic for green. According to Hanauer, in his day the monastery was "a sort of madhouse. Deranged persons of all the three faiths are taken thither and chained in the court of the chapel, where they are kept for forty days on bread and water, the Eastern Orthodox priest at the head of the establishment now and then reading the Gospel over them, or administering a whipping as the case demands.'[46] In the 1920s according to Taufiq Canaan's Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine, nothing seemed to have changed, and all three communities were still visiting the shrine and praying together."[47]

Dalrymple himself visited the place in 1995 "I asked around in the Christian Quarter in Jerusalem, and discovered that the pace was very much alive. With all the greatest shrines in the Christian world to choose from, it seemed that when the local Arab Christians had a problem – an illness, or something more complicated: a husband detained in an Israeli prison camp, for example – they preferred to seek the intercession of St George in his grubby little shrine at Beit Jala rather than praying at the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem or the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem."[47] He asked the priest at the shrine "Do you get many Muslims coming here?" The priest replied, "We get hundreds! Almost as many as the Christian pilgrims. Often, when I come in here, I find Muslims all over the floor, in the aisles, up and down."[47][48][49]

The Encyclopædia Britannica quotes G.A. Smith in his Historic Geography of the Holy Land p. 164 saying "The Mahommedans who usually identify St. George with the prophet Elijah, at Lydda confound his legend with one about Christ himself. Their name for Antichrist is Dajjal, and they have a tradition that Jesus will slay Antichrist by the gate of Lydda. The notion sprang from an ancient bas-relief of George and the Dragon on the Lydda church. But Dajjal may be derived, by a very common confusion between n and l, from Dagon, whose name two neighboring villages bear to this day, while one of the gates of Lydda used to be called the Gate of Dagon."[50]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Charles Mills, 1825, The History of Chivalry Longman, Rees Publishers, page 9
  2. Edmund Spenser, 1998, Fierce Wars and Faithful Loves Cannon Press ISBN 9781885767394 page 196
  3. Catholic encyclopedia on St. George
  4. Christopher Walter, 2003, The Warrior Saints in Byzantine Art and Tradition Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 184014694X page 110
  5. Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca 271, 272
  6. Encyclopedia Britannica (1911), article on Saint George : In the canon of Pope Gelasius (494) George is mentioned in a list of those " whose names are justly reverenced among men, but whose acts are known only to God,"
  7. Jacobus De Voragine, 1995, The Golden Legend Princeton University Press ISBN 9780691001531 page 238
  8. F. J. Foakes-Jackson A History of the Christian Church By Cosimo Press, 2005 ISBN 1596054522 page 461
  9. Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 087973910X page 568
  10. J. Murray, 1863, Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature of the United Kingdom, Royal Society of Literature, page 133
  11. A. Heylin, 1862, The Journal of Sacred Literature and Biblical Record, Vol 1, page 244.
  12. John H. Darch, 2006, Saints on Earth Church House Press ISBN 9780715140369 page 56
  13. Christopher Walter, 2003, The Warrior Saints in Byzantine Art and Tradition Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 184014694X page 112
  14. William Smith, 1867, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Little Brown & Co. page 249
  15. Margaret Gibbs, 1971, Saints beyond the White Cliffs Ayer Press, ISBN 0836980581 page 2
  16. Fred Hackwood, 2003, Christ Lore the Legends, Traditions, Myths Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 0766136566, page 255
  17. Alban Butler, 2008, Lives of the Saints, ISBN 143751281X page 166
  18. Edward Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 2:23:5
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Edward Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 2:23:5
  20. Catholic Encyclopedia, on Saint George: ...it is not improbable that the apocryphal Acts have borrowed some incidents from the story of the Arian bishop
  21. Catholic encyclopedia on Gibbons and Saint George
  22. Tyrannius Rufinus, History of the Church, 1:14
  23. 23.0 23.1 Ralph Waldo Emerson, quoted in Robert D. Richardson, and Barry Moser, Emerson (1996), page 520 : George of Cappadocia....[held] the contract to supply the army with bacon....embraced Arianism....[and was] promoted...to the episcopal throne of Alexandria....When Julian came, George was dragged to prison, the prison was burst open by a mob, and George was lynched....[he] became in good time Saint George of England....
  24. Robertson, The Medieval Saints' Lives (pp 51–52) suggested that the dragon motif was transferred to the George legend from that of his fellow soldier saint, Saint Theodore Tiro. The Roman Catholic writer Alban Butler (Lives of the Saints) was at pains to credit the motif as a late addition: "It should be noted, however, that the story of the dragon, though given so much prominence, was a later accretion, of which we have no sure traces before the twelfth century. This puts out of court the attempts made by many folklorists to present St. George as no more than a christianized survival of pagan mythology."
  25. "He drew out his sword and garnished him with the sign of the cross, and rose hardily against the dragon which came toward him, and smote him with his spear and hurt him sore, and threw him to the ground", according to Jacobus de Voragine, The Golden Legend: or Lives of the Saints as Englished by William Caxton, F.S. Ellis, ed. (London, 1900), vol. III:123–45), quotation p. 128.
  26. Loomis 1948:65 and notes 111–17, giving references to other saints' encounters with dragons. "To Loomis's list might be added the stories of Martha . . . and Silvester, which is vigorously summarized (from a fifth-century version of the Actus Silvestri) by the early English writer, Aldhelm, abbot of Malmesbury (639–709), in his De Virginitate (see Aldhelm: The Prose Works, pp. 82–83). On dragons and saints, see now Rauer, Beowulf and the Dragon." Saint Mercurialis, the first bishop of the city of Forlì, in Romagna, is often portrayed in the act of killing a dragon.
  27. For patrons of fourth-century churches, see titulus.
  28. Denys Pringle, The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem Cambridge University Press, 1998 ISBN 0521390370 page 25
  29. Butler.
  30. McClendon 1999:6.
  31. Catholic Encyclopedia 1913, s.v. "Orders of St. George" omits Genoa and Hungary: see David Scott Fox, Saint George: The Saint with Three Faces ((1983:59–63, 98–123), noted by McClellan 999:6 note 13. Additional Orders of St. George were founded in the eighteenth century (Catholic Encyclopedia).
  32. McClendon 1999:10.
  33. Erasmus, in The Praise of Folly (1509, printed 1511) remarked "The Christians have now their gigantic St. George, as well as the pagans had their Hercules."
  34. Only the most essential work might be done on a festum duplex
  35. Muriel C. McClendon, "A Moveable Feast: Saint George's Day Celebrations and Religious Change in Early Modern England" The Journal of British Studies 38.1 (January 1999:1–27).
  36. The red pigment may appear black if it has bitumenized.
  37. Vatican stamps
  38. Graham Seal, 2001n Encyclopedia of folk heroes ISBN 1576072169 page 85
  39. Gabidzashvili, Enriko. 1991. Saint George: In Ancient Georgian Literature. Armazi – 89: Tbilisi, Georgia.
  40. F. J. Foakes-Jackson, A History of the Christian Church, Published by Cosimo, Inc., 2005 ISBN 1596054522 page 556
  41. Antony Eastmond, Royal Imagery in Medieval Georgia, Penn State Press, 1998 ISBN 0271016280 page 119
  42. Kathryn Hinds, Medieval England Published by Marshall Cavendish, 2001 ISBN 0761403086, page 44
  43. Daily Life in Portugal in the Late Middle Ages, By A. H. de Oliveira Marques, Vitor Andre, S. S. Wyatt Published by Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1971 ISBN 0299055841 page 216
  44. Arthur de Bles, 2004 How to Distinguish the Saints in Art ISBN 141790870X page 86
  45. Elizabeth Anne Finn (1866). Home in the Holyland. James Nisbet and Co., London. pp. 46–47. 
  46. "Folk-lore of the Holy Land, Moslem, Christian and Jewish, by J. E. Hanauer 1907". http://www.sacred-texts.com/asia/flhl/flhl12.htm. Retrieved January 18, 2007. 
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 William Dalrymple. From the Holy Mountain: a journey among the Christians of the Middle East. Owl Books (March 15, 1999). 
  48. "Who is Saint George?". St. George's Basilica. http://www.stgeorge.org.mt/page.asp?id=12. Retrieved January 17, 2007. 
  49. H. S. Haddad. ""Georgic" Cults and Saints of the Levant". http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0029-5973(196904)16%3A1%3C21%3A%22CASOT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M.  Retrieved on January 18, 2007
  50. Encyclopædia Britannica – eleventh edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Co., New York, NY. 1910. p. 737. 

References Edit

  • Brooks, E.W., 1925. Acts of Saint George in series Analecta Gorgiana 8 (Gorgias Press).
  • Burgoyne, Michael H. 1976. A Chronological Index to the Muslim Monuments of Jerusalem. In The Architecture of Islamic Jerusalem. Jerusalem: The British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem.
  • Alban Butler, Butler's Lives of the Saints, vol. 2, pp. 148–150. "George, Martyr, Protector of the Kingdom of England" (on-line text)
  • Gabidzashvili, Enriko. 1991. Saint George: In Ancient Georgian Literature. Armazi – 89: Tbilisi, Georgia.
  • Loomis, C. Grant, 1948. White Magic, An Introduction to the Folklore of Christian Legend (Cambridge: Medieval Society of America)
  • Natsheh, Yusuf. 2000. "Architectural survey", in Ottoman Jerusalem: The Living City 1517-1917. Edited by Sylvia Auld and Robert Hillenbrand (London: Altajir World of Islam Trust) pp 893–899.
  • Whatley, E. Gordon, editor, with Anne B. Thompson and Robert K. Upchurch, 2004. St. George and the Dragon in the South English Legendary (East Midland Revision, c. 1400) Originally published in Saints' Lives in Middle English Collections
  • Prof. George Menachery, Saint Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India. Vol.II Trichur – 73.

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