Rosh Pinna is a town (local council) of approximately 2,500 people located in the Upper Galilee on the eastern slopes of Mount Kna'anin, the Northern District of Israel. The town was founded in 1882 by thirty immigrant families from Romania, making it one of the oldest Zionist settlements in Israel. Rosh Pinna was officially recognized in 1953.
Rosh Pinna (Hebrew: ראש פנה, lit. Cornerstone, alternate spelling: Rosh Pina) was one of the first modern Jewish agricultural settlements in history of the Land of Israel, then part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire.
Rosh Pinna was known as Um-Juni, in Ottoman times.
In 1883, it became the first Jewish settlement in the Land of Israel to come under the patronage of the Baron Edmond James de Rothschild.
The first modern Jewish settlement in the Galilee, Gei Oni, was founded in 1878 by Jews from Safed, some of whom were descended from Spanish Jews exiled in 1492. However it was abandoned after three years of drought. A year later, in 1882, a group of Romanian Jews built the first lasting settlement in the Galilee and named it Rosh Pinna, or cornerstone, after Psalm 118:22: "The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner." Then in 1884 Baron Edmond de Rothschild sponsored the settlement and made it the administrative center for his holdings.
Laurence Oliphant collected funds for the settlement from Christadelphians and other sympathizers in Britain. He wrote about his visit to Rosh Pinna in 1886, "Jauna, which was the name of the village to which I was bound, was situated about three miles (5 km) from Safed, in a gorge, from which, as we descended it, a magnificent view was obtained over the Jordan valley, with the Lake of Tiberias lying three thousand feet below us on the right, and the waters of Merom, or the Lake of Huleh, on the left. The intervening plain was 3. rich expanse of country, only waiting development. The new colony hall been established about eight months, the land having been purchased from the Moslem villagers, of whom twenty families remained, who lived on terms of perfect amity with the Jews. These consisted of twenty - three Roumanian and four Russian families, numbering in all one hundred and forty souls. The greater number were hard at w ork on their potato-patches when I arrived, and I was pleased to find evidences of thrift and industry. A row of sixteen neat little houses had been built, and more were in process or erection. Altogether this is the most hopeful attempt at a colony which I have seen in Palestine. The colonists own about a thousand acres of excellent land, which they were able to purchase at from three to four dollars an acre. The Russians are establishing themselves about half a mile from the Roumanians, as Jews of different nationalities easily get on well together. They call the colony Rosch Pina, or "Head of the Corner," the word occurring in the verse," The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the comer."
In 2005, right-wing activists assembled in the cemetery of Rosh Pinna to perform a 'Pulsa Dinura', a kabbalistic ceremony in which God is asked to curse someone who is believed to be a sinner. They gathered near Shlomo Ben-Yosef’s grave and called for the death of the Prime Minister then, Ariel Sharon.
On July 14, 2006, two Katyusha rockets landed in an open area of Rosh Pinna. Nobody was injured in this attack. The Rosh Pinna airport was closed the previous day, July 13, as a precautionary measure.
As of 2005, Rosh Pinna had a predominantly Jewish population of approximately 2,400. In 1948, the year Israel declared independence and the out break of the first Arab-Israeli war, Rosh Pinna had a population of 346. There are also Arab Israelis that live in Rosh Pinna.
Rosh Pinna is located north of the Sea of Galilee, on the eastern slopes of Mount Kna'an, approximately 2 km east of the city of Safed, 420 meters above sea level, latitude north 32° 58', longitude east 35° 31'. North of Rosh Pinna is Lake Hula, which was a swamp area drained in the 1950s.
Rosh Pinna had the first Hebrew School in 1899.
Mahanaim / I. Ben Ya'akov Airport is located 2.1 km away from Rosh Pinna.
- Mitzpe HaYamim, a world-class spa, is located on a mountainside in Rosh Pinna. Amenities include a range of health and cosmetic treatments, an art gallery where guests can view artists at work, art workshops and an organic garden.
- The House of Dignitaries is a structure built in 1882 and used as a center of administration and finance for Rosh Pinna and other towns in the Galilee region. From this building, a loudspeaker was used to broadcast the local news.
- An ancient synagogue, which was commissioned by the Baron, also has been preserved.
- The Mer house was the home of Professor Gideon Mer, an expert on malaria,epidemiologist and an important contributor to the eradication of malaria in the 1930’s.. The house presents a room dedicated to his memory and an exhibit of ancient items from various periods, such as old plows, laboratory equipment and textbooks.
- PICA House provides an audio-visual presentation that tells the story of Rosh Pinna. PICA House served as an administrative center and residence for Baron Rothschild’s clerks, advisors, and agricultural counselors.
- The Baron Rothschild' gardens. The gardens were designed by a French landscape architect and planted in 1886. Many plants such as Bougainvillea and pine trees were brought from France.
- The grave of Honi HaM'agel, a Jewish scholar, is located on the outskirts of Hatzor HaGlilit, a few kilometers from Rosh Pinna.
- "Nimrod Lookout", a green spot with water Views as seen from the viewpoint flowing through, facing the landscapes of the Hula valley, the Golan Heights and mount Hermon, will be built in the Pioneers National Restoration Site in old Rosh Pina.
In 1962, the 80th Anniversary of the settlement of Rosh Pinna the State of Israel issued a stamp depicting the settlement and its surroundings.
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- ↑ http://ecom.gov.il/IFS/ProductPage_en.aspx?product=04295&language=en-us 'ROSH PINA, AN EXAMPLE… HISTORY AND REALITY (From the series IMMIGRANT GENERATION'
- ↑ Abstract: Laurence Oliphant's interest in the development of Jewish settlement in Ottoman Palestine preceded his interest in the plight of Jewish communities in Eastern Europe. While his intensive involvement in these matters is well known, especially in modern Israel, the fact that the funds for his largesse were contributed by the Christadelphian Brotherhood has not previously been published. The present article brings to light material from the archives of this sect, and thus, too, the motivation behind these efforts. Amit, Thomas. Laurence Oliphant: Financial Sources for his Activities in Palestine in the 1880s Palestine Exploration Quarterly, Volume 139, Number 3, November 2007 , pp. 205-212(8)
- ↑ http://www.bucshester.org Extract from page 71 of “HAIFA or Life in Modern Palestine”, written by Laurence Oliphant, published By William Blackwood and Sons, London, 1887
- ↑ http://www.somethingjewish.co.uk/articles/1543_sharon_s_kabbalistic.htm 'Sharon's kabbalistic curse'
- ↑ http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/il-lcrsp.html Rosh Pinna
- ↑ http://www.mifne-autism.com The Mifne Center
- ↑ http://www.ujcna.org/page.html?ArticleID=27031 The Mifne Center
- ↑ http://www.stateofisrael.com/tourism/roshpina Rosh Pina