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Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo

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Rock-Hewn Churches of Ivanovo*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

State Party Template:BUL
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii
Reference 45
Region** Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1979  (3rd Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.

The Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo (Bulgarian: Ивановски скални църкви, Ivanovski skalni tsarkvi) are a group of monolithic churches, chapels and monasteries hewn out of solid rock and completely different from other monastery complexes in Bulgaria, located near the village of Ivanovo, 20 km south of Rousse, on the high rocky banks of the Rusenski Lom, 32 m above the river. The complex is noted for its beautiful and well-preserved medieval frescoes.

The caves in the region had been inhabited by monks from the 1220s, when it was founded by the future Patriarch of Bulgaria Joachim, to the 17th century, where they hewed cells, churches and chapels out of solid rock. At the peak of the monastery complex, the number of churches was about 40, while the other premises were around 300, most of which are not preserved today.

Second Bulgarian Empire rulers such as Ivan Alexander and Ivan Asen II frequently made donations to the complex, as evidenced by donor portraits in some of the churches. Other patrons included nobles from the capital Tarnovo, with which the monastery complex had strong ties in the 13th and 14th century. It was a centre of hesychasm in the Bulgarian lands in the 14th century and continued to exist in the early centuries of the Ottoman rule of Bulgaria, but gradually decayed.

The monastery complex owes much of its fame to 13th- and 14th-century frescoes, preserved in 5 of the churches, which are thought of as wonderful examples of Bulgarian mediaeval art. The rock premises used by the monks include the St Archangel Michael Chapel ("The Buried Church"), the Baptistery, the Gospodev Dol Chapel, the St Theodore Church ("The Demolished Church") and the main Holy Mother of God Church, with the 14th-century murals in the latter one being arguably the most famous of all in Ivanovo and noted as some of the most representative examples of Palaeologan art. Many century-old inscriptions have also been preserved in the monastical premises, including the famous indented inscription of the monk Ivo Gramatik from 1308–1309.

The Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo were included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1979.


See also

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Coordinates: 43°43′N 25°58′E / 43.717°N 25.967°E / 43.717; 25.967bg:Ивановски скални църкви ca:Esglésies rupestres d'Ivànovo cs:Skalní kostely v Ivanovuhu:Ivanovói sziklatemplomok mk:Ивановски карпести цркви ja:イヴァノヴォの岩窟教会群 no:Klippekirken i Ivanovoru:Пещерные церкви в Иваново sk:Skalné kostoly v Ivanove sr:Камене цркве у Иванову fi:Ivanovon kallioon hakatut kirkot sv:Klippkyrkorna i Ivanovo vi:Các nhà thờ đục trong đá tại Ivanovo

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