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Religion calendar construction

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This is the construction page for the religion calendar. The first section is for observances that are fixed in the Gregorian calendar. This section can also be used for those observances that move only very slowly from Gregorian, for example the Julian calendar. These can easily be transferred to the calendar. The second section is for observances that are fixed in other calendars. Once the correlation between the two calendars is established, these dates, too, can be transferred.

Observances fixed in the Gregorian calendar

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Observances fixed in the Islamic calendar

Muharram

Safar

Rabi al-Awwal

Rabi al-Ahir

Jumada al-Ula

  • (5 Jumada al-Ula) — Declaration of the Báb alternative date (Eastern Bahá'í): Middle Eastern Bahá'í's celebrate this day on its date in the Islamic Calendar, whereas others celebrate on 23 May.

Jumada al-Ahira

Rajab

Sha'aban

Ramadan

  • (1 Ramadan) — Beginning of the Ramadan month-long fast (Islamic).
  • (19–22 Ramadan) — Mourning for Imam Ali (Shia Islamic).
  • (27 Ramadan) — Laylat al-Qadr or the Night of Power (Islamic): celebration of the night in which the Qur'an was first revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. Muslims pray extra prayers, especially at night prayer.
  • (last Friday in Ramadan) — Jum'at al-Wada' or Farewell Friday (Islamic): although not strictly a true religious observance, the last Friday of Ramadan is considered to be an important day of prayer and reflection on the fast.

Shawwal

Dhu al-Qa'da

Dhu al-Hijja

Observances fixed in the Hebrew calendar

Nisan

  • (1 Nisan) — Shenat Hamelachim or New Year for Kings (Jewish): not a real festival, but it marks the fact that the Hebrew calendar anciently began on this day for some practices.
  • (approx. 14 Nisan) — Memorial of Christ's Death or Lord's Evening Meal (Jehovah's Witness): the only festival kept by Jehovah's Witnesses, in memorial of Christ's death. Bread and wine are taken and eaten by the minority anoited. This festival falls immediately after the equinox, and not necessarily according to the Hebrew calendar.
  • (14 Nisan) — Ta'anit Bechorim or Fast of the Firstborn (Jewish): a minor fast day in remembrance that the Exodus from Egypt was bought at the cost of the lives of the firstborn. If Pesach is on a Sunday, Ta'anit Bechorim is moved to the Thursday before to avoid fasting on Shabbat.
  • (15 Nisan) — Pesach, Passover or the Feast of Unleavend Bread (Jewish): the major festival of the Hebrew calendar. Jewish families hold a ritual meal, a Seder, and commemorate the Exodus of Israel from Egypt.
  • (21 Nisan) — End of Pesach (Jewish): the time of [[Pesach come to an end.
  • (26 Nisan) — Yom haShoah or Holocaust Day (Jewish): day of remembrance for those who were killed in the Holocaust.

Iyyar

  • (day before Yom haAtzmaut) — Yom haZikaron or Memorial Day (Jewish): day of remembrance for soldiers and civilians who have died in and for Israel.
  • (5 Iyyar /if a Saturday, moved to Thursday before/) — Yom haAtzmaut or Independence Day (Jewish): annual commemoration of the declaration of the independence of Israel in 1948.
  • (14 Iyyar) — Pesach Sheni or Second Passover (Jewish): little celebrated day that provides an alternative night to celebrate Pesach for those who could not do so on the proper night.
  • (18 Iyyar) — Lag ba'Omer or 33rd of the Omer (Jewish): the 33rd day of the counting of the Omer from Pesach; it is a day when bonfires are lit and celebrations are permitted.
  • (28 Iyyar) — Yom Yerushalayim or Jerusalem Day (Jewish): commemoration of the reunification of the city of Jerusalem in 1967 after the Six-Day War.

Sivan

Tammuz

  • (12 Tammuz) — Yud-Beis Tammuz (Chasidic): celebration of the Previous Rebbe's release from Soviet prison in 1927.
  • (17 Tammuz) — Tzom Tammuz or Tammuz Fast (Jewish): a dawn-to-dusk fast in remembrance of the Roman destruction of the outer wall of Jerusalem, the cessation of Temple sacrifices and Moses' breaking the stone tablets of the law. Tzom Tammuz also starts a three-week fast leading up to Tisha b'Av.

Av

  • (1 Av) — Beginning of the Nine Days (Jewish): the beginning of nine days of mourning, leading into Tisha b'Av.
  • (9 Av) — Tisha b'Av (Jewish): fasting observance of the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple, one of the saddest days in Judaism.
  • (15 Av) — Tu b'Av (Jewish): an auspicious day for new beginnings, and a popular day for weddings.

Elul

  • (1 Elul) — New Year for Tithes (Jewish): the traditional date when tithes were reckoned. The age of animals was often reckoned by how many times they had seen 1 Elul.
  • (18 Elul) — Chai Elul (Chasidic): celebration of the birthday of the Baal Shem Tov (1698) and the Alter Rebbe (1745).
  • (Sunday before Rosh Hashanah, or if RH falls on a Monday or Tuesday, the second Sunday before) — Selichot or Penitence (Jewish): on this day, special prayers of penitence begin and continue through to Yom Kippur.

Tishri

Marcheshvan

Kislev

  • (19 Kislev) — Yud-Tes Kislev (Chasidic): celebrating the cancellation of the death sentence passed against the Alter Rebbe by the Russian Tsar, and his release from prison.
  • (25 Kislev) — Chanukkah or Feast of Lights (Jewish): Jewish midwinter festival commemorating the restoration of the Jerusalem Temple to Jewish worship. The festival last eight day in total.

Tevet

Shevat

  • (10 Shevat) — Yud Shevat (Chasidic): commemoration of the yahrzeit, or anniversary of death, of the Previous Rebbe.
  • (15 Shevat) — Tu b'Shevat or the New Year for Trees (Jewish): celebration of the life of trees and their fruit. The Ashkenazim would traditionally eat fifteen different types of fruit on this day. It is a day of rejoicing over the fertility of the land.

Adar Rishon

Adar (Sheni)

  • (13 Adar) — Ta'anit Esther (Jewish): fast day on the day before Purim. This is the day that Haman planned the destruction of the Jews. If Purim falls on a Sunday, Ta'anit Esther moves to the Thursday before.
  • (14 Adar) — Purim or Feast of Lots (Jewish): festival commemorating the victory of Esther and Morechai over the evil Haman.
  • (15 Adar) — Shushan Purim (Jewish): the day after Purim. Walled cities have traditionally celebrated Purim on 15 Adar. This is because Susa, a walled city, was not relieved until a day later than the rest of the Persian Empire. If it falls on a Saturday, it is postponed until the Sunday.

Observances fixed in the Chinese calendar

First month

Second month

Third month

  • (23 Third month) — Festival of Māzŭ (Taoist): birthday festival of the Heavenly Empress and Sea Goddess, protector of fishermen, sailors and immigrants.

Fourth month

Fifth month

Sixth month

Seventh month

  • (7 Seventh month) — Qīxì or the Night of Sevens (Chinese): romantic evening on which the tale of the cowherd and the spinster is told, and girls show of their domestic skills.
  • (9 Seventh month) — Beginning of Ullambana, Obon or Festival of the Hungry Ghosts (Eastern Buddhism): festival of the dead, which involves lighting bonfires, meals, dancing and paper lanterns.
  • (15 Seventh month) — End of Ullambana or Obon (Eastern Buddhism).

Eighth month

Ninth month

Tenth month

Eleventh month

Twelfth month

Observances of the New Paschalion

Observances of the Old Paschalion

Observances fixed in the Indian calendar

Warning: There are so many Indian calendars that it is difficult to know how to manage them. I ahve put together a hypothetical Indian calendar that should be generally correct for determining holidays. I have decided to use the amanta scheme of months, where months are counted from new moon to new moon, and, rather than dividing months into a bright and dark half, I have continued the numbering throughout the month. Thus, 1-15 of a month is in the bright half, and 16-30 is in the dark half. Dates given in the purnimanta scheme will place events in the dark half in the next month. Therefore, Mahashivaratri is counted to be on 29 Magha by me. That is the 14th day of the dark half of Magha, but in the purnimanta it is the 14th day of the dark half of Phalguna. A number of factors can number any day inauspicious, which may mean that it is transferred to a better day.

Chaitra

Vaisakha

  • 15Vesak (Buddhist): commemoration of the birth, enlightenment and death of Gautama Buddha.

Jyaistha

Ashalha

Shravana

Bhadrapada

Ashvina

Kartika

Margasirsha

Pausha

Magha

Phalguna

Indian solar festivals

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