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Ranuccio Farnese was born in Valentano. As a 12-year-old, he was made prior of the Knights of Malta's important property San Giovanni dei Forlani in Venice. Son of Pier Luigi Farnese, the illegitimate son of Pope Paul III, Farnese was created Cardinal at the age of 15 by his grandfather the pope: he was nicknamed the cardinalino ("small cardinal") for his young age.
- http://www.exseminarians.com/rome/Churches/johnlateran.htm (retrieved January 23, 2005)
- http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/consistories-xvi.htm (retrieved January 23, 2005)
- http://www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/gg23/gg23-41320.0.html (retrieved January 23, 2005)