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Ragmala

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Raagmala literally means a beaded string of musical melodies. "Mala" means "a beaded string" and "Raga" is a "musical composition". It is the name given to the last composition in the Guru Granth Sahib appearing after Mundavani (riddle) and a Salok by Guru Arjan Dev. Like Japji Sahib, which appears at the beginning of the Guru Granth Sahib this composition has no heading to show the name of the author.

A few self proclaimed Sikh scholars differ in their opinion about the inclusion of Raagmala in the Granth. It must be noted that the only body which disputes the Ragmala are the Babu Teja Singh and Bhai Sahib Bhai Randhir Singh's Akhand Kirtani Jatha (AKJ). The traditional position among all Sikhs and the official position of all Sikh Gurdwara management committees worldwide including the SGPC in Punjab is that Ragamala is a part of the Guru Granth Sahib and it must be included in all printed copies of this sacred scripture. That is the stand that is taken here as well. Please do not add any disputed points here - Use the Discussion Page to voice your views if they differ from the above.

Raagmala & Raags in SGGS

The Adi Granth contains the following thirty-one ragas (in the serial order):
Sri raga, Manjh, Gauri, Asa, Gujri, Devagandhari, Bihagara, Wadahans, Sorath, Dhanasri, Jaitsri, Todi, Bairari, Tilang, Suhi, Bilaval, Gond (Gaund), Ramkali, Nut-Narayan, Mali-Gaura, Maru, Tukhar, Kedara, Bhairav (Bhairo), Basant, Sarang, Malar, Kanra, Kalyan, Prabhati and Jaijawanti.

But of the above thirty-one ragas, technically only fourteen are ragas and the rest are raginis. It may be noted that no distinction has been made in the scripture between a raga and a ragini.

It should be noted the following raags are mentioned in the section before Sri raga (pages 9 to 13).

  • Raga Gujri (page 10)
  • Raga Gauri dipaki and Asa (page 12) "dipaki" means "of light"
  • Raga Dhanasri and Gauri purbi (page 13) "Purbi" means "eastern"


Ragmala given at the end of the SGGS gives the following eighty-four melodies.

Raag Mala

Six are male (parent) ragas; the thirty raginis are their wives and the remaining forty-eight are their sons. The list is as follows:

  • (1) Bhairao raga

Wives: Bhairavi, Bilawali, Punyaki, Bangli, Aslekhi.
Sons: Pancham, Harakh, Disakh, Bangalam, Maadh, Madhava, Lalat, Bilaval.

  • (2) Malkaus raga

Wives: Gaundkari, Devagandhari, Gandhari, Seehute, Dhanasri.
Sons: Maru, Maastang, Maawara, Parbalchand, Kausak, Khoh, Khat, Bhoranad.

  • (3) Hindol raga

Wives: Telangi, Devkari, Basanti, Sindhoori, Aheeri.
Sons: Surmanand, Bhasker, Chandra-Bimb, Mangalan, Saras-baan, Binoda, Basant, Kamoda.

  • (4) Deepak raga

Wives: Kachheli, Patmanjari, Todi, Kamodi, Gujri.
Sons: Kaalanka, Kuntal, Rama, Kamal-Kusum, Champak, Gaura, Kanra, Kalyana.

  • (5) Sri raga

Wives: Bairare, Karnati, Gavri, Asavari, Sindhve.
Sons: Salu, Sarag, Sagra, Gaund, Gambhir, Gund, Kumbah, Hamir.

  • (6) Megh raga

Wives: Sorath, Gaundi-Malari, Asa, Gunguni, Soohou.
Sons: Bayra-dhar, Gaj-dhar, Kedara, Jabli-dhar, Nut, Jal-dhara, Sankar, Syama.


Raags in Guru Granth Sahib

If we compare the above scheme with the ragas of the Guru Granth Sahib, we find that only two major ragas - Sri raga and Bhairav have been included in the Scripture. The remaining male parent ragas, namely Malkaus, Hindol, Deepak and Megh have been excluded. Sri raga is the first raga in the Scripture instead of Bhairav raga of the Ragmala. Asawari used in the Scripture as a part of Asa raga is according to ragmala the wife of Sri raga. The following eleven wives (raginis) and eight sons of the parent-ragas are included in the Scripture:

23 raags that are utilised in the SGGS are mentioned in the Raagmala.

There are 8 raags that are utilised in the SGGS that have not been mentioned in the Raagmala. These are: Bihagara, Wadahans, Manjh, Jaitsri, Ramkali, Tukhari, Prabhati and Jaijawanti.

Note:

  • Mali-Gaura is not included in Ragmala but Gaura is. "Mali" means gardener.

See Also

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This page uses content from the English Sikhi Wiki. The original article was at Ragmala. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with the Religion-wiki, the text of Sikhi Wiki is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.

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