Psilocybe naematoliformis, is a species of fungus in the mushroom family Strophariaceae. It is a psilocybin mushroom, having psilocybin and psilocin as the main active hallucinogenic compounds. It was originally found by mycologist Gastón Guzmán in a tropical rain forest at Uxpanapa Region, in the State of Veracruz in southeastern Mexico. P. naematoliformi is in the section Neocaledonicae, a grouping of related fungi in the Psilocybe genus; other members of the section include Psilocybe aequatoriae (Ecuador), Psilocybe neocaledonicu'm (New Caledonia), and Psilocybe neorhombispora (Mexico).
The cap is 1–3 cm in diameter, bell-shaped to subumbonate, smooth, and slightly slimy but soon dry. The color may range from a pale orange-brown to a deep rusty brown. It is hygrophanous, fading to buff; the color is blackish brown when dry, and slightly transluscent-striate when wet. Like other hallucinogenic psilocybes, it stains blue when bruised or injured. The gills are adnate in attachment to the stem, or may be notched at the point of attachment (sinuate). They are narrow, and brownish violet to dark violet, with whitish edges. The stem is 35–55 tall by 1–3 mm thick, subequal, flexuous, and hollow. The color of the stem is reddish-brown or brownish; it is covered densely with silk-like fibers, for with tufts of soft woolly hairs. The veil does not form an annulus. The taste of this species has been described as slightly bitter, and the smell slightly farinaceous, like grain.
The spores have dimensions of (3.8)4.9–5.5(6.6) by (3.3)4.4–5(6.6) by 3.8–4.4 μm, sublentiform (shaped somewhat like a lens) in face view or roughly elliptic in side view, with an inconspicuous hilar appendage. They have a distinct germ pore in the base, and are smooth and thick-walled. The basidia, the spore-bearing cells, are 12–19 by 4.4–5.5 μm, and hyaline. The pleurocystidia are 15–29 x 5.5–8.8 μm; they are brown in color, similar to the species Psilocybe subaeruginosa Clel. from Australia. The cheilocystidia are 12–28 by 5.5–7.7 μm, hyaline, and very numerous.
Habitat and distribution
Psilocybe naematoliformis is found growing in small groups, in tufts or clumps, on disturbed places of the virgin tropical rain forest; it grows in soil with a few herbaceous plants. This species was originally found in Mexico, State of Veracruz, Uxpanapa region, and recently in Georgia, United States.
- ↑ Guzmán G. (2004). "Revision of the classification of the genus Psilocybe I. Section Neocaledonicae, a new section in Psilocybe. Revista Mexicana de Micologia 18: 27–29.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Guzmán, Gaston (2008). A Compilation of All Described Species in the Section Neocaledonicae. PDF
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Guzmán G. (1979). "Observations on the evolution of Psilocybe and description of four new hallucinogenic species from Mexican tropical forests". Beihefte zur Sydowia Annales Mycologici Ser II 8: 168–181.
- Guzmán, G. The Genus Psilocybe: A Systematic Revision of the Known Species Including the History, Distribution and Chemistry of the Hallucinogenic Species. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia Heft 74. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Germany (1983) [now out of print].
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