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Pope Urban I

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Urban I
UrbanI
Papacy began 222
Papacy ended 230
Predecessor Callixtus I
Successor Pontian
Personal details
Birth name Urban
Born Unknown
Rome, Roman Empire
Died 230
Rome, Roman Empire
Other Popes named Urban
Styles of
Pope Urban I
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style Saint
"Saint Urban" redirects here. For other saints with this name, see Saint Urban (disambiguation).

Pope Saint Urban I was pope from 14 October 222 to 230. He was born in Rome, Roman Empire and succeeded St. Callixtus I who had been martyred. For centuries it was believed that Urban too was martyred, however recent historical discoveries now lead scholars to believe that he died of natural causes.

Much of Urban's life is shrouded in mystery, leading to many myths and misconceptions. Despite the lack of sources he is the first Pope whose reign can be definitely dated.[1] Two prominent sources do exist for Urban's pontificate: Eusebius' history of the early Church and also an inscription in the Coemeterium Callisti which names the Pope.

Urban ascended to the Chair of Saint Peter in the year of the Roman Emperor Elagabalus' assassination and served during the reign of Alexander Severus. It is believed that Urban's pontificate was during a peaceful time for Christians in the Empire as Severus did not promote the persecution of Christianity.

Urban is a canonized saint of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Papacy

It is believed that the heretic Hippolytus was still leading a rival Christian Congregation in Rome, and that he published the Philosophumena, an attack on Pope Urban's predecessor Callixtus.[2] Urban is said to have maintained the hostile policy of Callixtus when dealing with the schismatic party.

Due to the relative freedoms the Christian community had during Severus' reign the Church in Rome grew, leading to the belief that Urban was a skilled Converter.[2] A Papal decree concerning the donations of the faithful at Mass is attributed to Pope Urban:

"The gifts of the faithful that are offered to the Lord can only be used for ecclesiastical purposes, for the common good of the Christian community, and for the poor; for they are the consecrated gifts of the faithful, the atonement offering of sinners, and the patrimony of the needy."[3]

Pope Urban I's feast day is on 25 May [4] and he is invoked against storm and lightning and represented by: Vine and grapes; a fallen idol beneath broken column; a scourge; a stake and his severed head.

Tomb

The location of Urban's burial site was shrouded in mystery for centuries after his death. It had been believed that he was buried in the Coemetarium Praetextati where a tomb was inscribed with his name. However when excavating the Catacomb of Callixtus Italian archaeologist Giovanni de Rossi uncovered the lid of a sarcophagus which suggested that Pope Urban was in fact buried there. De Rossi also found a list of martyrs and confessors who were buried St. Callistus', which contained Urban's name. De Rossi therefore concluded that the Urban buried in the Coemetarium Praetextati was another bishop and Pope Urban was located in St. Callistus' Catacomb. While many historians accept this belief doubt remains. The basis for this is because Pope Sixtus III's list of saints buried in St. Callistus' Catacomb does not include Urban in the succession of Popes but rather in a list of foreign bishops. Therefore it is possible that Pope Urban is indeed buried in the Coemetarium Praetextati.[2][5]

Legends and myths

Św Urban figura Cieszowa 254

Pope Urban wearing the Papal Tiara

As no contemporary accounts of Urban's pontificate exist there have been many legends and acts attributed to him which are fictitious or difficult to ascertain the factual nature of. The legendary Acts of St. Cecilia and the Liber Pontificalis both contain information on Urban, although of doubtable accuracy.

A story that was once included in the Catholic Church's Breviary states that Saint Urban had many converts among whom were Tiburtius and his brother Valerianus, husband of Saint Cecilia. Tradition credits Saint Urban with the miracle of toppling an idol through prayer.[6] This event is believed to have led to Saint Urban being beaten and tortured before being sentenced to death by beheading.

A further belief, now known as an invention from the sixth century, was that Urban had ordered the making of silver liturgical vessels and the patens for twenty-five titular churches of his own time.

Art

Urban is found in various pieces of artwork usually in one of two forms. Often he is found sitting wearing the Papal Tiara, Papal robes and holding a sword pointed towards the ground. An example of such a depiction. Otherwise Urban may be portrayed wearing Papal garb and a Bishop's Mitre while holding a bible and a bunch of grapes.[7][8] An image of Pope Saint Urbanus (or Urban/Urbain) is on a 12th century fresco at Chalivoy-Milon in the Berry Art Gallery.[9]

Other less common depictions of Pope Urban are:

  • after his beheading, with the papal tiara near him.
  • as idols fall from a column while he is beheaded;
  • scourged at the stake;
  • seated in a landscape as a young man (Saint Valerian) kneels before him and a priest holds a book.

Notes

  1. Kung, Hans. The Catholic Church: A Short History. New York; The Modern Library, 2003, p. 41
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Pope Urban I". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15209a.htm. 
  3. Roman Breviary
  4. Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)
  5. Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 124
  6. Roman Breviary: Saint Urban began to make his orison to God; and anon the idol fell down and slew twenty-two priests of the law that held fire for to make sacrifice.
  7. Portrait of Urban
  8. Portrait of Urban
  9. Image of Pope Saint Urbanus


Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Callixtus I
Bishop of Rome
Pope

222–230
Succeeded by
Pontian


Popes of the Roman Catholic Church
PeterLinusAnacletusClement IEvaristusAlexander ISixtus ITelesphorusHyginusPius IAnicetusSoterEleuterusVictor IZephyrinusCallixtus IUrban IPontianAnterusFabianCorneliusLucius IStephen ISixtus IIDionysiusFelix IEutychianCaiusMarcellinusMarcellus IEusebiusMiltiadesSilvester IMarkJulius ILiberiusDamasus ISiriciusAnastasius IInnocent IZosimusBoniface ICelestine ISixtus IIILeo IHilariusSimpliciusFelix IIIGelasius IAnastasius IISymmachusHormisdasJohn IFelix IVBoniface IIJohn IIAgapetus ISilveriusVigiliusPelagius IJohn IIIBenedict IPelagius IIGregory ISabinianBoniface IIIBoniface IVAdeodatus IBoniface VHonorius ISeverinusJohn IVTheodore IMartin IEugene IVitalianAdeodatus IIDonusAgathoLeo IIBenedict IIJohn VCononSergius IJohn VIJohn VIISisinniusConstantineGregory IIGregory IIIZacharyStephen IIPaul IStephen IIIAdrian ILeo IIIStephen IVPaschal IEugene IIValentineGregory IVSergius IILeo IVBenedict IIINicholas IAdrian IIJohn VIIIMarinus IAdrian IIIStephen VFormosusBoniface VIStephen VIRomanusTheodore IIJohn IXBenedict IVLeo VSergius IIIAnastasius IIILandoJohn XLeo VIStephen VIIJohn XILeo VIIStephen VIIIMarinus IIAgapetus IIJohn XIILeo VIIIBenedict VJohn XIIIBenedict VIBenedict VIIJohn XIVJohn XVGregory VSilvester IIJohn XVIIJohn XVIIISergius IVBenedict VIIIJohn XIXBenedict IXSilvester IIIBenedict IXGregory VIClement IIBenedict IXDamasus IILeo IXVictor IIStephen IXNicholas IIAlexander IIGregory VIIVictor IIIUrban IIPaschal IIGelasius IICallixtus IIHonorius IIInnocent IICelestine IILucius IIEugene IIIAnastasius IVAdrian IVAlexander IIILucius IIIUrban IIIGregory VIIIClement IIICelestine IIIInnocent IIIHonorius IIIGregory IXCelestine IVInnocent IVAlexander IVUrban IVClement IVGregory XInnocent VAdrian VJohn XXINicholas IIIMartin IVHonorius IVNicholas IVCelestine VBoniface VIIIBenedict XIClement VJohn XXIIBenedict XIIClement VIInnocent VIUrban VGregory XIUrban VIBoniface IXInnocent VIIGregory XIIMartin VEugene IVNicholas VCallixtus IIIPius IIPaul IISixtus IVInnocent VIIIAlexander VIPius IIIJulius IILeo XAdrian VIClement VIIPaul IIIJulius IIIMarcellus IIPaul IVPius IVPius VGregory XIIISixtus VUrban VIIGregory XIVInnocent IXClement VIIILeo XIPaul VGregory XVUrban VIIIInnocent XAlexander VIIClement IXClement XInnocent XIAlexander VIIIInnocent XIIClement XIInnocent XIIIBenedict XIIIClement XIIBenedict XIVClement XIIIClement XIVPius VIPius VIILeo XIIPius VIIIGregory XVIPius IXLeo XIIIPius XBenedict XVPius XIPius XIIJohn XXIIIPaul VIJohn Paul IJohn Paul IIBenedict XVI



af:Pous Urbanus I

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