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|Papacy began||August 3, 1057|
|Papacy ended||March 29, 1058|
|Birth name||Frédéric de Lorraine|
Duchy of Lorraine, Holy Roman Empire
March 29, 1058|
Florence, Italy, Holy Roman Empire
|Other Popes named Stephen|
His baptismal name was Frederick of Lorraine (French: Frédéric de Lorraine), and he was a younger brother of Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine, who, as Marquis of Tuscany (by his marriage with Beatrice of Bar, widow of Boniface III of Tuscany), played a prominent part in the politics of the period.
Frederick, who had been raised to the cardinalate by Pope Leo IX (1049–54), discharged for some time the function of papal legate at Constantinople, and was with Leo IX in his unlucky expedition against the Normans. He shared the vicissitudes of his brother's fortunes, and at one time had to take refuge from Emperor Henry II (1002–24) in Monte Cassino. Five days after the death of Pope Victor II (who had made him cardinal-priest and abbot of Monte Cassino) he was chosen to succeed him as Pope Stephen IX . He showed great zeal in enforcing the policies of the Gregorian Reform as to clerical celibacy, and was planning large schemes for the expulsion of the Normans from Italy, and the elevation of his brother to the imperial throne, when he was seized by a severe illness, from which he only partially and temporarily recovered. Stephen IX died at Florence March 29, 1058, and is considered by the current-day Roman Catholic Church to have been succeeded by Pope Nicholas II (1059–61), though others consider his successor to be Pope Benedict X (1058–59), officially regarded as an antipope.
- ↑ Mittermaier, Karl (2006). Die deutschen Päpste. Benedikt XVI. und seine deutschen Vorgänger. pp. 102.
- ↑ He explicitly took the name and the number IX. He signed all his official documents Stephanus Nonus Papa (Stephen Ninth Pope), although some lists called him Stephen X from the second half of the 16th century to the first half of 20th.
- Adapted from the 9th edition (1888) of the Encyclopædia Britannica
|Catholic Church titles|
| Succeeded by|
ca:Esteve IX cs:Štěpán IX.eo:Stefano la 9-a fa:استفان نهمgl:Estevo IX, papa ko:교황 스테파노 9세 hr:Stjepan IX. id:Paus Stefanus IXjv:Paus Stephanus X sw:Papa Stefano IX la:Stephanus X lt:Steponas IX hu:X. István pápa mk:Папа Стефан IX mr:पोप स्टीवन नववाno:Stefan IXpt:Papa Estêvão X ro:Papa Ştefan al IX-lea ru:Стефан IX (X) (папа римский) fi:Stefanus IX sv:Stefan IX tl:Esteban IX th:สมเด็จพระสันตะปาปาสตีเฟนที่ 9 uk:Стефан IX (X) war:Papa Esteban IX zh:司提反十世