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The name and its connotations
Out of respect for the Apostle Saint Peter, who is seen by Catholics as the first Pope, no Pope has ever adopted the name Peter II. It is considered unlikely that any future pope would choose the name. Many popes have, however, had Peter as their baptismal name, most recently Pope Benedict XIII (Pietro Orsini).
The likelihood of such a choice is further diminished by the final passage of the Prophecy of the Popes attributed to St. Malachy, a text which is well-known in Catholic circles, though having no official standing. The Prophecy refers to a Petrus Romanus (Peter the Roman) as the final Pope: he would "feed his sheep in many tribulations" and in the days of the "final persecution." This text invests the name of Peter II with an apocalyptic connotation.
The name Peter II has been adopted by several modern-day antipopes, particularly those whose claim to the papacy derives from a claimed personal divine revelation. The most famous of these is Manuel Alonso Corral of the Palmarian Catholic Church, though Corral explicitly denies that he is Petrus Romanus of the Prophecy of the Popes.
In the Left Behind series, Peter Mathews, a corrupt Catholic Bishop, is elected Pope Peter II and subsequently becomes a leader of the Enigma Babylon One World Faith. This is a deliberate inversion of the passage from Prophecy of the Popes.