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Pope Innocent II

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Innocent II
B Innozenz II
Papacy began February 14, 1130
Papacy ended September 24, 1143
Predecessor Honorius II
Successor Celestine II
Personal details
Birth name Gregorio Papareschi
Born ???
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died September 24, 1143
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other Popes named Innocent

Pope Innocent II (died September 24, 1143), born Gregorio Papareschi, was pope from 1130 to 1143, and was probably one of the clergy in personal attendance on the antipope Clement III (Guibert of Ravenna).

Early years

Papareschi came from a Roman family, probably of the rione Trastevere.

Pope Paschal II (1099–1118) made him a cardinal deacon. In this capacity, he accompanied Pope Gelasius II (1118–19) when he was driven into France.[1] By Pope Calixtus II (1119–24) he was selected for various important and difficult missions, such as the one to Worms for concluding the Concordat of Worms, the peace accord with the emperor, in 1122, and the one to France in 1123.



B Innozenz II1

Detail from a mosaic in the church Santa Maria in Trastevere, rebuilt by Innocent, 1140-43: the Pope, holding a model of the church in his arms, stands at the far left, beside Sts. Laurentius and Calixtus.

In 1130, as Pope Honorius II lay dying, the cardinals decided to entrust the election to a commission of eight men, led by papal chancellor Haimeric, who had his candidate Cardinal Gregory Papareschi hastily elected as Pope Innocent II.[2] He was consecrated on February 14, the day after Honorius' death. The other cardinals announced that Innocent had not been canonically elected and chose Cardinal Pietro Pierleoni, a Roman whose family were the enemy of Haimeric's supporters, the Frangipani; Pierleoni took the name Pope Anacletus II. Anacletus' mixed group of supporters were powerful enough to take control of Rome while Innocent was forced to flee north. Based on a simple majority of the entire college of cardinals, Anacletus was the canonically elected pope, and Innocent was the anti-Pope. However, the legislation of Pope Nicholas II (in the famous decree of 1059) pre-empted the choice of the majority of the cardinal priests and cardinal deacons. This rule was changed by the Second Lateran council of 1139.

Anacletus had control of Rome, so Innocent II took ship for Pisa, and thence sailed by way of Genoa to France, where the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux readily secured his cordial recognition by the clergy and the court. In October of the same year he was duly acknowledged by Lothar III of Germany and his bishops at the synod of Würzburg. In January 1131, he had also a favourable interview with Henry I of England (1100–35); and in August 1132 Lothar III undertook an expedition to Italy for the double purpose of setting aside Anacletus as antipope and of being crowned by Innocent. Anacletus and his supporters being in secure control of the St. Peter's Basilica, the coronation ultimately took place in the Lateran Church (June 4, 1133), but otherwise the expedition proved abortive. At the investiture of Lothair as Emperor he gained the territories belonging to Matilda of Tuscany, in return for an annuity to be paid to the pope, in consequence of which the curial party based the contention that the Emperor was a vassal of the Papal see.[3]

A second expedition by Lothar III in 1136 was not more decisive in its results, and the protracted struggle between the rival pontiffs was terminated only by the death of Anacletus II on January 25, 1138.

Innocent took as cardinal-nephew first his nephew, also Gregorio Papareschi, whom he elevated to cardinal in 1134, and then his brother Pietro Papareschi, whom he elevated to cardinal in 1142.[4] Another nephew, Cinzio Papareschi (died 1182), was also a cardinal, raised to the cardinalate in 1158, after Innocent's death.[5]

Second Lateran Council

By the Second Lateran council of 1139, at which Roger II of Sicily (1130–54), Innocent II's most uncompromising foe, was excommunicated, peace was at last restored to the Church. Aside from the complete rebuilding of the ancient Santa Maria in Trastevere, which boldly features Ionic capitals from former colonnades in the Baths of Caracalla and other richly detailed spolia from Roman monuments,[6] the remaining years of this Pope's life were almost as barren of permanent political results as the first had been. His efforts to undo the mischief wrought in Rome by the long schism were almost entirely neutralized by a struggle with the town of Tivoli in which he became involved— to the dissatisfaction of the Roman factions that wished Tivoli annihilated and took up arms against Innocent— and by a quarrel with his erstwhile supporter, Louis VII of France (1137–80) over the candidate for archbishop of Bourges, in the course of which that kingdom was laid under an interdict to press for the papal candidate.

Treaty of Mignano

On March 22, 1939, at Galluccio, Roger's son Roger III, Duke of Apulia ambushed the papal troops with a thousand knights and captured Innocent. On March 25, 1139, Innocent was forced to acknowledge the kingship and possessions of Roger with the Treaty of Mignano. In 1143, Innocent refused to recognise the Treaty of Mignano with Roger of Sicily, who sent Robert of Selby to march on papal Benevento. The terms agreed upon at Mignano were recognised. Innocent II died on September 24, 1143, and was succeeded by Pope Celestine II (1143–44).

The doctrinal questions which he was called on to decide were those that condemned the opinions of Pierre Abélard and of Arnold of Brescia.

In 1143, as the Pope lay dying, the Commune of Rome, to resist papal power, began deliberations that officially reinstated the Roman Senate the following year. The Pope was interred in a porphyry sarcophagus that contemporary tradition asserted had been the Emperor Hadrian's.


  1. New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, vol. 5, s.v. "Onnocent II" (on-line text).
  2. The Historia Compostelana, composed in Galicia (Spain) for the bishop of Santiago de Compostela, provides information on the details of the disputed election of 1130.
  3. Schaff-Herzog, ibid.
  4. Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "XII Century (1099-1198)."
  5. Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "XII Century (1099-1198)."
  6. Dale Kinney, "Spolia from the Baths of Caracalla in Sta. Maria in Trastevere", The Art Bulletin 68.3 (September 1986:379-397).


  1. New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, vol. 5, s.v. "Onnocent II" (on-line text).
  2. The Historia Compostelana, composed in Galicia (Spain) for the bishop of Santiago de Compostela, provides information on the details of the disputed election of 1130.
  3. Schaff-Herzog, ibid.
  4. Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "XII Century (1099-1198)."
  5. Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "XII Century (1099-1198)."
  6. Dale Kinney, "Spolia from the Baths of Caracalla in Sta. Maria in Trastevere", The Art Bulletin 68.3 (September 1986:379-397).

See also

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Honorius II
Succeeded by
Celestine II

Popes of the Roman Catholic Church
PeterLinusAnacletusClement IEvaristusAlexander ISixtus ITelesphorusHyginusPius IAnicetusSoterEleuterusVictor IZephyrinusCallixtus IUrban IPontianAnterusFabianCorneliusLucius IStephen ISixtus IIDionysiusFelix IEutychianCaiusMarcellinusMarcellus IEusebiusMiltiadesSilvester IMarkJulius ILiberiusDamasus ISiriciusAnastasius IInnocent IZosimusBoniface ICelestine ISixtus IIILeo IHilariusSimpliciusFelix IIIGelasius IAnastasius IISymmachusHormisdasJohn IFelix IVBoniface IIJohn IIAgapetus ISilveriusVigiliusPelagius IJohn IIIBenedict IPelagius IIGregory ISabinianBoniface IIIBoniface IVAdeodatus IBoniface VHonorius ISeverinusJohn IVTheodore IMartin IEugene IVitalianAdeodatus IIDonusAgathoLeo IIBenedict IIJohn VCononSergius IJohn VIJohn VIISisinniusConstantineGregory IIGregory IIIZacharyStephen IIPaul IStephen IIIAdrian ILeo IIIStephen IVPaschal IEugene IIValentineGregory IVSergius IILeo IVBenedict IIINicholas IAdrian IIJohn VIIIMarinus IAdrian IIIStephen VFormosusBoniface VIStephen VIRomanusTheodore IIJohn IXBenedict IVLeo VSergius IIIAnastasius IIILandoJohn XLeo VIStephen VIIJohn XILeo VIIStephen VIIIMarinus IIAgapetus IIJohn XIILeo VIIIBenedict VJohn XIIIBenedict VIBenedict VIIJohn XIVJohn XVGregory VSilvester IIJohn XVIIJohn XVIIISergius IVBenedict VIIIJohn XIXBenedict IXSilvester IIIBenedict IXGregory VIClement IIBenedict IXDamasus IILeo IXVictor IIStephen IXNicholas IIAlexander IIGregory VIIVictor IIIUrban IIPaschal IIGelasius IICallixtus IIHonorius IIInnocent IICelestine IILucius IIEugene IIIAnastasius IVAdrian IVAlexander IIILucius IIIUrban IIIGregory VIIIClement IIICelestine IIIInnocent IIIHonorius IIIGregory IXCelestine IVInnocent IVAlexander IVUrban IVClement IVGregory XInnocent VAdrian VJohn XXINicholas IIIMartin IVHonorius IVNicholas IVCelestine VBoniface VIIIBenedict XIClement VJohn XXIIBenedict XIIClement VIInnocent VIUrban VGregory XIUrban VIBoniface IXInnocent VIIGregory XIIMartin VEugene IVNicholas VCallixtus IIIPius IIPaul IISixtus IVInnocent VIIIAlexander VIPius IIIJulius IILeo XAdrian VIClement VIIPaul IIIJulius IIIMarcellus IIPaul IVPius IVPius VGregory XIIISixtus VUrban VIIGregory XIVInnocent IXClement VIIILeo XIPaul VGregory XVUrban VIIIInnocent XAlexander VIIClement IXClement XInnocent XIAlexander VIIIInnocent XIIClement XIInnocent XIIIBenedict XIIIClement XIIBenedict XIVClement XIIIClement XIVPius VIPius VIILeo XIIPius VIIIGregory XVIPius IXLeo XIIIPius XBenedict XVPius XIPius XIIJohn XXIIIPaul VIJohn Paul IJohn Paul IIBenedict XVI

af:Pous Innocentius II

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