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Pope Clement III

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Clement III
B Clemens III
Papacy began December 19, 1187
Papacy ended March 20, 1191
Predecessor Gregory VIII
Successor Celestine III
Personal details
Birth name Paulino or Paolo Scolari
Born 1130
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died March 20, 1191[1]
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other Popes named Clement
See also, 11th century antipope Clement III.

Pope Clement III (1130 – March 20, 1191), born Paulino (or Paolo) Scolari,[2] was elected Pope on December 19, 1187 and reigned until his death.


A Roman by birth, he was made in succession, by Pope Alexander III, Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica, Cardinal-deacon of Sergio e Bacco, and finally Cardinal bishop of Palestrina in December 1180.


He subscribed the papal bulls between October 15, 1179 and December 11, 1187.
[clarification needed]

Shortly after his accession, he succeeded in allaying the conflict which had existed for half a century between the Popes and the citizens of Rome, with an agreement by which the citizens were allowed to elect their magistrates, while the nomination of the governor of the city remained in the hands of the Pope. On 31 May 1188 he concluded a treaty with the Romans which removed long standing difficulties, thus returning the Papacy to Rome.[3]

Clement also inherited a depleted college of cardinals, consisting of no more than twenty cardinals. He orchestrated three series of promotions: March 1188, May 1189 and October 1190, resulting in over thirty new cardinals.[4]

He persuaded Henry II of England and Philip II of France to undertake the Third Crusade.[5] In April 1189, Clement made peace with the Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa.

He settled a controversy with William I of Scotland concerning the choice of the archbishop of St. Andrews, and on 13 March 1188 removed the Scottish church from under the legatine jurisdiction of the archbishop of York, thus making it independent of all save Rome.[6]

In spite of agreeing to crown Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Clement III angered Henry VI of Germany by bestowing Sicily on Tancred.[7] The crisis was acute when the Pope died in the latter part of March 1191.


  1. About the date of his death see Katrin Baaken: Zu Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III. Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters Volume 41 / 1985, pp. 203-211
  2. Cheetham, Nicolas, Keepers of the Keys, (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1982), 325.
  3. The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, Ed. David Luscombe and Jonathan Riley-Smith, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 402.
  4. Robinson, Ian Stuart, The papacy 1073-1198: continuity and innovation, (Cambridge University Press, 1990), 55.
  5. Reston, James, Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade, (Random House Inc., 2001), 106.
  6. Blair, D. Oswald Hunter, History of the Catholic Church of Scotland, (Willian Blackwood and Sons, 1887), 329.
  7. Benson, Robert Louis and Robert Charles Figueira, Plenitude of power: the doctrines and exercise of authority in the Middle Ages, (Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2006), 40.


  • Benson, Robert Louis and Robert Charles Figueira, Plenitude of power: the doctrines and exercise of authority in the Middle Ages, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2006.
  • Blair, D. Oswald Hunter, History of the Catholic Church of Scotland, Willian Blackwood and Sons, 1887.
  • Wikisource-logo "Pope Clement III" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  • Cheetham, Nicolas, Keepers of the Keys, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1982.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Reston, James, Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade, Random House Inc., 2001.
  • Robinson, Ian Stuart, The Papacy, 1073-1198: Continuity and Innovation, Cambridge University Press 1990.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Gregory VIII
Succeeded by
Celestine III

Popes of the Roman Catholic Church
PeterLinusAnacletusClement IEvaristusAlexander ISixtus ITelesphorusHyginusPius IAnicetusSoterEleuterusVictor IZephyrinusCallixtus IUrban IPontianAnterusFabianCorneliusLucius IStephen ISixtus IIDionysiusFelix IEutychianCaiusMarcellinusMarcellus IEusebiusMiltiadesSilvester IMarkJulius ILiberiusDamasus ISiriciusAnastasius IInnocent IZosimusBoniface ICelestine ISixtus IIILeo IHilariusSimpliciusFelix IIIGelasius IAnastasius IISymmachusHormisdasJohn IFelix IVBoniface IIJohn IIAgapetus ISilveriusVigiliusPelagius IJohn IIIBenedict IPelagius IIGregory ISabinianBoniface IIIBoniface IVAdeodatus IBoniface VHonorius ISeverinusJohn IVTheodore IMartin IEugene IVitalianAdeodatus IIDonusAgathoLeo IIBenedict IIJohn VCononSergius IJohn VIJohn VIISisinniusConstantineGregory IIGregory IIIZacharyStephen IIPaul IStephen IIIAdrian ILeo IIIStephen IVPaschal IEugene IIValentineGregory IVSergius IILeo IVBenedict IIINicholas IAdrian IIJohn VIIIMarinus IAdrian IIIStephen VFormosusBoniface VIStephen VIRomanusTheodore IIJohn IXBenedict IVLeo VSergius IIIAnastasius IIILandoJohn XLeo VIStephen VIIJohn XILeo VIIStephen VIIIMarinus IIAgapetus IIJohn XIILeo VIIIBenedict VJohn XIIIBenedict VIBenedict VIIJohn XIVJohn XVGregory VSilvester IIJohn XVIIJohn XVIIISergius IVBenedict VIIIJohn XIXBenedict IXSilvester IIIBenedict IXGregory VIClement IIBenedict IXDamasus IILeo IXVictor IIStephen IXNicholas IIAlexander IIGregory VIIVictor IIIUrban IIPaschal IIGelasius IICallixtus IIHonorius IIInnocent IICelestine IILucius IIEugene IIIAnastasius IVAdrian IVAlexander IIILucius IIIUrban IIIGregory VIIIClement IIICelestine IIIInnocent IIIHonorius IIIGregory IXCelestine IVInnocent IVAlexander IVUrban IVClement IVGregory XInnocent VAdrian VJohn XXINicholas IIIMartin IVHonorius IVNicholas IVCelestine VBoniface VIIIBenedict XIClement VJohn XXIIBenedict XIIClement VIInnocent VIUrban VGregory XIUrban VIBoniface IXInnocent VIIGregory XIIMartin VEugene IVNicholas VCallixtus IIIPius IIPaul IISixtus IVInnocent VIIIAlexander VIPius IIIJulius IILeo XAdrian VIClement VIIPaul IIIJulius IIIMarcellus IIPaul IVPius IVPius VGregory XIIISixtus VUrban VIIGregory XIVInnocent IXClement VIIILeo XIPaul VGregory XVUrban VIIIInnocent XAlexander VIIClement IXClement XInnocent XIAlexander VIIIInnocent XIIClement XIInnocent XIIIBenedict XIIIClement XIIBenedict XIVClement XIIIClement XIVPius VIPius VIILeo XIIPius VIIIGregory XVIPius IXLeo XIIIPius XBenedict XVPius XIPius XIIJohn XXIIIPaul VIJohn Paul IJohn Paul IIBenedict XVI

af:Pous Clemens III

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