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Pope Celestine III

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Celestine III
File:Celestin III.JPG
Papacy began March 21, 1191
Papacy ended January 8, 1198
Predecessor Clement III
Successor Innocent III
Personal details
Birth name Giacinto Bobone
Born ca. 1106
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died January 8, 1198
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other Popes named Celestine

Pope Celestine III (Rome, c. 1106 – January 8, 1198), born Giacinto Bobone,[1] was elected Pope on March 21, 1191, and reigned until his death. He was born into the noble Orsini family, though he was only a cardinal deacon before becoming Pope.[2] He was ordained a priest on April 13, 1191, ruled the church six years, nine months, and nine days (though believed to have been about eighty five when elected), died January 8, 1198, and was buried at the Lateran.

Cardinal

Considered by the Curia as an expert on Spain, Giacinto, as Cardinal Deacon of St.Maria at Cosmedin, conducted two legatine missions to Spain in (1154-1155) and (1172-1175).[3]

Pope

He crowned the Emperor Henry VI (1190–97) on the day after his election with a ceremony symbolizing his absolute supremacy, as described by Roger of Hoveden, who is believed (more reasonably as it would seem) by Baronius, but discredited by Natalis Alexander. He subsequently excommunicated the same Henry VI for wrongfully keeping Richard I of England (1189–99) in prison.[4] He place Pisa under an interdict, which was lifted by his successor Innocent III in 1198.[5] He condemned Alfonso IX's marriage to Teresa of Portugal on the grounds of consanguinity. Then, in 1196, he excommunicated Alfonso IX for making peace with the Muslims while making war on Castile. Following the marriage between Alfonso and Berenguela of Castile, Celestine excommunicated Alfonso and placed an interdict over Leon.[6]

In 1198, he confirmed the statutes of the Teutonic Knights as a military order.[7]

He would have resigned the Papacy, and recommended a successor (Cardinal Giovanni di San Paolo, OSB) shortly before his death, but was not allowed to do so by the cardinals.

Notes

  1. The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, Ed. David Luscombe, Jonathan Riley-Smith, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 417.
  2. The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, 417
  3. The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, 417-418.
  4. Sikes, Thomas Burr, History of the Christian Church, from the first to the fifteenth century, (Eliott Stock, 1885), 187.
  5. Clarke, Peter D., The interdict in the thirteenth century: a question of collective guilt, (Oxford University Press, 2007), 118.
  6. Moore, John Clare, Pope Innocent III (1160/61-1216): to root up and to plant, (BRILL, 2003), 70-71.
  7. Urban, William, The Teutonic Knights, (Greenhill Books, 2003), 12-13.

References

  • Clarke, Peter D., The interdict in the thirteenth century: a question of collective guilt, Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Moore, John Clare, Pope Innocent III (1160/61-1216): to root up and to plant, BRILL, 2003.
  • Sikes, Thomas Burr, History of the Christian Church, from the first to the fifteenth century, Eliott Stock, 1885.
  • The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, Ed. David Luscombe, Jonathan Riley-Smith, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Urban, William, The Teutonic Knights, Greenhill Books, 2003.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Clement III
Pope
1191–98
Succeeded by
Innocent III


Popes of the Roman Catholic Church
PeterLinusAnacletusClement IEvaristusAlexander ISixtus ITelesphorusHyginusPius IAnicetusSoterEleuterusVictor IZephyrinusCallixtus IUrban IPontianAnterusFabianCorneliusLucius IStephen ISixtus IIDionysiusFelix IEutychianCaiusMarcellinusMarcellus IEusebiusMiltiadesSilvester IMarkJulius ILiberiusDamasus ISiriciusAnastasius IInnocent IZosimusBoniface ICelestine ISixtus IIILeo IHilariusSimpliciusFelix IIIGelasius IAnastasius IISymmachusHormisdasJohn IFelix IVBoniface IIJohn IIAgapetus ISilveriusVigiliusPelagius IJohn IIIBenedict IPelagius IIGregory ISabinianBoniface IIIBoniface IVAdeodatus IBoniface VHonorius ISeverinusJohn IVTheodore IMartin IEugene IVitalianAdeodatus IIDonusAgathoLeo IIBenedict IIJohn VCononSergius IJohn VIJohn VIISisinniusConstantineGregory IIGregory IIIZacharyStephen IIPaul IStephen IIIAdrian ILeo IIIStephen IVPaschal IEugene IIValentineGregory IVSergius IILeo IVBenedict IIINicholas IAdrian IIJohn VIIIMarinus IAdrian IIIStephen VFormosusBoniface VIStephen VIRomanusTheodore IIJohn IXBenedict IVLeo VSergius IIIAnastasius IIILandoJohn XLeo VIStephen VIIJohn XILeo VIIStephen VIIIMarinus IIAgapetus IIJohn XIILeo VIIIBenedict VJohn XIIIBenedict VIBenedict VIIJohn XIVJohn XVGregory VSilvester IIJohn XVIIJohn XVIIISergius IVBenedict VIIIJohn XIXBenedict IXSilvester IIIBenedict IXGregory VIClement IIBenedict IXDamasus IILeo IXVictor IIStephen IXNicholas IIAlexander IIGregory VIIVictor IIIUrban IIPaschal IIGelasius IICallixtus IIHonorius IIInnocent IICelestine IILucius IIEugene IIIAnastasius IVAdrian IVAlexander IIILucius IIIUrban IIIGregory VIIIClement IIICelestine IIIInnocent IIIHonorius IIIGregory IXCelestine IVInnocent IVAlexander IVUrban IVClement IVGregory XInnocent VAdrian VJohn XXINicholas IIIMartin IVHonorius IVNicholas IVCelestine VBoniface VIIIBenedict XIClement VJohn XXIIBenedict XIIClement VIInnocent VIUrban VGregory XIUrban VIBoniface IXInnocent VIIGregory XIIMartin VEugene IVNicholas VCallixtus IIIPius IIPaul IISixtus IVInnocent VIIIAlexander VIPius IIIJulius IILeo XAdrian VIClement VIIPaul IIIJulius IIIMarcellus IIPaul IVPius IVPius VGregory XIIISixtus VUrban VIIGregory XIVInnocent IXClement VIIILeo XIPaul VGregory XVUrban VIIIInnocent XAlexander VIIClement IXClement XInnocent XIAlexander VIIIInnocent XIIClement XIInnocent XIIIBenedict XIIIClement XIIBenedict XIVClement XIIIClement XIVPius VIPius VIILeo XIIPius VIIIGregory XVIPius IXLeo XIIIPius XBenedict XVPius XIPius XIIJohn XXIIIPaul VIJohn Paul IJohn Paul IIBenedict XVI



initial text from the 9th edition (1876) of an old encyclopediaaf:Pous Celestinus III ca:Celestí III cs:Celestýn III.eu:Zelestino III.a fa:سلستین سومgl:Celestino III, papa ko:교황 첼레스티노 3세 hr:Celestin III. id:Paus Selestinus IIIjv:Paus Celestinus III sw:Papa Celestino III la:Caelestinus III lv:Celestīns III lt:Celestinas III hu:III. Celesztin pápa mk:Папа Целестин III mr:पोप सेलेस्टीन तिसराja:ケレスティヌス3世 (ローマ教皇) no:Celestin III nds:Coelestin III.pt:Papa Celestino III ru:Целестин III (папа римский) fi:Celestinus III sv:Celestinus III tl:Celestino III th:สมเด็จพระสันตะปาปาเซเลสทีนที่ 3 uk:Целестин III war:Papa Celestino III zh:雷定三世

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