Early life and ordination
Ordained a priest in 1971, he studied Moral Theology in Rome at the Pontifical Lateran University, obtaining a doctorate in 1977. He taught Moral theology in Kipalapala Theological Seminary for a short time, and then became the first Rector of Segerea Theological Seminary up to 1983.
Cardinal Pengo was proclaimed a Cardinal by Pope John Paul II in the consistory of February 21, 1998. Pengo was one of the cardinal electors who participated in the 2005 papal conclave that elected Pope Benedict XVI.
He has the following Curial Memberships Evangelization of the Peoples, Doctrine of Faith (congregations). Interreligious Dialogue, Culture (councils) Special Council for Africa of the General of the Synod of Bishops.
In 2000, Cardinal Pengo hit out at homosexuality, saying it was one of the most heinous sins on earth. 
Clashes in Tanzania
In 2004, he lashed out at the perpetrators of clashes claiming to pursue a religious cause. 
Church teaching on AIDS
Cardinal Pengo has declared that while the AIDS epidemic cannot be overcome by relying exclusively or primarily on the distribution of prophylactics, only a strategy based on education to individual responsibility in the framework of a moral view of human sexuality. See also Roman Catholic Church and AIDS.
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