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Pinchas, Pinhas, or Pin’has (פנחס — Hebrew for “Phinehas,” a name, the sixth word, and the first distinctive word, in the parshah) is the 41st weekly Torah portion (parshah) in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the eighth in the book of Numbers. It constitutes Jews in the Diaspora generally read it in late June or July.
As the parshah sets out laws for the Jewish holidays, Jews also read parts of the parshah as Torah readings for many Jewish holidays. is the Torah reading for Rosh Chodesh on a weekday (including when the sixth or seventh day of Hanukkah falls on Rosh Chodesh). is the maftir Torah reading for Shabbat Rosh Chodesh. is the maftir Torah reading for the first two days of Passover. is the maftir Torah reading for the intermediate days (chol hamoed) and seventh and eighth days of Passover. is the maftir Torah reading for each day of Shavuot. is the maftir Torah reading for each day of Rosh Hashanah. is the maftir Torah reading for the Yom Kippur morning (Shacharit) service. is the maftir Torah reading for the first two days of Sukkot. is the Torah reading for the first intermediate day of Sukkot. is the Torah reading for the second intermediate day of Sukkot. is the Torah reading for the third intermediate day of Sukkot. is the Torah reading for the fourth intermediate day of Sukkot, as well as for Hoshana Rabbah. And is the maftir Torah reading for both Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah.
After the sin of Baal-Peor
God announced that because Phinehas had displayed his passion for God, God granted Phinehas God’s pact of friendship and priesthood for all time. ( ) God then told Moses to attack the Midianites to repay them for their trickery luring Israelite men to worship Baal-Peor. ( )
- Reuben: 43,730
- Simeon: 22,200
- Gad: 40,500
- Judah: 76,500
- Issachar: 64,300
- Zebulun: 60,500
- Manasseh: 52,700
- Ephraim: 32,500
- Benjamin: 45,600
- Dan: 64,400
- Asher: 53,400
- Naphtali: 45,400
totaling 601,730 in all.
The text notes parenthetically that when Korah’s band agitated against God, the earth swallowed them up with Korah, but Korah’s sons did not die. ( ) God told Moses to apportion shares of the land according to population among those counted, and by lot. ( ) The Levite men aged a month old and up amounted to 23,000, and they were not included in the regular enrollment of Israelites, as they were not to have land assigned to them. ( ) Among the persons whom Moses and Eleazar enrolled was not one of those enrolled in the first census at the wilderness of Sinai, except Caleb and Joshua. ( )
The daughters of Zelophehad
The daughters of Zelophehad approached Moses, Eleazar, the chieftains, and the assembly at the entrance of the Tabernacle, saying that their father left no sons, and asking that they be given a land holding. ( ) Moses brought their case before God, who told him that their plea was just and instructed him to transfer their father’s share of land to them. ( ) God further instructed that if a man died without leaving a son, the Israelites were to transfer his property to his daughter, or failing a daughter to his brothers, or failing a brother to his father’s brothers, or failing brothers of his father to the nearest relative. ( )
God told Moses to climb the heights of Abarim and view the Land of Israel, saying that when he had seen it, he would die, because he disobeyed God’s command to uphold God’s sanctity in the people’s sight when he brought water from the rock in the wilderness of Zin. ( ) Moses asked God to appoint someone over the community, so that the Israelites would not be like sheep without a shepherd. ( ) God told Moses to single out Joshua, lay his hand on him, and commission him before Eleazar and the whole community. ( ) Joshua was to present himself to Eleazar the priest, who was to seek the decision of the Urim and Thummim on whether to go out or come in. ( )
God told Moses to command the Israelites to be punctilious in presenting the offerings due God at stated times. ( ) The text then details the offerings for regular days, the Sabbath, Rosh Chodesh, Passover, Shavuot, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, and Shmini Atzeret. ( )
In classical rabbinic interpretation
Numbers chapter 25
Rabbi Johanan taught that Phinehas was able to accomplish his act of zealotry only because God performed six miracles: First, upon hearing Phinehas’s warning, Zimri should have withdrawn from Cozbi and ended his transgression, but he did not. Second, Zimri should have cried out for help from his fellow Simeonites, but he did not. Third, Phinheas was able to drive his spear exactly through the sexual organs of Zimri and Cozbi as they were engaged in the act. Fourth, Zimri and Cozbi did not slip off the spear, but remained fixed so that others could witness their transgression. Fifth, an angel came and lifted up the lintel so that Phinehas could exit holding the spear. And sixth, an angel came and sowed destruction among the people, distracting the Simeonites from killing Phinheas. (Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 82b.)
Rabbah bar bar Hana said in Rabbi Johanan's name that had Zimri withdrawn from his mistress and Phinehas still killed him, Phinehas would have been liable to execution for murder, and had Zimri killed Phinehas in self-defense, he would not have been liable to execution for murder, as Phinehas was a pursuer seeking to take Zimri’s life. (Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 82a.)
|Eleazar||daughter of Putiel|
The Gemara told that after Phinehas killed Zimri and Cozbi, the Israelites began berating Phinehas for his presumption, as he himself was descended from a Midianite idolater, Jethro. The Israelites said: “See this son of Puti (Putiel, or Jethro) whose maternal grandfather fattened (pittem) cattle for idols, and who has now slain the prince of a tribe of Israel (Zimri)!” To counter this attack, the Gemara explained, God detailed Phinehas’s descent from the peaceful Aaron the Priest in . And then in God told Moses to be the first to extend a greeting of peace to Phinehas, so as to calm the crowd. And the Gemara explained to indicate that the atonement that Phinehas had made was worthy to atone permanently. (Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 82b.)
A midrash interpreted in which God gives Phinehas God’s “covenant of peace,” to teach that Phinehas, like Elijah, continues to live to this day, applying to Phinehas the words of “My covenant was with him of life and peace, and I gave them to him, and of fear, and he feared Me, and was afraid of My name.” (Numbers Rabbah 21:3.)
Reading the words ofthat Phinehas “made atonement for the children of Israel,” a midrash taught that although he did not strictly offer a sacrifice to justify the expression “atonement,” his shedding the blood of the wicked was as though he had offered a sacrifice. (Numbers Rabbah 21:3.)
Numbers chapter 26
A midrash taught that the Israelites were counted on ten occasions: (1) when they went down to Egypt (Deuteronomy 10:22); (2) when they went up out of Egypt (Exodus 12:37); (3) at the first census in Numbers ( ); (4) at the second census in Numbers ( ); (5) once for the banners; (6) once in the time of Joshua for the division of the land of Israel; (7) once by Saul (1 Samuel 11:8); (8) a second time by Saul ( ); (9) once by David ( ); and once in the time of Ezra (Ezra 2:64). (Midrash Tanhuma Ki Sisa 9.)
Noting thatspeaks of “after the plague” immediately before reporting that God ordered the census, a midrash concluded that whenever the Israelites were struck, they needed to be counted, as a shepherd will count the sheep after a wolf attacks. Alternatively, the midrash taught that God ordered Moses to count the Israelites as Moses neared death, much as a shepherd entrusted with a set number of sheep must count those that remain when the shepherd returns the sheep to their owner. (Midrash Tanhuma Pinchas 4.)
A Tanna in the name of Rabbi deduced from the words “the sons of Korah did not die” in that Providence set up a special place for them to stand on high in Gehinnom. (Babylonian Talmud Megillah 14a, Sanhedrin 110a.) There, Korah’s sons sat and sang praises to God. Rabbah bar bar Hana told that once when he was travelling, an Arab showed him where the earth swallowed Korah’s congregation. Rabbah bar bar Hana saw two cracks in the ground from which smoke issued. He took a piece of wool, soaked it in water, attached it to the point of his spear, and passed it over the cracks, and the wool was singed. The Arab told Rabbah bar bar Hana to listen, and he heard them saying, “Moses and his Torah are true, but Korah's company are liars.” The Arab told Rabbah bar bar Hana that every 30 days Gehinnom caused them to return for judgment, as if they were being stirred like meat in a pot, and every 30 days they said those same words. (Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 110a–b.)
Abba Halifa of Keruya asked Rabbi Hiyya bar Abba why Genesis 46:27 reported that 70 people from Jacob’s household came to Egypt, while enumerated only 69 individuals. Rabbi Hiyya reported that Rabbi Hama bar Hanina taught that the seventieth person was the mother of Moses, Jochebed, who was conceived on the way from Canaan to Egypt and born as Jacob’s family passed between the city walls as they entered Egypt, for reported that Jochebed “was born to Levi in Egypt,” implying that her conception was not in Egypt. (Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 123b–24a.)
The Gemara taught that the use of the pronoun “he (hu)” in an introduction, as in the words “These are (hu) that Dathan and Abiram” in signifies that they were the same in their wickedness from the beginning to the end. Similar uses appear in to teach Esau’s enduring wickedness, in 2 Chronicles 28:22 to teach Ahaz’s enduring wickedness, in to teach Ahasuerus’s enduring wickedness, in to teach Abraham’s enduring righteousness, in to teach Moses and Aaron’s enduring righteousness, and in to teach David’s enduring humility. (Babylonian Talmud Megillah 11a.)
The Gemara asked why the Tannaim felt that the allocation of the Land of Israel “according to the names of the tribes of their fathers” in meant that the allocation was with reference to those who left Egypt; perhaps, the Gemara supposed, it might have meant the 12 tribes and that the Land was to be divided into 12 equal portions? The Gemara noted that in God told Moses to tell the Israelites who were about to leave Egypt, “And I will give it you for a heritage; I am the Lord,” and that meant that the Land was the inheritance from the fathers of those who left Egypt. (Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 117b.)
Numbers chapter 27
Chapter 8 of tractate Bava Batra in the Mishnah and Babylonian Talmud and chapter 7 of tractate Bava Batra in the Tosefta interpreted the laws of inheritance in and 36:1–9. (Mishnah Bava Batra 8:1–8; Tosefta Bava Batra 7:1–18; Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 108a–39b.)
Rabbi Joshua taught that Zelophehad’s daughters’ in petitioned first the assembly, then the chieftans, then Eleazar, and finally Moses, but Abba Hanan said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer taught that Zelophehad’s daughters stood before all of them as they were sitting together. (Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 119b.)
Noting that the words “in the wilderness” appeared both is Korah’s rebellion) and in (which tells the story of the Sabbath violator), the Rabbis taught in a Baraita that Zelophehad was the man executed for gathering sticks on the Sabbath. (Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 96b.)(where Zelophehad’s daughters noted that their father Zelophehad had not taken part in
Rabbi Hanina (or some say Rabbi Josiah) taught that when Moses found himself unable to decide the case of the daughters of Zelophehad, reports the punishment of Moses for his arrogance when he told the judges in “the cause that is too hard for you, you shall bring to me, and I will hear it.” Rav Nahman objected to Rabbi Hanina’s interpretation, noting that Moses did not say that he would always have the answers, but merely that he would rule if he knew the answer or seek instruction if he did not. Rav Nahman cited a Baraita to explain the case of the daughters of Zelophehad: God had intended that Moses write the laws of inheritance, but found the daughters of Zelophehad worthy to have the section recorded on their account. (Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 8a.)
A Baraita taught that Zelophehad’s daughters were wise, Torah students, and righteous. (Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 119b.) And a Baraita taught that Zelophehad’s daughters were equal in merit, and that is why the order of their names varies between and . (Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 120a.) According to the Gemara, they demonstrated their wisdom by raising their case in a timely fashion, just as Moses was expounding the law of levirate marriage, or yibbum, and they argued for their inheritance by analogy to that law. (Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 119b.)
The Gemara implied that the sin of Moses in striking the rock at Meribah compared favorably to the sin of David. The Gemara reported that Moses and David were two good leaders of Israel. Moses begged God that his sin be recorded, as it is in 20:23–24, and 27:13–14, and David, however, begged that his sin be blotted out, as Psalm 32:1 says, “Happy is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is pardoned.” The Gemara compared the cases of Moses and David to the cases of two women whom the court sentenced to be lashed. One had committed an indecent act, while the other had eaten unripe figs of the seventh year in violation of Leviticus 25:6. The woman who had eaten unripe figs begged the court to make known for what offense she was being flogged, lest people say that she was being punished for the same sin as the other woman. The court thus made known her sin, and the Torah repeatedly records the sin of Moses. (Babylonian Talmud Yoma 86b.)
Noting that Moses asked God to designate someone to succeed him in Proverbs 27:18) that “Whoever keeps the fig-tree shall eat its fruit; and whoever waits on the master shall be honored.” The sons of Moses sat idly by and did not study Torah, but Joshua served Moses and showed him great honor, rose early in the morning and remained late at night at the House of Assembly, and arranged the benches and spread the mats. As he had served Moses with all his might, he was worthy to serve Israel, and thus God in directed Moses to “take Joshua the son of Nun” as his successor. (Numbers Rabbah 21:14.)soon after the incident of Zelophehad’s daughters, a midrash deduced that when the daughters of Zelophehad inherited from their father, Moses argued that it would surely be right for his sons to inherit his glory. God, however, replied (in the words of
|Sukkot Day 1||13||2||14||1||30|
|Sukkot Day 2||12||2||14||1||29|
|Sukkot Day 3||11||2||14||1||28|
|Sukkot Day 4||10||2||14||1||27|
|Sukkot Day 5||9||2||14||1||26|
|Sukkot Day 6||8||2||14||1||25|
|Sukkot Day 7||7||2||14||1||24|
|+Assuming 52 Sabbaths, 12 New Months, and 7 days of Passover per year|
Numbers chapter 28
Tractate Tamid in the Mishnah and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws of the regular offerings in (Mishnah Tamid 1:1–7:4; Babylonian Talmud Tamid 2a–33b.)
Tractate Beitzah in the Mishnah, Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws common to all of the Festivals in 43–49; 13:6–10; 23:16; 34:18–23; 23:4–43; 28:16–30:1; and 31:10–13. (Mishnah Beitzah 1:1–5:7; Tosefta Yom Tov (Beitzah) 1:1–4:11; Jerusalem Talmud Beitzah 1a–; Babylonian Talmud Beitzah 2a–40b.)
Tractate Pesachim in the Mishnah, Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws of the Passover in 43–49; 13:6–10; 34:25; 28:16-25; and (Mishnah Pesachim 1:1–10:9; Tosefta Pisha 1:1–10:13; Jerusalem Talmud Pesachim 1a–; Babylonian Talmud Pesachim 2a–121b.)
Numbers chapter 29
Tractate Rosh Hashanah in the Mishnah, Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws of Rosh Hashanah in and (Mishnah Rosh Hashanah 1:1–4:9; Tosefta Rosh Hashanah 1:1–2:18; Jerusalem Talmud Rosh Hashanah 1a–; Babylonian Talmud Rosh Hashanah 2a–35a.)
Tractate Yoma in the Mishnah, Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws of Yom Kippur in and 23:26–32 and (Mishnah Yoma 1:1–8:9; Tosefta Kippurim (Yoma) 1:1–4:17; Jerusalem Talmud Yoma 1a–; Babylonian Talmud Yoma 2a–88a.)
Tractate Sukkah in the Mishnah, Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws of Sukkot in 34:22; and 31:10–13. (Mishnah Sukkah 1:1–5:8; Tosefta Sukkah 1:1–4:28; Jerusalem Talmud Sukkah 1a–33b; Babylonian Talmud Sukkah 2a–56b.)
According to Maimonides
- To judge in cases of inheritances ( ).
- To offer the continual sacrifices daily ( ).
- To offer an additional sacrifice every Sabbath ( )
- To offer an additional sacrifice at the beginning of each new month ( )
- To rest on the seventh day of the Festival of Passover ( )
- Not to do work on the Festival of Shavuot ( )
- To offer an additional sacrifice on the Festival of Shavuot ( )
- To hear the sound of the shofar on Rosh Hashanah ( )
- Not to do work on Rosh Hashanah ( )
- To offer an additional sacrifice on Rosh Hashanah ( )
- To offer an additional sacrifice on Yom Kippur ( )
- To fast on Yom Kippur ( )
- Not to do work on Yom Kippur (23:28, 31; )
- Not to do work on the first day of Sukkot ( )
- To offer an additional sacrifice on the Festival of Sukkot ( )
- To offer an additional sacrifice on the day of Shemini Atzeret, for this day is a pilgrimage festival in itself ( )
- Not to do work on the eighth day of Sukkot ( )
- Not to transgress in matters that one has forbidden himself ( )
(Maimonides. Mishneh Torah, Positive Commandments 39, 41, 42, 45, 47, 48, 50, 51, 160, 164, 170, 248; Negative Commandments 157, 325,326, 327,328, 329. Cairo, Egypt, 1170–1180. Reprinted in Maimonides. The Commandments: Sefer Ha-Mitzvoth of Maimonides. Translated by Charles B. Chavel, 1:50–53, 55–60, 170–71, 173–74, 179–80, 256–57; 2:148–49, 298–301. London: Soncino Press, 1967. ISBN 0-900689-71-4.)
According to Sefer ha-Chinuch
According to Sefer ha-Chinuch, there are six positive commandments in the parshah.
- The precept of the laws of inheritance ( )
- The precept of the regular olah offering, sacrificed every day ( )
- The precept of the musaf offering on the Sabbath ( )
- The precept of the musaf offering on Rosh Chodesh ( )
- The precept of the musaf offering on the Shavuot Festival ( )
- The precept of the shofar on Rosh Hashanah ( )
Sefer HaHinnuch: The Book of [Mitzvah] Education. Translated by Charles Wengrov, 4:171–203. Jerusalem: Feldheim Pub., 1988. ISBN 0-87306-457-7.)
When parshah Pinchas comes before the 17th of Tammuz, the haftarah for the parshah is 1 Kings 18:46–19:21. When the parshah falls after the 17th of Tammuz, Jews read for the haftarah the first of three readings of admonition leading up to Tisha B'Av, Jeremiah 1:1–2:3.
1 Kings 18:46–19:21
The haftarah in Ahab, his theophany, and his anointing of Elisha. God’s hand was on Elijah, and he ran from King Ahab to Jezreel. ( ) Ahab told Queen Jezebel how Elijah had killed all the prophets of Baal, and Jezebel sent a messenger to tell Elijah that she intended to have him killed by the next day in recompense. ( ) So Elijah ran for his life to Beersheba in the Kingdom of Judah, left his servant there, and went a day's journey into the wilderness. ( ) Elijah sat down under a broom tree, asked God to take his life, and lay down and slept. ( ) An angel touched Elijah and told him to arise and eat, and Elijah found at his head a cake and a jar of water, and so he ate, drank, and went back to sleep. ( ) The angel again touched him again and told him to arise and eat, and he did and on the strength of that meal journeyed 40 days and 40 nights to Mount Horeb, the mount of God. ( )tells the story of the prophet Elijah’s flight from King
When he came to a cave and lodged there, God asked him what he was doing there. (Damascus and anoint Hazael to be king over Aram, to anoint Jehu to be king over Israel, and to anoint Elisha to succeed Elijah as prophet. ( ) God foretold that any who escaped the sword of Hazael would be killed by Jehu; any who escaped the sword of Jehu would be killed by Elisha; and God would leave alive in Israel only the 7 thousand who had not bowed to Baal. ( ) So Elijah found Elisha, who was plowing with one of his 12 yoke of oxen, and Elijah cast his mantle on Elisha. ( ) Elisha left the oxen, asked Elijah for permission to kiss his parents goodbye, killed the oxen and distributed their meat to the people, and went to follow Elijah. ( )) Elijah said that he had been moved by zeal for God, as the Israelites had forsaken God’s covenant, thrown down God’s altars, and killed God’s prophets, leaving only Elijah, and they sought to kill him, too. ( ) God told Elijah to stand on the mount, and God passed by. A great wind rent the mountains, and broke the rocks in pieces, but God was not in the wind. Then an earthquake came, but God was not in the earthquake. ( ) Then a fire came, but God was not in the fire. And then came a still small voice, which asked him what he was doing there. ( ) Elijah repeated that he had been moved by zeal for God, as the Israelites had forsaken God’s covenant, thrown down God’s altars, and killed God’s prophets, leaving only Elijah, and they sought to kill him, too. ( ) God told him to go to
Connection to the parshah
The parshah and haftarah both address protagonists who showed zeal on behalf of God against apostasy by the Israelites. 13 report that God laud’s Phinehas’s zeal for God (be-kan’o ’et kin’ati and kinnei’ le-’lohav), while in and 13 Elijah tells God of Elijah’s zeal for God (kanno’ kinnei’ti la-YHVH). Immediately before the parshah (in ), Phinehas killed Zimri and Cozbi to stem the Israelites’ following of Baal-Peor in the Heresy of Peor, while immediately before the haftarah (in ), Elijah killed the prophets of Baal to stem the Israelites’ following of Baal. Targum Jonathan to Exodus 6:18 thus identified Phinehas with Elijah.and
The haftarah in Jeremiah the son of Hilkiah, a priest in Anathoth in the land of Benjamin, to whom God’s word came in the thirteenth year of the reign of Josiah the son of Amon as king of Judah, in the reign of Josiah’s son Jehoiakim, and through the eleventh year of the reign of Josiah’s son Zedekiah, when Jerusalem was carried away captive. ( )begins by identifying its words as those of
God’s word came to Jeremiah to say that before God formed him in the womb, God knew him, sanctified him, and appointed him a prophet to the nations. () Jeremiah protested that he could not speak, for he was a child, but God told him not to fear, for he would go wherever God would send him, say whatever God would command him to say, and God would be with him to deliver him. ( ) Then God touched Jeremiah’s mouth and said that God had put words in his mouth and set him over the nations to root out and to pull down, to destroy and to overthrow, to build and to plant. ( ) God asked Jeremiah what he saw, he replied that he saw the rod of an almond tree, and God said that he had seen well, for God watches over God’s word to perform it. ( )
God’s word came to Jeremiah a second time to ask what he saw, he replied that he saw a seething pot tipping from the north, and God said that out of the north evil would break forth upon all Israel. () For God would call all the kingdoms of the north to come, and they would set their thrones at Jerusalem’s gate, against its walls, and against the cities of Judah. ( ) God would utter God’s judgments against Judah, as its people had forsaken God and worshipped the work of their own hands. ( ) God thus directed Jeremiah to gird his loins, arise, and speak to the Judean people all that God commanded, for God had made Jeremiah a fortified city, an iron pillar, and brazen walls against the land of Judah, its rulers, its priests, and its people. ( ) They would fight against him, but they would not prevail, for God would be with him to deliver him. ( )
God’s word came to Jeremiah to tell him to go and cry in the ears of Jerusalem that God remembered the affection of her youth, her love as a bride, how she followed God in the wilderness. () Israel was God’s hallowed portion and God’s first-fruits, and all that devoured Israel would be held guilty and evil would come upon them. ( )
In the liturgy
The Passover Haggadah, in the concluding nirtzah section of the Seder, perhaps in a reference to the listing of festivals in calls Passover “the first of all festivals.” (Joseph Tabory. JPS Commentary on the Haggadah: Historical Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 125. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8276-0858-0.)
The Weekly Maqam
In the Weekly Maqam, Sephardi Jews each week base the songs of the services on the content of that week's parshah. For parshah Pinchas, Sephardi Jews apply Maqam Saba, the maqam that symbolizes a covenant (berit). It is appropriate, because in the very opening of this parshah, God told Phinehas that due to his heroic acts, he was granted an eternal covenant of peace with God.
The parshah has parallels or is discussed in these sources:
- (laying on hands).
- 12:3–27, 43–49 (Passover); 13:6–10 (Passover); 23:14–19 (three pilgrim festivals); 28:30 (Urim and Thummim); 29:1–42 (program of sacrifices); 32:1–35 (sacrifices to another god; zealots kill apostates; zealots rewarded with priestly standing; plague as punishment; leader makes atonement); 34:15–16 (foreign women and apostasy); 34:22–26 (three pilgrim festivals). (sons of Korah);
- 24:10–16 (inquiry of God on the law). (holidays);
- 3:32 (Eleazar’s family in charge of the sanctuary); 8:10–12 (laying on hands); 8:19 (Levites make atonement so that there be no plague because of children of Israel coming near to the sanctuary); 9:1–14 (Passover, inquiry of God on the law); 15:32–36 (inquiry of God on the law); 18:22 (children of Israel not coming near to the sanctuary); 20:2–12; 25:6–9; 28:16–29:34 (holidays). 31:6–18 (Phinehas, war with Midian); 36:1–12 (daughters of Zelophehad) (census);
- 4:3 (Baal Peor); 7:3–4 (foreign women and apostasy); 16:1–17 (three pilgrim festivals); 31:10–13 (Sukkot). (Joshua);
- Joshua 1:6–9; 17:3–6 (daughters of Zelophehad); 22:11–34 (Tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh; Baal Peor); 24:33.
- Judges 20:28; 21:19 (Sukkot).
- 1 Samuel 28:6 (Urim).
- Abiathar, competitor for the priesthood with Zadok of the line of Phinehas); 8:1–66 (Sukkot); 12:32 (northern feast like Sukkot). (banishment of
- (permanent priesthood).
- Ezekiel 45:13–46:24 (program of sacrifices); 45:25 (Sukkot).
- Hosea 9:10 (Baal Peor).
- Zechariah 14:16–19 (Sukkot).
- 47:6 (God amidst the sound of the horn); 106:17, 28–32 (Dathan and Abiram; Baal Peor; Meribah); 145:20 (God will destroy the wicked). (I afflicted my soul with fasting);
- 7:5 (Phinehas); 8:2 (Phinehas). (Sukkot);
- Nehemiah 8:14–18 (Sukkot).
- 6:35; 7:15; 9:20 (Phinehas as chief of the sanctuary guards). (the line of Phinehas);
- 7:8 (Sukkot); 8:12–13 (three Pilgrim festivals). (Sukkot);
- 1 Maccabees chs. 1–16. (parallel to Phinehas).
- 4 Maccabees 18:12.
- Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 3:10:1–4; 4:6:12–13; 4:7:1–2. Circa 93–94. Reprinted in, e.g., The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged, New Updated Edition. Translated by William Whiston. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Pub., 1987. ISBN 0-913573-86-8.
- Instruction for Catechumens, and A Prayer of Praise of God for His Greatness, and for His Appointment of Leaders for His People, in “Hellenistic Synagogal Prayers,” in James H. Charlesworth. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 2:687–88. New York: Doubleday, 1985. ISBN 0-385-18813-7.
- Pseudo-Philo 28:1–4.
- John 7:1-53 (Sukkot).
- Targum Jonathan to Exodus 6:18 (Phinehas was Elijah).
- Mishnah: Pesachim 1:1–10:9; Yoma 1:1–8:9; Sukkah 1:1–5:8; Beitzah 1:1–5:7; Rosh Hashanah 1:1–4:9; Taanit 4:2; Megillah 3:5; Sotah 7:7; Bava Batra 8:1–8; Sanhedrin 9:6; Shevuot 1:3; Zevachim 10:1; Menachot 4:2–3, 8:7–9:2; Tamid 1:1–7:4. Land of Israel, circa 200 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-05022-4.
- Jerusalem Talmud: Berakhot 43b; Sheviit 5b; Orlah 2b; Pesachim 1a–; Yoma 1a–; Sukkah 1a–33b; Beitzah 1a–; Rosh Hashanah 1a–. Land of Israel, circa 400 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Yerushalmi. Edited by Chaim Malinowitz, Yisroel Simcha Schorr, and Mordechai Marcus, vols. 1, 6a, 12, 22. Brooklyn: Mesorah Pubs., 2005–2009.
- Babylonian Talmud: Berakhot 54b; Shabbat 21b, 24a–b, 36a, 64a, 80b, 97a, 103b, 131b, 133a; Eruvin 40a, 63a–b; Pesachim 2a–121b; Yoma 2a–88a; Sukkah 2a–56b; Beitzah 2a–40b; Rosh Hashanah 2a–35a; Taanit 2b–3a, 17b, 26a; Megillah 11a, 14a, 20b, 21b, 28a, 29b, 30b–31a; Moed Katan 9a, 19a, 20a, 27a; Chagigah 6a–b, 7b, 9a, 16a, 17a–18a; Yevamot 78b, 90b, 100b, 104b; Ketubot 13b, 52b; Nedarim 78a; Nazir 23b, 30a; Sotah 12a, 14a, 22b, 40b, 43a, 46a; Gittin 85a; Kiddushin 33b, 66b; Bava Kamma 42b, 82b, 88b, 92b, 111a, 112a; Bava Metzia 52b; Bava Batra 75a, 106b, 108a–39b, 141a, 143b, 147a; Sanhedrin 8a, 11b, 13b, 16a, 34b–35a, 40b, 43b–44b, 64a, 82a–b, 105b–06a, 110a; Makkot 7b, 12a; Shevuot 2a, 9a–11a; Avodah Zarah 8b, 19b, 44b; Horayot 6a, 10b, 12b; Zevachim 6b, 12a, 84a, 89a, 101b, 110b, 118a; Menachot 44b–45b, 46b, 49b, 52a, 65a, 72b, 84b, 87a–b, 89a, 91b, 93b, 99b, 103b, 104b, 107a; Chullin 60b, 134b; Bekhorot 5b, 17a; Arakhin 3b, 13b; Temurah 14a–b, 29a; Keritot 4a, 28b; Meilah 11b, 13b; Tamid 2a–33b; Niddah 26a. Babylonia, 6th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr, Chaim Malinowitz, and Mordechai Marcus, 72 vols. Brooklyn: Mesorah Pubs., 2006.
- Rashi. Commentary. Numbers 25–30. Troyes, France, late 11th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Rashi. The Torah: With Rashi’s Commentary Translated, Annotated, and Elucidated. Translated and annotated by Yisrael Isser Zvi Herczeg, 4:319–67. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1997. ISBN 0-89906-029-3.
- Judah Halevi. Kuzari. 2:25–26, 80. Toledo, Spain, 1130–1140. Reprinted in, e.g., Jehuda Halevi. Kuzari: An Argument for the Faith of Israel. Intro. by Henry Slonimsky, 101, 133. New York: Schocken, 1964. ISBN 0-8052-0075-4.
- Numbers Rabbah 21:1–25. 12th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Numbers. Translated by Judah J. Slotki. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
- Zohar 3:213a–241b. pain, late 13th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., The Zohar. Translated by Harry Sperling and Maurice Simon. 5 vols. London: Soncino Press, 1934.
- Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan, 3:40, 42. England, 1651. Reprint edited by C. B. Macpherson, 506, 572. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Classics, 1982. ISBN 0140431950.
- Samson Raphael Hirsch. Horeb: A Philosophy of Jewish Laws and Observances. Translated by Isidore Grunfeld, 136–41, 225–31, 487, 492–93, 512–13. London: Soncino Press, 1962. Reprinted 2002 ISBN 0-900689-40-4. Originally published as Horeb, Versuche über Jissroel’s Pflichten in der Zerstreuung. Germany, 1837.
- Emily Dickinson. Poem 112 (Where bells no more affright the morn —). Circa 1859. Poem 168 (If the foolish, call them "flowers" —). Circa 1860. Poem 597 (It always felt to me — a wrong). Circa 1862. In The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson. Edited by Thomas H. Johnson, 53, 79–80, 293–94. New York: Little, Brown & Co., 1960. ISBN 0-316-18414-4.
- Jacob Milgrom. “Magic, Monotheism, and the Sin of Moses.” In The Quest for the Kingdom of God: Studies in Honor of George E. Mendenhall. Edited by H. B. Huffmon, F.A. Spina, A.R.W. Green, 251–265. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1983. ISBN 0931464153.
- Marc Gellman. “The Announcing Tool.” In Does God Have a Big Toe? Stories About Stories in the Bible, 85–88. New York: HarperCollins, 1989. ISBN 0-06-022432-0.
- Mary Douglas. In the Wilderness: The Doctrine of Defilement in the Book of Numbers, 55, 58, 86–87, 103, 108, 111–12, 114, 116, 121–23, 130, 135–36, 138, 141–42, 144–45, 147, 162, 170, 180, 182–83, 188, 190–92, 194, 197, 200, 203, 206, 235–36. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. Reprinted 2004. ISBN 0-19-924541-X.
- Tal Ilan. "How Women Differed." Biblical Archaeology Review, 24:02. Mar./Apr. 1998.
- William H.C. Propp. “Why Moses Could Not Enter The Promised Land.” Bible Review. 14 (3) (June 1998).