Wikia

Religion Wiki

Pe'ah

Talk0
33,789pages on
this wiki

Pe'ah (Hebrew: פֵּאָה‎, lit. "Corner") is the second tractate of Seder Zeraim ("Order of Seeds") of the Mishnah and of the Talmud. The tractate is a fitting continuation of Seder Zeraim. Following the initial subject of blessings and benedictions, instilling an attitude of reverence and gratitude, this tractate begins the discussion of the main topic of the Seder, agriculture, with the laws of "gifts" to the poor. It is concerned with six categories of obligations: (1) Pe'ah: the corner - the portion of the crop that must be left standing for the poor in accordance with Lev. 19:9 and Lev. 23:22; (2) "leket": gleanings - ears of grain that fell from the reaper's hand or the sickle while the grain is being gathered during the harvest (see, Lev. 19:9 and Lev. 23:22); (3) "shich'chah": forgotten sheaves - sheaves left and forgotten in the field while the harvest is being brought to the threshing floor, as well as attached produce overlooked by the harvesters; Deut. 24:19(4) "oleilot" - immature clusters of grapes Lev. 19:10,Deut. 24:21; (5) "peret" - grapes that fall from their clusters while being plucked from the vine Lev. 19:10; and (6) "ma'asar ani" - the poor man's tithe - the tithe designated for the poor every third and sixth year of the tithing cycle Deut. 14:28-29, Deut. 26:12-13. It consists of eight chapters and has a Gemara ("Completion") from only the Jerusalem Talmud. Chapter Eight discusses the laws of eligibility and entitlement to public charity, including tithes and agricultural gifts. It relates that Jewish communities maintained two kinds of charitable organizations: tamchuy and kuppah. One was for travelers, who were to be provided food and lodgings, includings extra meals for the Sabbath. The other was the charity fund for the local poor. Both institutions were required to provided minimum quantities to the poor from funds collected by the local community. Of general interest are the first and last mishnayot in the tractate. Pe'ah begins with a declaration that there is no maximum limit to pe'ah (one can give as much of the produce in his field to the poor as he desires once the harvest has begun), bikkurim (the first-fruits), the pilgrimage, acts of lovingkindness, and Torah study. After exhorting one to give his all to God and man, the mishnah states that a person receives reward in this world and the next by honoring his father and mother, doing acts of lovingkindness, making peace between people, and that the study of Torah is equivalent to them all. Likewise, the concluding mishnah is a compilation of ethical homilies warning people against feigning poverty, improperly taking from charity and perverting justice. On the other hand, it lauds the poor person, who is eligible to be supported by charity, yet refuses public funds, working hard and living frugally. To such a person, the verse from Jeremiah 17:7 is applied: "Blessed is the man who trusts in the Lord; and the Lord will be his trust."

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki