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The meaning of the word pàtimokkha is unclear but it may mean something like ‘obligation’ or ‘binding promise.’ The original Pàtimokkha was a collection of aphorisms summarising the Buddha’s teachings but gradually this evolved into a code of behaviour; with 227 rules for monks and an extra 84 rules for nuns.
The rules are divided into eight parts according to the severity of the punishment they entail if infringed. The most important of these rules are the four Pàràjika, which entails expulsion from the monastic community if broken. They are (1) having sexual intercourse, (2) theft, (3) murder and (4) falsely claiming to have spiritual attainments. Other important rules are the thirteen Saïghàdisesa, which if infringed must be confessed. While some of the rules deal with moral issues most are about etiquette, monastic protocol and behaviour conducive to harmonious communal living, and thus the Buddha said; ‘After I am gone, the monks can if they want change the minor rules’ (D.II,154). According to the Vinaya, monks and nuns should meet together twice a month to recite the Pàtimokkha.
For the complete list of all 227 precepts for bhikkhus (monks) or the 311 precepts for nuns (bhikkhunis) see:
- 4 parajikas (defeats)
- 13 sanghadisesas (rules requiring a meeting)
- 30 nissaggiya pacittiya (confession with forfeiture)
- 92 pacittiya (rules entailing confession)
- 4 patidesaniya (verbally acknowledged violations)
- 2 aniyata (indefinite rules)
- 75 rules of training
- 7 rules for settlement
- 110 specific rules for nuns
See also: 4 great standards