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Papal conclave 1464 (August 28 – August 30, 1464) convened after the death of Pope Pius II, elected as his successor cardinal Pietro Barbo, who took the name Paul II.
List of participants
Pope Pius II died on August 14, 1464 in Ancona during preparations to the crusade against Ottoman Empire. At the time of his death, there were 29 living cardinals, but only 19 of them participated in the conclave:
|Bessarion||Greek||Bishop of Frascati; commendatario of SS. XII Apostoli||1439, December 18||Pope Eugenius IV||Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Latin Patriarch of Constantinople; Titular archbishop of Nicea and Tebe; Cardinal-protector of the Orders of Basilians, Franciscans and Dominicans|
|Guillaume d'Estouteville, O.S.B.Cluny||French||Bishop of Ostia e Velletri||1439, December 18||Pope Eugenius IV||Archbishop of Rouen and administrator of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne; Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica; Cardinal-protector of the Order of Augustinians|
|Juan de Torquemada, O.P.||Castilian||Bishop of Sabina||1439, December 18||Pope Eugenius IV||Bishop of Orense|
|Juan de Carvajal||Castilian||Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina; commendatario of S. Lucia in Septisolio||1446, December 16||Pope Eugenius IV||Bishop of Plasencia; Cardinal-protector of Hungary|
|Ludovico Trevisano||Venetian||Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso||1440, July 1||Pope Eugenius IV||Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church; Patriarch of Aquileia; bishop of Cava|
|Pietro Barbo (elected Pope Paul II)||Venetian||Priest of S. Marco||1440, July 1||Pope Eugenius IV (Cardinal-nephew)||Bishop of Vicenza; Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica|
|Latino Orsini||Roman||Priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo||1448, December 20||Pope Nicholas V||Administrator of Bari; Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran Basilica|
|Alain de Coëtivy||French||Priest of S. Prassede||1448, December 20||Pope Nicholas V||Bishop of Avignon and administrator of Dol|
|Filippo Calandrini||Bolognese||Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina||1448, December 20||Pope Nicholas V (Cardinal-nephew)||Grand penitentiary; Bishop of Bologna|
|Juan de Mella||Castilian||Priest of S. Prisca||1456, December 17||Pope Callixtus III||Bishop of Zamora|
|Giacomo Tebaldi||Neapolitan||Priest of S. Anastasia||1456, December 17||Pope Callixtus III|
|Richard Olivier de Longueil||French||Priest of S. Eusebio||1456, December 17||Pope Callixtus III||Bishop of Coutances|
|Angelo Capranica||Roman||Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme||1460, March 5||Pope Pius II||Bishop of Rieti|
|Bartolomeo Roverella||Ferrara||Priest of S. Clemente||1461, December 18||Pope Pius II||Archbishop of Ravenna; Governor of Benevento|
|Louis d’Albret||French||Priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro||1461, December 18||Pope Pius II||Bishop of Cahors|
|Giacomo Ammanati-Piccolomini||Siena||Priest of S. Crisogono||1461, December 18||Pope Pius II (Cardinal-nephew)||Bishop of Pavia; Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals|
|Rodrigo Borgia||Catalonian||Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano; commendatario of S. Maria in Via Lata||1456, September 17||Pope Callixtus III (Cardinal-nephew)||Protodeacon of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church; Administrator of Valencia|
|Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini||Siena||Deacon of S. Eustachio||1460, March 5||Pope Pius II (Cardinal-nephew)||Administrator of Siena; Legate in Rome and the Papal States|
|Francesco Gonzaga||Mantua||Deacon of S. Maria Nuova||1461, December 18||Pope Pius II||Bishop of Brixen|
Ten electors were Italian, four Spaniards, four French and one Greek. Six were creatures of Pius II, six of Eugenius IV, four of Callixtus III and three of Nicholas V.
Ten cardinals (over 1/3 of the whole Sacred College) did not participate in this conclave:
|Pierre de Foix, O.F.M.||French||Bishop of Albano||September, 1414||Antipope John XXIII||Legate in Avignon; administrator of Lescar and Tarbes|
|Petrus von Schaumberg||German||Priest of S. Vitale||1439, December 18||Pope Eugenius IV||Protopriest of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Bishop of Augsburg|
|Dénes Szécsi||Hungarian||Priest of S. Ciriaco||1439, December 18||Pope Eugenius IV||Archbishop of Esztergom; Chancellor of the Kingdom of Hungary|
|Jean Rolin||French||Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio||1448, December 20||Pope Nicholas V||Bishop of Autun|
|Luis Juan del Mila y Borja||Catalonian||Priest of SS. IV Coronati||1456, September 17||Pope Callixtus III (Cardinal-nephew)||Bishop of Lerida|
|Berardo Eroli||Narni||Priest of S. Sabina||1460, March 5||Pope Pius II||Bishop of Spoleto; legate a latere in Perugia|
|Niccolò Fortiguerra||Pistoia||Priest of S. Cecilia||1460, March 5||Pope Pius II (Cardinal-nephew)||Bishop of Teano; Supreme Commander of Papal Fleet|
|Burkhard von Weisbriach||German||Priest of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo||1460, March 5||Pope Pius II||Archbishop of Salzburg|
|Jean Joufroy, O.S.B.Cluny||French||Priest of SS. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti||1461, December 18||Pope Pius II||Bishop of Albi|
|Jaime Cardona||Catalonian||Priest [no title assigned]||1461, December 18||Pope Pius II||Bishop of Urgel|
Of the absentee cardinals five were creatures of Pius II, two of Eugenius IV, one of Callixtus III and one of Nicholas V. Pierre de Foix was the last surviving cardinal of the Great Western Schism and was elevated by Pisan Antipope John XXIII.
Among them there were three French, two Italians, two Germans, two Spaniards and the one Hungarian.
Candidates to the papacy
Bessarion, d'Estouteville, Trevisano, Carvajal, Torquemada and Barbo were mentioned as main papabili in the contemporary reports of the ambassadors and envoys of Italian Princes. Also Calandrini, Roverella and Capranica were referred as possible candidates..
The election of Pope Paul II
On the evening August 28 all cardinals present in Rome entered the conclave in Vatican, with the exception of ill Cardinal Torquemada, who joined the rest on the following day.
Initially, the electors prepared the conclave capitulation, and subscribed it all except Trevisano. The terms of the capitulation were thefollowing:
- Continue the Crusades against the Ottoman Empire
- Leave Rome only with the consent of the majority of cardinals; the Italian Peninsula with the consent of all
- College of Cardinals limited to 24
- New pope limited to one cardinal-nephew
- Creation of cardinals or advancement of benefices required the consent of the College
The first scrutiny took place on August 30. Cardinal Pietro Barbo received eleven votes, while the remaining fell to Trevisano and d'Estouteville. On the following accessus Barbo received three additional votes and was elected Pope. He took the name Paul II, and a little bit later protodeacon Rodrigo Borgia announced his election to the people of Rome with the ancient formula Habemus Papam. On September 6 new pope was solemnly crowned in the steps of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica by Cardinal Niccolò Fortiguerra, priest of the title of S. Cecilia.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Salvador Miranda List of participants of papal conclave of 1464.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Notes according to biographical entries of the respective cardinals on The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: consistories of XV Century by Salvador Miranda
- ↑ Ludwig von Pastor "History of the Popes vol. 4", London 1900, pp.5-6
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Francis Burkle-Young “Papal elections in the Fifteenth Century: the election of Paul II
- ↑ Cardinal Ammanati claimed that Barbo wished at first to be called Formosus ("Beautiful"), but the cardinals objected on the grounds that it might seen as allusion to his good looks. He then changed it to Mark, but cardinals objected again, because "Marco!" was the war-cry of the Republic of Venice. Finally he decided to take the name Paul (L. von Pastor "History of the Popes vol. 4", London 1900, p. 12). F. Bourkle-Young considers this anecdote untrue 
- ↑ Usually the rite of papal coronation was performed by Cardinal Protodeacon, but Rodrigo Borgia fell ill shortly after the election and was not able to do it. Cardinal Fortiguerra, who arrived to Rome when the election was already accomplished, acted as his substitute. L. von Pastor "History of the Popes vol. 4", London 1900, p. 18
- Ludwig von Pastor: "History of the popes vol. 4", London 1900