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Pahana

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Pahāna: 'overcoming', abandoning. There are 5 kinds of overcoming: 1 overcoming by repression vikkhambhana-pahāna i.e. the temporary suspension of the 5 hindrances nīvarana during the absorptions, 2 overcoming by the opposite tadanga-pahāna 3 overcoming by destruction samuccheda-pahāna 4 overcoming by tranquillization patipassaddhi-pahāna 5 overcoming by escape nissarana-pahāna

1: Among these, 'overcoming by repression' is the pushing back of adverse things, such as the 5 mental hindrances nīvarana q.v, etc., through this or that mental concentration samādhi, just as a pot thrown into moss-clad water pushes the moss aside.

2: Overcoming by the opposite' is the overcoming by opposing this or that thing that is to be overcome, by this or that factor of knowledge belonging to insight vipassanā, just as a lighted lamp dispels the darkness of the night. In this way, the personality-belief sakkāyaditthi see: ditthi is overcome by determining the mental and material phenomena... the view of uncausedness of existence by investigation into the conditions... the idea of eternity by contemplation of impermanency... the idea of happiness by experience of Danger.

3: If through the knowledge of the noble path see: ariya-puggala the mental chains and other evil things cannot continue any longer, just like a tree destroyed by lightning, then such an overcoming is called 'overcoming by destruction'Vis.M XXII, 110f..

4: When, after the disappearing of the mental chains at the entrance into the paths, the mental chains, from the moment of fruition phala onwards, are forever extinct and stilled, such overcoming is called the 'overcoming by tranquillization'.

5: The 'overcoming by escape' is identical with the ceasing and Nibbāna; Pts.M. I. 27.

References

Maha Thera Nyanatiloka. Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines, Buddhist Publication Society, first edition 1952.

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