Oluf Haraldsen (died 1141 or 1143) was a Danish nobleman that ruled Scania for a few years around 1140. He never won control over the rest of the country and he is not included in the lists of Danish monarchs used by the Danish monarchy and Den Store Danske Encyklopædi'.'
He was the son of Harald Kesja, the brother of King Eric II of Denmark and seems to have been the only one that escaped after Eric's mass murder on Harald and his sons. After a vain attempt of regaining his heritage he proclaimed himself king in Scania about 1139 fighting his cousin King Eric III of Denmark. The civil war mostly consisted by alternating raids during which Olaf assaulted and killed the bishop of Roskilde, an act that saw him excommunicated by the Pope. He was at last defeated and killed by Eric in a battle in Middle Scania.
The leader of a peasant rebellion in Scania about 1182 is said to have been Olaf's illegitimate son but their relationship is unsure.
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